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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.98}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=2003 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_all2003.txt -ob lmd_all2003.bib ./}}
  author = {{Menon}, S. and {Brenguier}, J.-L. and {Boucher}, O. and {Davison}, P. and 
	{Del Genio}, A.~D. and {Feichter}, J. and {Ghan}, S. and {Guibert}, S. and 
	{Liu}, X. and {Lohmann}, U. and {Pawlowska}, H. and {Penner}, J.~E. and 
	{Quaas}, J. and {Roberts}, D.~L. and {Sch{\"u}ller}, L. and 
	{Snider}, J.},
  title = {{Evaluating aerosol/cloud/radiation process parameterizations with single-column models and Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) cloudy column observations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud physics and chemistry, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Precipitation (1854), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, aerosol indirect effect, cloud microphysics, cloud optics},
  year = 2003,
  month = dec,
  volume = 108,
  eid = {4762},
  pages = {4762},
  abstract = {{The Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) data set along
with ECMWF reanalysis meteorological fields provided the basis for the
single column model (SCM) simulations, performed as part of the PACE
(Parameterization of the Aerosol Indirect Climatic Effect) project. Six
different SCMs were used to simulate ACE-2 case studies of clean and
polluted cloudy boundary layers, with the objective being to identify
limitations of the aerosol/cloud/radiation interaction schemes within
the range of uncertainty in in situ, reanalysis and satellite retrieved
data. The exercise proceeds in three steps. First, SCMs are configured
with the same fine vertical resolution as the ACE-2 in situ data base to
evaluate the numerical schemes for prediction of aerosol activation,
radiative transfer and precipitation formation. Second, the same test is
performed at the coarser vertical resolution of GCMs to evaluate its
impact on the performance of the parameterizations. Finally, SCMs are
run for a 24-48 hr period to examine predictions of boundary layer
clouds when initialized with large-scale meteorological fields. Several
schemes were tested for the prediction of cloud droplet number
concentration (N). Physically based activation schemes using vertical
velocity show noticeable discrepancies compared to empirical schemes due
to biases in the diagnosed cloud base vertical velocity. Prognostic
schemes exhibit a larger variability than the diagnostic ones, due to a
coupling between aerosol activation and drizzle scavenging in the
calculation of N. When SCMs are initialized at a fine vertical
resolution with locally observed vertical profiles of liquid water,
predicted optical properties are comparable to observations. Predictions
however degrade at coarser vertical resolution and are more sensitive to
the mean liquid water path than to its spatial heterogeneity. Predicted
precipitation fluxes are severely underestimated and improve when
accounting for sub-grid liquid water variability. Results from the 24-48
hr runs suggest that most models have problems in simulating boundary
layer cloud morphology, since the large-scale initialization fields do
not accurately reproduce observed meteorological conditions. As a
result, models significantly overestimate optical properties. Improved
cloud morphologies were obtained for models with subgrid inversions and
subgrid cloud thickness schemes. This may be a result of representing
subgrid scale effects though we do not rule out the possibility that
better large-forcing data may also improve cloud morphology predictions.
