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2010 .

(9 publications)

C. Risi, S. Bony, F. Vimeux, and J. Jouzel. Correction to ”Water-stable isotopes in the LMDZ4 general circulation model: Model evaluation for present-day and past climates and applications to climatic interpretations of tropical isotopic records”. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 115:24123, December 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

C. Risi, S. Bony, F. Vimeux, C. Frankenberg, D. Noone, and J. Worden. Understanding the Sahelian water budget through the isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 115:24110, December 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The goal of this paper is to investigate the added value of water isotopic measurements to estimate the relative influence of large-scale dynamics, convection, and land surface recycling on the Sahelian water budget. To this aim, we use isotope data in the lower tropospheric water vapor measured by the SCIAMACHY and TES satellite instruments and in situ precipitation data from the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation and collected during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis field campaign, together with water-tagging experiments with the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model (LMDZ) fitted with isotopes. We show that some isotopic biases in LMDZ reveal the misrepresentation of dehydrating processes that would be undetected without isotopic measurements. In dry regions, the vapor isotopic composition is primarily controlled by the intensity of the air dehydration. In addition, it may also keep some memory of dehydration pathways that is erased in the humidity distribution, namely the relative contribution of dehydration in the tropical upper troposphere versus midlatitudes. In wet regions, vapor and rain isotope compositions are primarily controlled by changes in convection, through rain reevaporation and through the progressive depletion of the vapor by convective mixing along air mass trajectories. Gradients in vapor isotope composition along air mass trajectories may help estimate continental recycling intensity, provided that we could quantify the effect of convection on the isotopic composition of water vapor.

A. Landais, C. Risi, S. Bony, F. Vimeux, L. Descroix, S. Falourd, and A. Bouygues. Combined measurements of 17O excess and d-excess in African monsoon precipitation: Implications for evaluating convective parameterizations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 298:104-112, September 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Water stable isotopes (δ 18O, δD) are useful tools to depict and to understand the atmospheric water cycle. In tropical regions, they record the variations of convective activity and their implementation in convection schemes brings constraints on our understanding and parameterization of this phenomena. Here, we present for the first time measurements of a new isotopic marker of the hydrological cycle ( 17O excess resulting from the combination of δ 17O and δ 18O of water) in convective regions on two different time scales: (i) during the African monsoon onset and intra-seasonal variability (Banizoumbou, 2006) and (ii) during the squall line of the 11th of August 2006 (Niamey). 17O excess responds to the monsoon onset by a ˜ 30 per meg increase as well as to different convective processes in squall lines by ˜ 20 per meg variations. These variations parallel those of d-excess at first order and display significant correlation with relative humidity in the lower troposphere. Still, higher correlation coefficients are observed between d-excess and relative humidity than between 17O excess and relative humidity, suggesting a higher influence of relative humidity on d-excess than on 17O excess. Using a simple reevaporation model and a more sophisticated 2D model of a squall line, we show that reevaporation is the process explaining the increase of d-excess and 17O excess with relative humidity for these two studies. We also show that the combination of 17O excess and d-excess is a powerful tool to constrain the representation of isotopic processes during rain reevaporation. In turn, a good representation of such processes enables to use water isotopes to evaluate convective parameterization in atmospheric models.

C. Risi, S. Bony, F. Vimeux, and J. Jouzel. Water-stable isotopes in the LMDZ4 general circulation model: Model evaluation for present-day and past climates and applications to climatic interpretations of tropical isotopic records. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 115:12118, June 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We present simulations of water-stable isotopes from the LMDZ general circulation model (the LMDZ-iso GCM) and evaluate them at different time scales (synoptic to interannual). LMDZ-iso reproduces reasonably well the spatial and seasonal variations of both δ18O and deuterium excess. When nudged with reanalyses, LMDZ-iso is able to capture the synoptic variability of isotopes in winter at a midlatitude station, and the interannual variability in mid and high latitudes is strongly improved. The degree of equilibration between the vapor and the precipitation is strongly sensitive to kinetic effects during rain reevaporation, calling for more synchronous vapor and precipitation measurements. We then evaluate the simulations of two past climates: Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and Mid-Holocene (6 ka). A particularity of LMDZ-iso compared to other isotopic GCMs is that it simulates a lower d excess during the LGM over most high-latitude regions, consistent with observations. Finally, we use LMDZ-iso to explore the relationship between precipitation and δ18O in the tropics, and we discuss its paleoclimatic implications. We show that the imprint of uniform temperature changes on tropical δ18O is weak. Large regional changes in δ18O can, however, be associated with dynamical changes of precipitation. Using LMDZ as a test bed for reconstructing past precipitation changes through local δ18O records, we show that past tropical precipitation changes can be well reconstructed qualitatively but not quantitatively. Over continents, nonlocal effects make the local reconstruction even less accurate.

