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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=2005 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li2005.txt -ob lmd_Li2005.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Haeffelin}, M. and {Barthès}, L. and {Bock}, O. and {Boitel}, C. and 
	{Bony}, S. and {Bouniol}, D. and {Chepfer}, H. and {Chiriaco}, M. and 
	{Cuesta}, J. and {Delanoë}, J. and {Drobinski}, P. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Flamant}, C. and {Grall}, M. and {Hodzic}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Lapouge}, F. and {Lema{\^i}tre}, Y. and {Mathieu}, A. and {Morille}, Y. and 
	{Naud}, C. and {Noël}, V. and {O'Hirok}, W. and {Pelon}, J. and 
	{Pietras}, C. and {Protat}, A. and {Romand}, B. and {Scialom}, G. and 
	{Vautard}, R.},
  title = {{SIRTA, a ground-based atmospheric observatory for cloud and aerosol research}},
  journal = {Annales Geophysicae},
  year = 2005,
  month = feb,
  volume = 23,
  pages = {253-275},
  abstract = {{Ground-based remote sensing observatories have a crucial role to play in
providing data to improve our understanding of atmospheric processes, to
test the performance of atmospheric models, and to develop new methods
for future space-borne observations. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, a
French research institute in environmental sciences, created the Site
Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection
Atmosphérique (SIRTA), an atmospheric observatory with these
goals in mind. Today SIRTA, located 20km south of Paris, operates a
suite a state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instruments
dedicated to routine monitoring of cloud and aerosol properties, and key
atmospheric parameters. Detailed description of the state of the
atmospheric column is progressively archived and made accessible to the
scientific community. This paper describes the SIRTA infrastructure and
database, and provides an overview of the scientific research associated
with the observatory. Researchers using SIRTA data conduct research on
atmospheric processes involving complex interactions between clouds,
aerosols and radiative and dynamic processes in the atmospheric column.
Atmospheric modellers working with SIRTA observations develop new
methods to test their models and innovative analyses to improve
parametric representations of sub-grid processes that must be accounted
for in the model. SIRTA provides the means to develop data
interpretation tools for future active remote sensing missions in space
(e.g. CloudSat and CALIPSO). SIRTA observation and research activities
take place in networks of atmospheric observatories that allow
scientists to access consistent data sets from diverse regions on the
  doi = {10.5194/angeo-23-253-2005},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Anderson}, T.~L. and {Charlson}, R.~J. and {Bellouin}, N. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Chin}, M. and {Christopher}, S.~A. and {Haywood}, J. and 
	{Kaufman}, Y.~J. and {Kinne}, S. and {Ogren}, J.~A. and {Remer}, L.~A. and 
	{Takemura}, T. and {Tanré}, D. and {Torres}, O. and {Trepte}, C.~R. and 
	{Wielicki}, B.~A. and {Winker}, D.~M. and {Yu}, H.},
  title = {{An ''A-Train'' Strategy for Quantifying Direct Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols.}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2005,
  month = dec,
  volume = 86,
  pages = {1795-1809},
  abstract = {{This document outlines a practical strategy for achieving an
observationally based quantification of direct climate forcing by
anthropogenic aerosols. The strategy involves a four-step program for
shifting the current assumption-laden estimates to an increasingly
empirical basis using satellite observations coordinated with suborbital
remote and in situ measurements and with chemical transport models.