  doi = {10.1029/2003JD003902},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Conil}, S.},
  title = {{Transient Response of an Atmospheric GCM to North Atlantic SST Anomalies.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2003,
  month = dec,
  volume = 16,
  pages = {3993-3998},
  abstract = {{A high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is used to
evaluate the atmospheric response to North Atlantic sea surface
temperature (SST) anomalies. The transient evolution of the response is
studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear effects can thus be
contrasted and separated by their different time scales. Baroclinic
patterns related directly to the surface anomalies quickly reach their
maximum manifestation. However, barotropic patterns related to the mid-
and upper troposphere eddy vorticity fluxes have longer time scales with
much more important amplitude, able to gradually replace the initial
baroclinic response. This study thus provides an evolutional picture of
the two types of response in a GCM.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3993:TROAAG>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Mathieu}, A. and {Sèze}, G. and {Lahellec}, A. and {Guerin}, C. and 
	{Weill}, A.},
  title = {{Characterization of the Cloud-Topped Boundary Layer at the Synoptic Scale Using AVHRR Observations during the SEMAPHORE Experiment.}},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Meteorology},
  year = 2003,
  month = dec,
  volume = 42,
  pages = {1720-1730},
  abstract = {{Satellite platforms NOAA-11 and -12 Advanced Very High Resolution
Radiometer (AVHRR) data are used during the daytime to study large
sheets of stratocumulus over the North Atlantic Ocean. The application
concerns an anticyclonic period of the Structure des Echanges Mer
Atmosphère, Propriétés des
Hétérogénéités Océaniques:
Recherché Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) campaign (10 17
November 1993). In the region of interest, the satellite images are
recorded under large solar zenith angles. Extending the SEMAPHORE area,
a region of about 3000 {\times} 3000 km$^{2}$ is studied to
characterize the atmospheric boundary layer. A statistical cloud
classification method is applied to discriminate for low-level and
optically thick clouds. For AVHRR pixels covered with thick clouds,
brightness temperatures are used to evaluate the boundary layer
cloud-top temperature (CTT). The objective is to obtain accurate CTT
maps for evaluation of a global model. In this application, the
full-resolution fields are reduced to match model grid size. An estimate
of overall temperature uncertainty associated with each grid point is
also derived, which incorporates subgrid variability of the fields and
quality of the temperature retrieval. Results are compared with the
SEMAPHORE campaign measurements. A comparison with {\ldquo}DX{\rdquo}
products obtained with the same dataset, but at lower resolution, is
also presented. The authors claim that such instantaneous CTT maps could
be as intensively used as classical SST maps, and both could be
efficiently complemented with gridpoint error-bar maps. They may be used
for multiple applications: (i) to provide a means to improve numerical
weather prediction and climatological reanalyses, (ii) to represent a
boundary layer global characterization to analyze the synoptic situation
of field experiments, and (iii) to allow validation and to test
development of large-scale and mesoscale models.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1720:COTCBL>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Luz}, D. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rannou}, P. and {Lebonnois}, S.
  title = {{Latitudinal transport by barotropic waves in Titan's stratosphere.. II. Results from a coupled dynamics-microphysics-photochemistry GCM}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2003,
  month = dec,
  volume = 166,
  pages = {343-358},
  abstract = {{We present a 2D general circulation model of Titan's atmosphere,
coupling axisymmetric dynamics with haze microphysics, a simplified
photochemistry and eddy mixing. We develop a parameterization of
latitudinal eddy mixing by barotropic waves based on a shallow-water,
longitude-latitude model. The parameterization acts locally and in real
time both on passive tracers and momentum. The mixing coefficient varies
exponentially with a measure of the barotropic instability of the mean
zonal flow. The coupled GCM approximately reproduces the Voyager
temperature measurements and the latitudinal contrasts in the
distributions of HCN and C $_{2}$H $_{2}$, as well as the
main features of the zonal wind retrieved from the 1989 stellar
occultation. Wind velocities are consistent with the observed reversal
time of the North-South albedo asymmetry of 5 terrestrial years. Model
results support the hypothesis of a non-uniform distribution of infrared
opacity as the cause of the Voyager temperature asymmetry. Transport by
the mean meridional circulation, combined with polar vortex isolation
may be at the origin of the latitudinal contrasts of trace species, with
eddy mixing remaining restricted to low latitudes most of the Titan
year. We interpret the contrasts as a signature of non-axisymmetric
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2003.08.014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Luz}, D. and {Hourdin}, F.},
  title = {{Latitudinal transport by barotropic waves in Titan's stratosphere.. I. General properties from a horizontal shallow-water model}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  keywords = {Titan, dynamics, composition},
  year = 2003,
  month = dec,
  volume = 166,
  pages = {328-342},
  abstract = {{We present a numerical study of barotropic waves in Titan's stratosphere
based on a shallow-water model. The forcing of the zonal flow by the
mean meridional circulation is represented by a relaxation towards a
barotropically unstable wind profile. The relaxation profile is
consistent with observations and with previous results from a 3D general
circulation model. The time constant of the forcing that best matches
the northward eddy-transport of zonal momentum from the 3D model is
{$\tau$}{\tilde}5 Titan days. The eddy wind field is a zonal wavenumber-2
wave with a peak amplitude about 10\% of the mean wind speed. The
latitudinal transport of angular momentum by the wave tends to keep the
flow close to marginal stability by carrying momentum upgradient, from
the core of the jets into the low latitudes. Although the strongest eddy
motions occur at the latitudes of the wind maxima, the strongest mixing
takes place at the barotropically unstable regions, close to
{\plusmn}30{\deg} and spanning about 30{\deg} in latitude. An eddy-mixing
time constant of the order of 1 Titan day is inferred within these
regions, and of a few tens of days within regions of stable flow.
