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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Boucher"  ' -c year=2007 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Boucher2007.txt -ob lmd_Boucher2007.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Jones}, A. and {Haywood}, J.~M. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Aerosol forcing, climate response and climate sensitivity in the Hadley Centre climate model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Radiative forcing, climate sensitivity, aerosols},
  year = 2007,
  month = oct,
  volume = 112,
  number = d11,
  eid = {D20211},
  pages = {20211},
  abstract = {{An atmosphere/mixed-layer-ocean climate model is used to investigate the
climate responses to forcing by 1860-2000 changes in anthropogenic
sulfate, biomass-burning and black carbon aerosols, and how they compare
with the effect of doubling CO$_{2}$. While the patterns of
temperature response from sulfate and black carbon aerosols are similar
and reveal high sensitivity at high latitudes in the northern
hemisphere, they are significantly different to that due to
CO$_{2}$ which shows high latitude sensitivity in both
hemispheres, and to biomass-burning aerosols which shows a much more
uniform temperature response. Climate sensitivity, the response of
natural primary aerosols, and the degree to which forcings and responses
are additive, are also investigated. The sum of the separate temperature
and precipitation responses to each aerosol is found to be remarkably
similar to that obtained if all aerosols are changed simultaneously.
  doi = {10.1029/2007JD008688},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stier}, P. and {Seinfeld}, J.~H. and {Kinne}, S. and {Boucher}, O.
  title = {{Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2007,
  month = oct,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {5237-5261},
  abstract = {{We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a
focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of
aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation.
For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model
ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of
aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive
indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of
aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of
long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol
forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical
depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in
the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident
that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom
(2006) significantly improves the previous underestimation of the
aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption
acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere
(TOA) radiative forcing clear-sky from -0.79 to -0.53 W
m$^{-2}$ (33\%) and all-sky from -0.47 to -0.13 W
m$^{-2}$ (72\%). Our results confirm that basic assumptions
about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and
radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective
medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the
diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the
uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings:
the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos
introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W
m$^{-2}$ (36\%) clear-sky and of 0.12 W m$^{-2}$
(92\%) all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud
radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky
absorption of 0.05 W m$^{-2}$ and a positive TOA forcing
perturbation of 0.02 W m$^{-2}$. The long-wave aerosol
radiative effects are small for anthropogenic aerosols but become of
relevance for the larger natural dust and sea-salt aerosols.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Betts}, R.~A. and {Boucher}, O. and {Collins}, M. and {Cox}, P.~M. and 
	{Falloon}, P.~D. and {Gedney}, N. and {Hemming}, D.~L. and {Huntingford}, C. and 
	{Jones}, C.~D. and {Sexton}, D.~M.~H. and {Webb}, M.~J.},
  title = {{Projected increase in continental runoff due to plant responses to increasing carbon dioxide}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2007,
  month = aug,
  volume = 448,
  pages = {1037-1041},
  abstract = {{In addition to influencing climatic conditions directly through
radiative forcing, increasing carbon dioxide concentration influences
the climate system through its effects on plant physiology. Plant
stomata generally open less widely under increased carbon dioxide
concentration, which reduces transpiration and thus leaves more water at
the land surface. This driver of change in the climate system, which we
term `physiological forcing', has been detected in observational records
of increasing average continental runoff over the twentieth century.
Here we use an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model that
includes a vegetation component to assess the contribution of
physiological forcing to future changes in continental runoff, in the
context of uncertainties in future precipitation. We find that the
physiological effect of doubled carbon dioxide concentrations on plant
transpiration increases simulated global mean runoff by 6 per cent
relative to pre-industrial levels; an increase that is comparable to
that simulated in response to radiatively forced climate change (11+/-6
per cent). Assessments of the effect of increasing carbon dioxide
concentrations on the hydrological cycle that only consider radiative
forcing will therefore tend to underestimate future increases in runoff
and overestimate decreases. This suggests that freshwater resources may
be less limited than previously assumed under scenarios of future global
warming, although there is still an increased risk of drought. Moreover,
our results highlight that the practice of assessing the climate-forcing
potential of all greenhouse gases in terms of their radiative forcing
potential relative to carbon dioxide does not accurately reflect the
relative effects of different greenhouse gases on freshwater resources.