Conceptually, the problem is framed as a need for complete global
mapping of four parameters: clear-sky aerosol optical depth {$\delta$},
radiative efficiency per unit optical depth E, fine-mode fraction of
optical depth f$_{f}$, and the anthropogenic fraction of the fine
mode f$_{af}$. The first three parameters can be retrieved from
satellites, but correlative, suborbital measurements are required for
quantifying the aerosol properties that control E, for validating the
retrieval of f$_{f}$, and for partitioning fine-mode {$\delta$}
between natural and anthropogenic components. The satellite focus is on
the ''A-Train,'' a constellation of six spacecraft that will fly in
formation from about 2005 to 2008. Key satellite instruments for this
report are the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and
Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiometers on
Aqua, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiometer on Aura, the
Polarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances (POLDER)
polarimeter on the Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for
Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL),
and the Cloud and Aerosol Lider with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP)
lidar on the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite
Observations (CALIPSO). This strategy is offered as an initial
framework{\mdash}subject to improvement over time{\mdash}for scientists
around the world to participate in the A-Train opportunity. It is a
specific implementation of the Progressive Aerosol Retrieval and
Assimilation Global Observing Network (PARAGON) program, presented
earlier in this journal, which identified the integration of diverse
data as the central challenge to progress in quantifying global-scale
aerosol effects. By designing a strategy around this need for
integration, we develop recommendations for both satellite data
interpretation and correlative suborbital activities that represent, in
many respects, departures from current practice.
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-86-12-1795},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Peylin}, P. and {Rayner}, P.~J. and {Bousquet}, P. and {Carouge}, C. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Heinrich}, P. and {Ciais}, P. and {Contributors}, A.
  title = {{Daily CO$_{2}$ flux estimates over Europe from continuous atmospheric measurements: 1, inverse methodology}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2005,
  month = nov,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {3173-3186},
  abstract = {{This paper presents an inverse method for inferring trace gas fluxes at
high temporal (daily) and spatial (model grid) resolution from
continuous atmospheric concentration measurements. The method is
designed for regional applications and for use in intensive campaigns.
We apply the method to a one month inversion of fluxes over Europe. We
show that the information added by the measurements depends critically
on the smoothness constraint assumed among the source components. We
show that the initial condition affects the inversion for 20 days,
provided one has enough observing sites to constrain regional fluxes. We
show that the impact of the far-field fluxes grows throughout the
inversion and hence a reasonable global flux field is a prerequisite for
a regional inversion.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Zhang}, M.~H. and {Lin}, W.~Y. and {Klein}, S.~A. and {Bacmeister}, J.~T. and 
	{Bony}, S. and {Cederwall}, R.~T. and {Del Genio}, A.~D. and 
	{Hack}, J.~J. and {Loeb}, N.~G. and {Lohmann}, U. and {Minnis}, P. and 
	{Musat}, I. and {Pincus}, R. and {Stier}, P. and {Suarez}, M.~J. and 
	{Webb}, M.~J. and {Wu}, J.~B. and {Xie}, S.~C. and {Yao}, M.-S. and 
	{Zhang}, J.~H.},
  title = {{Comparing clouds and their seasonal variations in 10 atmospheric general circulation models with satellite measurements}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and cloud feedbacks, Atmospheric Processes: Global climate models (1626, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Theoretical modeling, Global Change: Global climate models (3337, Global Change: Climate dynamics (0429, 3309), climate models, cloud modeling, seasonal variation of clouds},
  year = 2005,
  month = aug,
  volume = 110,
  number = d9,
  eid = {D15S02},
  pages = {15},
  abstract = {{To assess the current status of climate models in simulating clouds,
basic cloud climatologies from ten atmospheric general circulation
models are compared with satellite measurements from the International
Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and the Clouds and Earth's
Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. An ISCCP simulator is employed in
all models to facilitate the comparison. Models simulated a four-fold
difference in high-top clouds. There are also, however, large
uncertainties in satellite high thin clouds to effectively constrain the
models. The majority of models only simulated 30-40\% of middle-top
clouds in the ISCCP and CERES data sets. Half of the models
underestimated low clouds, while none overestimated them at a
statistically significant level. When stratified in the optical
thickness ranges, the majority of the models simulated optically thick
clouds more than twice the satellite observations. Most models, however,
underestimated optically intermediate and thin clouds. Compensations of
these clouds biases are used to explain the simulated longwave and
shortwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. Seasonal
sensitivities of clouds are also analyzed to compare with observations.