Horizontal gradients in transient tracer fields are less than 10\% of the
latitudinal gradient of the meridional tracer profile. Cassini's
detection of such waves could provide a direct observation of wind
speeds at stratospheric levels.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2003.08.015},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{de Rosnay}, P. and {Polcher}, J. and {Laval}, K. and {Sabre}, M.
  title = {{Integrated parameterization of irrigation in the land surface model ORCHIDEE. Validation over Indian Peninsula}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Hydrology: Anthropogenic effects, Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Hydrology: Irrigation, Hydrology: Hydroclimatology},
  year = 2003,
  month = oct,
  volume = 30,
  eid = {1986},
  pages = {1986},
  abstract = {{The work presented here describes a new modeling infrastructure of
irrigation which is integrated in a land surface model and which will
make this model a suitable tool for studies of interactions between
irrigation water use and climate change. The model is presented and
validated off-line over the Indian Peninsula. Numerical experiments are
conducted with a 1 degree spatial resolution land surface model. Two
2-year simulations, forced by the ISLSCP (1987-88) data sets, are
conducted with and without irrigation. The analysis focuses on
irrigation modeling validation and briefly presents first results on
irrigation's impact on the surface fluxes.
  doi = {10.1029/2003GL018024},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{DéSalmand}, F. and {Szantai}, A. and {Picon}, L. and {Desbois}, M.
  title = {{Systematic observation of westward propagating cloud bands over the Arabian Sea during Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) from Meteosat-5 data}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Mesoscale meteorology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Remote sensing, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Waves and tides, Information Related to Geographic Region: Indian Ocean, cloud bands, wave propagation, sea-land breeze},
  year = 2003,
  month = sep,
  volume = 108,
  eid = {8004},
  pages = {8004},
  abstract = {{During the field experiment phase of the Indian Ocean Experiment
(INDOEX), linear cloud formations parallel to the West Indian coast and
propagating westward have been observed. Meteosat-5 images are used for
the description of the life cycle of these events. Single cloud bands,
or main cloud bands followed by (up to 10) secondary parallel cloud
lines with a wavelike pattern, have been observed daily during four
periods in the dry season of 1999 (15 January, 16-19 February, 27
February to 7 March, and 1-3 April 1999). During these four periods, one
single cloud band or a packet of cloud bands is generated every day at
nighttime. Their length reaches several hundreds of kilometers, their
width lies below 40 km, and their duration in some cases exceeds 24
hours. The smaller cloud lines observed behind the leading cloud line
are narrower and are separated by a distance of 2-10 km. Cloud tops are
about 3-8{\deg}C colder than the Arabian Sea, corresponding to an
altitude between 500 and 1200 m during the night and below 2500 m during
daytime. Cloud bands travel westward over the Arabian Sea at a speed
around 13 m/s, greater than the wind speed measured in the surrounding
area. The motion of the cloud band presents similarities with the
wavelike propagation of atmospheric phenomena such as the Australian
morning glories. Common elements to the different cases are the
following: weak low-level winds close to the southwestern Indian coast
when the cloud bands appear, winds with a northerly component in the
vicinity of the northwestern Indian coast, the presence of a sea-land
breeze circulation along the West Indian coast, and the presence of high
concentrations of pollutants over the northeastern Arabian Sea. However,
existing physical links between these elements (if any) still have to be
  doi = {10.1029/2002JD002934},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Trentmann}, J. and {Fr{\"u}h}, B. and {Boucher}, O. and {Trautmann}, T. and 
	{Andreae}, M.~O.},
  title = {{Three-dimensional solar radiation effects on the actinic flux field in a biomass-burning plume}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution-urban and regional (0305), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, biomass burning plume, actinic flux, 3-D solar radiative transfer simulations, aerosol absorption},
  year = 2003,
  month = sep,
  volume = 108,
  eid = {4558},
  pages = {4558},
  abstract = {{Three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer models describe
radiative transfer under inhomogeneous atmospheric conditions more
accurately than the commonly used one-dimensional (1-D) radiative
transfer models that assume horizontal homogeneity of the atmosphere.
