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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Rio"  ' -c year=2013 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Rio2013.txt -ob lmd_Rio2013.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Caubel}, A. and {Marti}, O. and {Aumont}, O. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Bekki}, S. and {Bellenger}, H. and {Benshila}, R. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Bopp}, L. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Brockmann}, P. and {Cadule}, P. and 
	{Cheruy}, F. and {Codron}, F. and {Cozic}, A. and {Cugnet}, D. and 
	{de Noblet}, N. and {Duvel}, J.-P. and {Ethé}, C. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Fichefet}, T. and {Flavoni}, S. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Guez}, L. and {Guilyardi}, E. and {Hauglustaine}, D. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Idelkadi}, A. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Joussaume}, S. and 
	{Kageyama}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Labetoulle}, S. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Lefevre}, F. and {Levy}, C. and {Li}, Z.~X. and 
	{Lloyd}, J. and {Lott}, F. and {Madec}, G. and {Mancip}, M. and 
	{Marchand}, M. and {Masson}, S. and {Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Mignot}, J. and 
	{Musat}, I. and {Parouty}, S. and {Polcher}, J. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Schulz}, M. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Szopa}, S. and {Talandier}, C. and 
	{Terray}, P. and {Viovy}, N. and {Vuichard}, N.},
  title = {{Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate, Climate change, Climate projections, Earth System Model, CMIP5, CMIP3, Greenhouse gases, Aerosols, Carbon cycle, Allowable emissions, RCP scenarios, Land use changes},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2123-2165},
  abstract = {{We present the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to
study the long-term response of the climate system to natural and
anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This model includes an interactive
carbon cycle, a representation of tropospheric and stratospheric
chemistry, and a comprehensive representation of aerosols. As it
represents the principal dynamical, physical, and bio-geochemical
processes relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an
Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model may be used in a
multitude of configurations associated with different boundary
conditions and with a range of complexities in terms of processes and
interactions. This paper presents an overview of the different model
components and explains how they were coupled and used to simulate
historical climate changes over the past 150 years and different
scenarios of future climate change. A single version of the IPSL-CM5
model (IPSL-CM5A-LR) was used to provide climate projections associated
with different socio-economic scenarios, including the different
Representative Concentration Pathways considered by CMIP5 and several
scenarios from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios considered by
CMIP3. Results suggest that the magnitude of global warming projections
primarily depends on the socio-economic scenario considered, that there
is potential for an aggressive mitigation policy to limit global warming
to about two degrees, and that the behavior of some components of the
climate system such as the Arctic sea ice and the Atlantic Meridional
Overturning Circulation may change drastically by the end of the
twenty-first century in the case of a no climate policy scenario.
Although the magnitude of regional temperature and precipitation changes
depends fairly linearly on the magnitude of the projected global warming
(and thus on the scenario considered), the geographical pattern of these
changes is strikingly similar for the different scenarios. The
representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model is shown
to strongly influence the simulated climate variability and both the
magnitude and pattern of the projected climate changes.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1636-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Rio}, C. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Jam}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Idelkadi}, A. and {Musat}, I. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Roehrig}, R.},
  title = {{LMDZ5B: the atmospheric component of the IPSL climate model with revisited parameterizations for clouds and convection}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate modeling, Physical parameterizations, Shallow convection, Deep convection, Climate change projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2193-2222},
  abstract = {{Based on a decade of research on cloud processes, a new version of the
LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model has been developed that
corresponds to a complete recasting of the parameterization of
turbulence, convection and clouds. This LMDZ5B version includes a
mass-flux representation of the thermal plumes or rolls of the
convective boundary layer, coupled to a bi-Gaussian statistical cloud
scheme, as well as a parameterization of the cold pools generated below
cumulonimbus by re-evaporation of convective precipitation. The
triggering and closure of deep convection are now controlled by lifting
processes in the sub-cloud layer. An available lifting energy and
lifting power are provided both by the thermal plumes and by the spread
of cold pools. The individual parameterizations were carefully validated
against the results of explicit high resolution simulations. Here we
present the work done to go from those new concepts and developments to
a full 3D atmospheric model, used in particular for climate change
projections with the IPSL-CM5B coupled model. Based on a series of
sensitivity experiments, we document the differences with the previous
LMDZ5A version distinguishing the role of parameterization changes from
that of model tuning. Improvements found previously in single-column
simulations of case studies are confirmed in the 3D model: (1) the
convective boundary layer and cumulus clouds are better represented and
(2) the diurnal cycle of convective rainfall over continents is delayed
by several hours, solving a longstanding problem in climate modeling.
The variability of tropical rainfall is also larger in LMDZ5B at
intraseasonal time-scales. Significant biases of the LMDZ5A model
however remain, or are even sometimes amplified. The paper emphasizes
the importance of parameterization improvements and model tuning in the
frame of climate change studies as well as the new paradigm that
represents the improvement of 3D climate models under the control of
single-column case studies simulations.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1343-y},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rio}, C. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Guichard}, F. and 
	{Couvreux}, F. and {Lafore}, J.-P. and {Fridlind}, A. and {Mrowiec}, A. and 
	{Roehrig}, R. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Idelkadi}, A.
  title = {{Control of deep convection by sub-cloud lifting processes: the ALP closure in the LMDZ5B general circulation model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Deep convection parameterization, Triggering and closure, Oceanic versus continental convection, Diurnal cycle of precipitation, High resolution simulations to evaluate parameterizations assumptions},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2271-2292},
  abstract = {{Recently, a new conceptual framework for deep convection scheme
triggering and closure has been developed and implemented in the LMDZ5B
general circulation model, based on the idea that deep convection is
controlled by sub-cloud lifting processes. Such processes include
boundary-layer thermals and evaporatively-driven cold pools (wakes),
which provide an available lifting energy that is compared to the
convective inhibition to trigger deep convection, and an available
lifting power (ALP) at cloud base, which is used to compute the
convective mass flux assuming the updraft vertical velocity at the level
of free convection. While the ALP closure was shown to delay the local
hour of maximum precipitation over land in better agreement with
observations, it results in an underestimation of the convection
intensity over the tropical ocean both in the 1D and 3D configurations
of the model. The specification of the updraft vertical velocity at the
level of free convection appears to be a key aspect of the closure
formulation, as it is weaker over tropical ocean than over land and
weaker in moist mid-latitudes than semi-arid regions. We propose a
formulation making this velocity increase with the level of free
convection, so that the ALP closure is adapted to various environments.