Models are shown to simulate seasonal variations better for high clouds
than for low clouds. Latitudinal distribution of the seasonal variations
correlate with satellite measurements at {\gt}0.9, 0.6-0.9, and -0.2-0.7
levels for high, middle, and low clouds, respectively. The seasonal
sensitivities of cloud types are found to strongly depend on the basic
cloud climatology in the models. Models that systematically
underestimate middle clouds also underestimate seasonal variations,
while those that overestimate optically thick clouds also overestimate
their seasonal sensitivities. Possible causes of the systematic cloud
biases in the models are discussed.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD005021},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Halthore}, R.~N. and {Crisp}, D. and {Schwartz}, S.~E. and 
	{Anderson}, G.~P. and {Berk}, A. and {Bonnel}, B. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Chang}, F.-L. and {Chou}, M.-D. and {Clothiaux}, E.~E. and 
	{Dubuisson}, P. and {Fomin}, B. and {Fouquart}, Y. and {Freidenreich}, S. and 
	{Gautier}, C. and {Kato}, S. and {Laszlo}, I. and {Li}, Z. and 
	{Mather}, J.~H. and {Plana-Fattori}, A. and {Ramaswamy}, V. and 
	{Ricchiazzi}, P. and {Shiren}, Y. and {Trishchenko}, A. and 
	{Wiscombe}, W.},
  title = {{Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer codes and measurements}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Radiation: transmission and scattering, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Processes: Remote sensing, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, shortwave, model intercomparison, RT models},
  year = 2005,
  month = jun,
  volume = 110,
  number = d9,
  eid = {D11206},
  pages = {11206},
  abstract = {{Computation of components of shortwave (SW) or solar irradiance in the
surface-atmospheric system forms the basis of intercomparison between 16
radiative transfer models of varying spectral resolution ranging from
line-by-line models to broadband and general circulation models. In
order of increasing complexity the components are: direct solar
irradiance at the surface, diffuse irradiance at the surface, diffuse
upward flux at the surface, and diffuse upward flux at the top of the
atmosphere. These components allow computation of the atmospheric
absorptance. Four cases are considered from pure molecular atmospheres
to atmospheres with aerosols and atmosphere with a simple uniform cloud.
The molecular and aerosol cases allow comparison of aerosol forcing
calculation among models. A cloud-free case with measured atmospheric
and aerosol properties and measured shortwave radiation components
provides an absolute basis for evaluating the models. For the
aerosol-free and cloud-free dry atmospheres, models agree to within 1\%
(root mean square deviation as a percentage of mean) in broadband direct
solar irradiance at surface; the agreement is relatively poor at 5\% for
a humid atmosphere. A comparison of atmospheric absorptance, computed
from components of SW radiation, shows that agreement among models is
understandably much worse at 3\% and 10\% for dry and humid atmospheres,
respectively. Inclusion of aerosols generally makes the agreement among
models worse than when no aerosols are present, with some exceptions.
Modeled diffuse surface irradiance is higher than measurements for all
models for the same model inputs. Inclusion of an optically thick
low-cloud in a tropical atmosphere, a stringent test for multiple
scattering calculations, produces, in general, better agreement among
models for a low solar zenith angle (SZA = 30{\deg}) than for a high SZA
(75{\deg}). All models show about a 30\% increase in broadband absorptance
for 30{\deg} SZA relative to the clear-sky case and almost no enhancement
in absorptance for a higher SZA of 75{\deg}, possibly due to water vapor
line saturation in the atmosphere above the cloud.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD005293},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Wang}, X.~B. and {Tuo}, J.~C. and {Li}, Z.~X. and {Yan}, H.