C. Risi, A. Landais, S. Bony, J. Jouzel, V. Masson-Delmotte, and F. Vimeux. Understanding the 17O excess glacial-interglacial variations in Vostok precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 115:10112, May 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Combined measurements of δ18O, δ17O, and δD in ice cores, leading to d excess and 17O excess, are expected to provide new constraints on the water cycle and past climates. We explore different processes, both in the source regions and during the poleward transport, that could explain the 17O excess increase by 20 per meg observed from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to Early Holocene (EH) at the Vostok station. Using a single-column model over tropical and subtropical oceans, we show that the relative humidity at the surface is the main factor controlling 17O excess in source regions. Then, using a Rayleigh-type model, we show that the 17O excess signal from the source region is preserved in the polar snowfall, contrary to d excess. Evaporative recharge over mid and high latitudes and δ18O seasonality in polar regions can also affect the Vostok 17O excess but cannot account for most of the 20 per meg deglacial increase from LGM to EH. On the other hand, a decrease of the relative humidity at the surface (rhs) by 8 to 22% would explain the observed change in 17O excess. Such a change would not necessarily be incompatible with a nearly unchanged boundary layer relative humidity, if the surface thermodynamic disequilibrium decreased by 4degC. Such a change in rhs would affect source and polar temperatures reconstructions from δ18O and d excess measurements, strengthening the interest of 17O excess measurements to better constrain such changes.

O. Marti, P. Braconnot, J.-L. Dufresne, J. Bellier, R. Benshila, S. Bony, P. Brockmann, P. Cadule, A. Caubel, F. Codron, N. de Noblet, S. Denvil, L. Fairhead, T. Fichefet, M.-A. Foujols, P. Friedlingstein, H. Goosse, J.-Y. Grandpeix, E. Guilyardi, F. Hourdin, A. Idelkadi, M. Kageyama, G. Krinner, C. Lévy, G. Madec, J. Mignot, I. Musat, D. Swingedouw, and C. Talandier. Key features of the IPSL ocean atmosphere model and its sensitivity to atmospheric resolution. Climate Dynamics, 34:1-26, January 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

This paper presents the major characteristics of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The model components and the coupling methodology are described, as well as the main characteristics of the climatology and interannual variability. The model results of the standard version used for IPCC climate projections, and for intercomparison projects like the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP 2) are compared to those with a higher resolution in the atmosphere. A focus on the North Atlantic and on the tropics is used to address the impact of the atmosphere resolution on processes and feedbacks. In the North Atlantic, the resolution change leads to an improved representation of the storm-tracks and the North Atlantic oscillation. The better representation of the wind structure increases the northward salt transports, the deep-water formation and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. In the tropics, the ocean-atmosphere dynamical coupling, or Bjerknes feedback, improves with the resolution. The amplitude of ENSO (El Niño-Southern oscillation) consequently increases, as the damping processes are left unchanged.

C. Risi, S. Bony, F. Vimeux, M. Chong, and L. Descroix. Evolution of the stable water isotopic composition of the rain sampled along Sahelian squall lines. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 136:227-242, January 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

C. Risi, S. Bony, F. Vimeux, M. Chong, and L. Descroix. Evolution of the stable water isotopic composition of the rain sampled along Sahelian squall lines. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 136:227-242, January 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

H. Chepfer, S. Bony, D. Winker, G. Cesana, J. L. Dufresne, P. Minnis, C. J. Stubenrauch, and S. Zeng. The GCM-Oriented CALIPSO Cloud Product (CALIPSO-GOCCP). Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 115:0, January 2010. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

This article presents the GCM-Oriented Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Cloud Product (GOCCP) designed to evaluate the cloudiness simulated by general circulation models (GCMs). For this purpose, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization L1 data are processed following the same steps as in a lidar simulator used to diagnose the model cloud cover that CALIPSO would observe from space if the satellite was flying above an atmosphere similar to that predicted by the GCM. Instantaneous profiles of the lidar scattering ratio (SR) are first computed at the highest horizontal resolution of the data but at the vertical resolution typical of current GCMs, and then cloud diagnostics are inferred from these profiles: vertical distribution of cloud fraction, horizontal distribution of low, middle, high, and total cloud fractions, instantaneous SR profiles, and SR histograms as a function of height. Results are presented for different seasons (January-March 2007-2008 and June-August 2006-2008), and their sensitivity to parameters of the lidar simulator is investigated. It is shown that the choice of the vertical resolution and of the SR threshold value used for cloud detection can modify the cloud fraction by up to 0.20, particularly in the shallow cumulus regions. The tropical marine low-level cloud fraction is larger during nighttime (by up to 0.15) than during daytime. The histograms of SR characterize the cloud types encountered in different regions. The GOCCP high-level cloud amount is similar to that from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The low-level and middle-level cloud fractions are larger than those derived from passive remote sensing (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Cloud and Earth Radiant Energy System Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances, TOVS Path B, AIRS-Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) because the latter only provide information on the uppermost cloud layer.

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