  doi = {10.1038/nature06045},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Textor}, C. and {Schulz}, M. and {Guibert}, S. and {Kinne}, S. and 
	{Balkanski}, Y. and {Bauer}, S. and {Berntsen}, T. and {Berglen}, T. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Chin}, M. and {Dentener}, F. and {Diehl}, T. and 
	{Feichter}, J. and {Fillmore}, D. and {Ginoux}, P. and {Gong}, S. and 
	{Grini}, A. and {Hendricks}, J. and {Horowitz}, L. and {Huang}, P. and 
	{Isaksen}, I.~S.~A. and {Iversen}, T. and {Kloster}, S. and 
	{Koch}, D. and {Kirkev{\^a}g}, A. and {Kristjansson}, J.~E. and 
	{Krol}, M. and {Lauer}, A. and {Lamarque}, J.~F. and {Liu}, X. and 
	{Montanaro}, V. and {Myhre}, G. and {Penner}, J.~E. and {Pitari}, G. and 
	{Reddy}, M.~S. and {Seland}, {\O}. and {Stier}, P. and {Takemura}, T. and 
	{Tie}, X.},
  title = {{The effect of harmonized emissions on aerosol properties in global models   an AeroCom experiment}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2007,
  month = aug,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {4489-4501},
  abstract = {{The effects of unified aerosol sources on global aerosol fields
simulated by different models are examined in this paper. We compare
results from two AeroCom experiments, one with different (ExpA) and one
with unified emissions, injection heights, and particle sizes at the
source (ExpB). Surprisingly, harmonization of aerosol sources has only a
small impact on the simulated inter-model diversity of the global
aerosol burden, and consequently global optical properties, as the
results are largely controlled by model-specific transport, removal,
chemistry (leading to the formation of secondary aerosols) and
parameterizations of aerosol microphysics (e.g., the split between
deposition pathways) and to a lesser extent by the spatial and temporal
distributions of the (precursor) emissions.    The burdens of black
carbon and especially sea salt become more coherent in ExpB only,
because the large ExpA diversities for these two species were caused by
a few outliers. The experiment also showed that despite prescribing
emission fluxes and size distributions, ambiguities in the
implementation in individual models can lead to substantial differences.
These results indicate the need for a better understanding of aerosol
life cycles at process level (including spatial dispersal and
interaction with meteorological parameters) in order to obtain more
reliable results from global aerosol simulations. This is particularly
important as such model results are used to assess the consequences of
specific air pollution abatement strategies.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Huneeus}, N. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{One-dimensional variational retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficient from synthetic LIDAR and radiometric measurements}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Biogeosciences: Remote sensing, Atmospheric Processes: Data assimilation, Global Change: Remote sensing (1855), Remote sensing, variational retrieval, aerosols},
  year = 2007,
  month = jul,
  volume = 112,
  number = d11,
  eid = {D14303},
  pages = {14303},
  abstract = {{The Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP)
[onboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite
Observations (CALIPSO) platform] and the Moderate Resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument (onboard the AQUA platform) will
provide simultaneous measurements as part of the ''AQUA-train,'' thus
offering a unique opportunity to improve our knowledge on aerosol
properties and their spatial distribution. Here we investigate to which
extent both the vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction
coefficient and the aerosol bimodal size distribution can be retrieved
from a synergetic use of the vertically-resolved lidar signal and the
spectral radiance measurements. To this effect, a variational retrieval
scheme based on a simplified radiative transfer model was developed. The
extinction-coefficient profile for fine and coarse-mode aerosols was
retrieved from synthetic observations of the profile of the attenuated
backscatter lidar signal at two wavelengths and radiances at six
wavelengths. Our method aims at minimizing a cost function which
measures the departure of the solution to the observations. The adjoint
method was applied to find the gradient of the cost function with
respect to the input parameters. The retrieval scheme was tested under a
realistic noise level and different microphysical perturbations. The
retrieval of extinction-coefficient profiles, for fine and coarse
particles, is successful if there is a predominance of fine particles.
If coarse particles dominate over fine ones, the scheme retrieves the
profile of the total extinction coefficient with a higher confidence
than that of the fine mode. When perturbations on the aerosol
microphysical properties are introduced, thus simulating a more
challenging case with incomplete information of the aerosol model
present in the atmosphere, the scheme shows a very good performance in
terms of total extinction-coefficient retrieval but less success for
individual modes. It retrieves the modal radii for both modes
simultaneously but can not retrieve at the same time the refractive
index and true-mode radii for both modes. Results also reveal that there
is some prospect for improvement in the quality of the retrieval by
either increasing the size of the predefined set of aerosol models or by
including other sources of independent information such as Polarization
and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER)-like measurements.