  title = {{Distribution of radioactive uranium and radon in sedimentary environments}},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Supplement},
  year = 2005,
  month = may,
  volume = 69,
  pages = {480},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Fueglistaler}, S. and {Bonazzola}, M. and {Haynes}, P.~H. and 
	{Peter}, T.},
  title = {{Stratospheric water vapor predicted from the Lagrangian temperature history of air entering the stratosphere in the tropics}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Stratosphere/troposphere interactions, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Middle atmosphere: constituent transport and chemistry (3334), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), tropics, stratosphere, water},
  year = 2005,
  month = apr,
  volume = 110,
  eid = {D08107},
  pages = {8107},
  abstract = {{We present results of Lagrangian troposphere-to-stratosphere transport
(TST) in the tropics based on trajectory calculations for the period
1979-2001. The trajectories and corresponding temperature histories are
calculated from wind and temperature fields provided by the reanalysis
data ERA-40 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
(ECMWF). The water vapor mixing ratio of air entering the tropical
stratosphere is calculated from the minimum saturation mixing ratio over
ice encountered by each trajectory. We show that this Lagrangian
approach, which considers the global-scale to synoptic-scale dynamics of
tropical TST but neglects mesoscale dynamics and details of cloud
microphysics, substantially improves estimates of stratospheric humidity
compared to calculations based on Eulerian mean tropical tropopause
temperatures. For the period 1979-2001 we estimate from the Lagrangian
calculation that the mean water mixing ratio of air entering the
stratosphere is 3.5 ppmv, which is in good agreement with measurements
during the same period, ranging from 3.3 ppmv to 4 ppmv, whereas an
estimate based on an Eulerian mean calculation is about 6 ppmv. The
amplitude of the annual cycle in water vapor mixing ratio at a potential
temperature of 400 K in the tropics estimated from the Lagrangian
calculation is compared with measurements of water vapor from the
Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). For the period 1992-2001, when
HALOE measurements and ERA-40 data overlap, we calculate a peak-to-peak
amplitude of {\tilde}1.7 ppmv, in good agreement with {\tilde}1.6 ppmv
seen in HALOE data. On average, the Lagrangian calculations have a moist
bias of {\tilde}0.2 ppmv, equivalent to a warm bias of the Lagrangian
cold point of about 0.5 K. We conclude that the Lagrangian calculation
based on synoptic-scale velocity and temperature fields yields estimates
for stratospheric water vapor in good agreement with observations and
that mesoscale and cloud microphysical processes need not be invoked, at
first order, to explain annual mean and seasonal variation of water
vapor mixing ratios in the tropical lower stratosphere.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD005516},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Korablev}, O. and {Fonteyn}, D. and {Guibert}, S. and 
	{Chassefière}, E. and {Lefèvre}, F. and {Dimarellis}, E. and 
	{Dubois}, J.~P. and {Hauchecorne}, A. and {Cabane}, M. and {Rannou}, P. and 
	{Levasseur-Regourd}, A.~C. and {Cernogora}, G. and {Quémerais}, E. and 
	{Hermans}, C. and {Kockarts}, G. and {Lippens}, C. and {de Maziere}, M. and 
	{Moreau}, D. and {Muller}, C. and {Neefs}, E. and {Simon}, P.~C. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Moroz}, V.~I. and 
	{Rodin}, A. and {Sandel}, B. and {Stern}, A.},
  title = {{Global structure and composition of the martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars express}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 35,
  pages = {31-36},
  abstract = {{SPectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the
Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) Light, a light-weight (4.7 kg) UV-IR
instrument to be flown on Mars Express orbiter, is dedicated to the
study of the atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. A UV spectrometer
(118-320 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) is dedicated to nadir viewing, limb
viewing and vertical profiling by stellar and solar occultation (3.8
kg). It addresses key issues about ozone, its coupling with
H$_{2}$O, aerosols, atmospheric vertical temperature structure and
ionospheric studies. UV observations of the upper atmosphere will allow
studies of the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO$^{+}$,
and CO2+, and its direct interaction with the solar wind. An IR
spectrometer (1.0-1.7 {$\mu$}m, resolution 0.5-1.2 nm) is dedicated
primarily to nadir measurements of H$_{2}$O abundances
simultaneously with ozone measured in the UV, and to vertical profiling
during solar occultation of H$_{2}$O, CO$_{2}$, and
aerosols. The SPICAM Light near-IR sensor employs a pioneering
technology acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF), leading to a compact
and light design. Overall, SPICAM Light is an ideal candidate for future
orbiter studies of Mars, after Mars Express, in order to study the
interannual variability of martian atmospheric processes. The potential
contribution to a Mars International Reference Atmosphere is clear.
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2003.09.055},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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