Cloud-resolving model simulations of observed oceanic and continental
case studies are used to evaluate the representation of lifting
processes and test the assumptions at the basis of the ALP closure
formulation. Results favor closures based on the lifting power of
sub-grid sub-cloud processes rather than those involving
quasi-equilibrium with the large-scale environment. The new version of
the model including boundary-layer thermals and cold pools coupled
together with the deep convection scheme via the ALP closure
significantly improves the representation of various observed case
studies in 1D mode. It also substantially modifies precipitation
patterns in the full 3D version of the model, including seasonal means,
diurnal cycle and intraseasonal variability.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1506-x},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Cola{\"i}tis}, A. and {Spiga}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Millour}, E.},
  title = {{A thermal plume model for the Martian convective boundary layer}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1306.6215},
  primaryclass = {},
  keywords = {Mars, atmosphere, convection, boundary layer, large-eddy simulations, PBL parameterization},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {1468-1487},
  abstract = {{The Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) is a crucial component of the
Martian climate system. Global climate models (GCMs) and mesoscale
models (MMs) lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is
therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the ''thermal plume''
model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs,
MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically based
parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent
structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it
is resolved in large-eddy simulations (LESs). We find that the
terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly
account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL.
Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively
reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars:
superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at
PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking
into account stability and turbulent gustiness to calculate
surface-atmosphere fluxes. Those new parameterizations for the surface
and mixed layers are validated against near-surface lander measurements.
Using a thermal plume model moreover enables a first-order estimation of
key turbulent quantities (e.g., PBL height and convective plume
velocity) in Martian GCMs and MMs without having to run costly LESs.
  doi = {10.1002/jgre.20104},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Jam}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rio}, C. and {Couvreux}, F.
  title = {{Resolved Versus Parametrized Boundary-Layer Plumes. Part III: Derivation of a Statistical Scheme for Cumulus Clouds}},
  journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorology},
  keywords = {Boundary-layer thermals, Cloud scheme, Conditional sampling, Large-eddy simulations, Probability distribution function},
  year = 2013,
  month = jun,
  volume = 147,
  pages = {421-441},
  abstract = {{We present a statistical cloud scheme based on the subgrid-scale
distribution of the saturation deficit. When analyzed in large-eddy
simulations (LES) of a typical cloudy convective boundary layer, this
distribution is shown to be bimodal and reasonably well-fitted by a
bi-Gaussian distribution. Thanks to a tracer-based conditional sampling
of coherent structures of the convective boundary layer in LES, we
demonstrate that one mode corresponds to plumes of buoyant air arising
from the surface, and the second to their environment, both within the
cloud and sub-cloud layers. According to this analysis, we propose a
cloud scheme based on a bi-Gaussian distribution of the saturation
deficit, which can be easily coupled with any mass-flux scheme that
discriminates buoyant plumes from their environment. For that, the
standard deviations of the two Gaussian modes are parametrized starting
from the top-hat distribution of the subgrid-scale thermodynamic
variables given by the mass-flux scheme. Single-column model simulations
of continental and maritime case studies show that this approach allows
us to capture the vertical and temporal variations of the cloud cover
and liquid water.
  doi = {10.1007/s10546-012-9789-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rossignol}, S. and {Rio}, C. and {Ustache}, A. and {Fable}, S. and 
	{Nicolle}, J. and {M{\^e}me}, A. and {D'Anna}, B. and {Nicolas}, M. and 
	{Leoz}, E. and {Chiappini}, L.},
  title = {{The use of a housecleaning product in an indoor environment leading to oxygenated polar compounds and SOA formation: Gas and particulate phase chemical characterization}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = 2013,
  month = aug,
  volume = 75,
  pages = {196-205},
  abstract = {{This work investigates Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formed by
limonene ozonolysis using a housecleaning product in indoor environment.
This study combines simulation chamber ozonolysis experiments and field
studies in an experimental house allowing different scenarios of
housecleaning product use in real conditions.

Chemical speciation has been performed using a new method based on
simultaneous sampling of both gas and particulate phases on sorbent
tubes and filters. This method allowed the identification and
quantification of about 35 products in the gas and particulate phases.
Among them, products known to be specific from limonene ozonolysis such
as limononaldehyde, ketolimonene and ketolimonic acid have been
detected. Some other compounds such as 2-methylbutanoic acid had never
been detected in previous limonene ozonolysis studies. Some compounds
like levulinic acid had already been detected but their formation
remained unexplained. Potential reaction pathways are proposed in this
study for these compounds. For each experiment, chemical data are
coupled together with physical characterization of formed particles:
mass and size and number distribution evolution which allowed the
observation of new particles formation (about
87,000{\nbsp}particle{\nbsp}cm$^{-3}$). The chemical speciation
associated to aerosol size distribution results confirmed that limonene
emitted by the housecleaning product was responsible for SOA formation.
To our knowledge, this work provides the most comprehensive analytical
study of detected compounds in a single experiment for limonene
ozonolysis in both gaseous and particulate phases in real indoor
  doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.03.045},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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