  doi = {10.1029/2006JD007625},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Verma}, S. and {Venkataraman}, C. and {Boucher}, O. and {Ramachandran}, S.
  title = {{Source evaluation of aerosols measured during the Indian Ocean Experiment using combined chemical transport and back trajectory modeling}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution: urban and regional (0305, 0478, 4251), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Constituent sources and sinks, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: constituent transport and chemistry, source regions, aerosol chemical constituents, region-tagged emissions, Lagrangian back trajectories},
  year = 2007,
  month = jun,
  volume = 112,
  number = d11,
  eid = {D11210},
  pages = {11210},
  abstract = {{This work presents an analysis of aerosol measurements made during the
Oceanographic Research Vessel Sagar Kanya cruise of January-March 1999,
in the Indian Ocean Experiment intensive field phase (INDOEX-IFP), with
regard to the aerosol chemical constituents and identification of source
regions of their origin. This is done through a hybrid approach which
uses an Eulerian forward transport calculation in a general circulation
model (GCM) with region-tagged emissions along with an analysis of
Lagrangian back trajectories and emission inventory information, for
overlapping time periods. Back trajectory analysis showed that the ship
was mainly influenced by air masses from the Indo-Gangetic plain,
central India, or south India during the early part of its cruise with
the GCM-predicted aerosol species composed of mainly sulfate and organic
matter, whereas dust species dominated during its cruise in late
February and early March over the Arabian Sea when the ship was
influenced by air masses from Africa-west Asia or northwest India.
However, a typical clean marine aerosol dominated by sea salt was
encountered during February when the ship cruised in the tropical Indian
Ocean and was mostly influenced by marine air masses. The high aerosol
optical depth was due to roughly equal parts of organic matter and
sulfate. Region-tagged GCM estimates showed the presence of distinct
transport at surface and higher layers for, e.g., DOY 56-61 and 65-70,
indicating strong signals of emissions of black carbon, organic matter,
and sulfate originating in central and northwest India, whereas elevated
transport channels of black carbon and organic matter from Africa-west
Asia. This is consistent with the back trajectory analysis and in
corroboration with INDOEX measurement studies which observed different
aerosol properties from aircraft and ship attributed to different
transport pathways in surface and elevated flows. However, back
trajectory analysis is not sufficient to evaluate the major source
regions contributing to the transported aerosol. The fractional
contribution of a source region also depended upon the emission flux
from the region and its proximity to the receptor domain.
  doi = {10.1029/2006JD007698},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Reddy}, M.~S. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Climate impact of black carbon emitted from energy consumption in the world's regions}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution: urban and regional (0305, 0478, 4251), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: constituent transport and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Radiation: transmission and scattering, Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Aerosols (0305, 4906), Paleoceanography: Aerosols (0305, 4801)},
  year = 2007,
  month = jun,
  volume = 34,
  eid = {L11802},
  pages = {11802},
  abstract = {{We have used the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
General Circulation Model (LMD GCM) to estimate the contribution of
different regions to global black carbon (BC) atmospheric burden and
direct radiative forcing (DRF). On the global scale, fossil fuels and
biofuels account for 66\% and 34\% of energy-related BC emissions,
respectively. East and South Asia together contribute more than 50\% of
the global surface, atmospheric, and top-of-atmosphere DRF by BC. The
regional contributions to global mean forcings closely follow the
respective contributions to atmospheric burden. The global warming
potential (GWP) of BC for different regions ranges from 374 to 677 with
a global mean of 480. Europe is the largest contributor (63\%) to BC
deposition at high latitudes. The indirect GWP due to the BC effect on
snow albedo is estimated to be largest for Europe (possibly as large as
1200), suggesting that BC emission reductions from this region are more
efficient to mitigate climate change.
  doi = {10.1029/2006GL028904},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rae}, J.~G.~L. and {Johnson}, C.~E. and {Bellouin}, N. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Haywood}, J.~M. and {Jones}, A.},
  title = {{Sensitivity of global sulphate aerosol production to changes in oxidant concentrations and climate}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere (1610, 8125), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Sulphate aerosol, sulphur cycle},
  year = 2007,
  month = may,
  volume = 112,
  number = d11,
  eid = {D10312},
  pages = {10312},
  abstract = {{The oxidation of SO$_{2}$ to sulphate aerosol is an important
process to include in climate models, and uncertainties caused by
ignoring feedback mechanisms affecting the oxidants concerned need to be
investigated. Here we present the results of an investigation into the
sensitivity of sulphate concentrations to oxidant changes (from changes
in climate and in emissions of oxidant precursors) and to changes in
climate, in a version of HadGAM1 (the atmosphere-only version of
HadGEM1) with an improved sulphur cycle scheme. We find that, when
oxidants alone are changed, the global total sulphate burden decreases
by approximately 3\%, due mainly to a reduction in the OH burden. When
climate alone is changed, our results show that the global total
sulphate burden increases by approximately 9\%; we conclude that this is
probably attributable to reduced precipitation in regions of high
sulphate abundance. When both oxidants and climate are changed
simultaneously, we find that the effects of the two changes combine
approximately linearly.
  doi = {10.1029/2006JD007826},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Myhre}, G. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Berglen}, T.~F. and {Berntsen}, T.~K. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Grini}, A. and {Isaksen}, I.~S.~A. and {Johnsrud}, M. and 
	{Mishchenko}, M.~I. and {Stordal}, F. and {Tanré}, D.},
  title = {{Comparison of the radiative properties and direct radiative effect of aerosols from a global aerosol model and remote sensing data over ocean}},
  journal = {Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology B},
  year = 2007,
  month = feb,
  volume = 59,
  pages = {115-129},
  abstract = {{A global aerosol transport model (Oslo CTM2) with main aerosol
components included is compared to five satellite retrievals of aerosol
optical depth (AOD) and one data set of the satellite-derived radiative
effect of aerosols. The model is driven with meteorological data for the
period November 1996 to June 1997 which is the time period investigated
in this study. The modelled AOD is within the range of the AOD from the
various satellite retrievals over oceanic regions. The direct radiative
effect of the aerosols as well as the atmospheric absorption by aerosols
are in both cases found to be of the order of 20 Wm$^{-2}$ in
certain regions in both the satellite-derived and the modelled estimates
as a mean over the period studied. Satellite and model data exhibit
similar patterns of aerosol optical depth, radiative effect of aerosols,
and atmospheric absorption of the aerosols. Recently published results
show that global aerosol models have a tendency to underestimate the
magnitude of the clear-sky direct radiative effect of aerosols over
ocean compared to satellite-derived estimates. However, this is only to
a small extent the case with the Oslo CTM2. The global mean direct
radiative effect of aerosols over ocean is modelled with the Oslo CTM2
to be -5.5 Wm$^{-2}$ and the atmospheric aerosol absorption 1.5
  doi = {10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00226.x},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Verma}, S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Reddy}, M.~S. and {Upadhyaya}, H.~C. and 
	{Le van}, P. and {Binkowski}, F.~S. and {Sharma}, O.~P.},
  title = {{Modeling and analysis of aerosol processes in an interactive chemistry general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, Biogeosciences: Biogeochemical cycles, processes, and modeling (0412, 0793, 1615, 4805, 4912), Computational Geophysics: Model verification and validation, Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), sulfate},
  year = 2007,
  month = feb,
  volume = 112,
  eid = {D03207},
  pages = {3207},
  abstract = {{An ''online'' aerosol dynamics and chemistry module is included in the
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation
model (LMDZ), so that the chemical species are advected at each
dynamical time step and evolve through chemical and physical processes
that have been parameterized consistently with the meteorology. These
processes include anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, over 50
gas/aqueous phase chemical reactions, transport due to advection,
vertical diffusion and convection, dry deposition and wet scavenging. We
have introduced a size-resolved representation of aerosols which undergo
various processes such as coagulation, nucleation and dry and wet
scavenging. The model considers 16 prognostic tracers: water vapor,
liquid water, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H$_{2}$S),
dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), methanesulphonic acid (MSA), sulfur dioxide
(SO$_{2}$), nitrogen oxides (NO$_{X}$), carbon monoxide
(CO), nitric acid (HNO$_{3}$), ozone (O$_{3}$), hydrogen
peroxide (H$_{2}$O$_{2}$), sulfate mass and number for
Aitken and accumulation modes. The scheme accounts for two-way
interactions between tropospheric chemistry and aerosols. The oxidants
and chemical species fields that represent the sulfate aerosol formation
are evolved interactively with the model dynamics. A detailed
description on the coupled climate-chemistry interactive module is
presented with the evaluation of chemical species in winter and summer
seasons. Aqueous phase reactions in cloud accounted for 71\% of sulfate
production rate, while only 45\% of the sulfate burden in the troposphere
is derived from in-cloud oxidation.
  doi = {10.1029/2005JD006077},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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