Here results of 3-D radiative transfer simulations for a biomass-burning
plume are presented and compared with local one-dimensional (l-1-D)
simulations, i.e., 1-D simulations in every column of the model domain.
The spatial distribution of the aerosol particles was derived from a 3-D
atmospheric transport simulation. We studied the impact of 3-D radiative
effects on the actinic flux within the plume center. The differences in
the actinic flux between results from the 3-D and the l-1-D simulations
are considerable, ranging from -40\% to more than +200\%, depending on the
wavelength, solar zenith angle, and the absorbing properties of the
aerosol. The reason for this discrepancy is the neglect of horizontal
photon transport in the 1-D simulation. These large 3-D effects on the
actinic flux have the potential to influence significantly the in-plume
  doi = {10.1029/2003JD003422},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Generoso}, S. and {Bréon}, F.-M. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Schulz}, M.},
  title = {{Improving the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of biomass burning aerosol sources}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2003,
  month = aug,
  volume = 3,
  pages = {1211-1222},
  abstract = {{This paper suggests a method for improving current inventories of
aerosol emissions from biomass burning. The method is based on the
hypothesis that, although the total estimates within large regions are
correct, the exact spatial and temporal description can be improved. It
makes use of open fire detection from the ATSR instrument that is
available since 1996. The emissions inventories are re-distributed in
space and time according to the occurrence of open fires. Although the
method is based on the night-time hot-spot product of the ATSR, other
satellite biomass burning proxies (AVHRR, TRMM, GLOBSCAR and GBA2000)
show similar distributions.

The impact of the method on the emission inventories is assessed using an aerosol transport model, the results of which are compared to sunphotometer and satellite data. The seasonal cycle of aerosol load in the atmosphere is significantly improved in several regions, in particular South America and Australia. Besides, the use of ATSR fire detection may be used to account for interannual events, as is demonstrated on the large Indonesian fires of 1997, a consequence of the 1997-1998 El Ni{\~n}o. Despite these improvements, there are still some large discrepancies between the simulated and observed aerosol optical thicknesses resulting from biomass burning emissions. }}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Tanré}, D. and {Dubovik}, O.
  title = {{Aerosol absorption over the clear-sky oceans deduced from POLDER-1 and AERONET observations}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Global Change: Remote sensing, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes},
  year = 2003,
  month = jul,
  volume = 30,
  eid = {1748},
  pages = {1748},
  abstract = {{We estimate aerosol absorption over the clear-sky oceans using aerosol
geophysical products from POLDER-1 space measurements and absorption
properties from ground-based AERONET measurements. Our best estimate is
2.5 Wm$^{-2}$ averaged over the 8-month lifetime of POLDER-1. Low
and high absorption estimates are 2.2 and 3.1 Wm$^{-2}$ based on
the variability in aerosol single-scattering albedo observed by AERONET.
Main sources of uncertainties are the discrimation of the aerosol type
from satellite measurements, and potential clear-sky bias induced by the
cloud-screening procedure.
  doi = {10.1029/2003GL017121},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Guyon}, P. and {Graham}, B. and {Beck}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Gerasopoulos}, E. and {Mayol-Bracero}, O.~L. and {Roberts}, G.~C. and 
	{Artaxo}, P. and {Andreae}, M.~O.},
  title = {{Physical properties and concentration of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during background and biomass burning conditions}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2003,
  month = jul,
  volume = 3,
  pages = {951-967},
  abstract = {{We investigated the size distribution, scattering and absorption
properties of Amazonian aerosols and the optical thickness of the
aerosol layer under the pristine background conditions typical of the
wet season, as well as during the biomass-burning-influenced dry season.
The measurements were made during two campaigns in 1999 as part of the
European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment
in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). In moving from the wet to the dry season,
median particle numbers were observed to increase from values comparable
to those of the remote marine boundary layer (\~{}400 cm$^{-3}$) to
values more commonly associated with urban smog (\~{}4000 cm$^{-3}$),
due to a massive injection of submicron smoke particles. Aerosol optical
depths at 500 nm increased from 0.05 to 0.8 on average, reaching a value
of 2 during the dry season. Scattering and absorption coefficients,
measured at 550 nm, showed a concomitant increase from average values of
6.8 and 0.4 Mm$^{-1}$ to values of 91 and 10 Mm$^{-1}$,
respectively, corresponding to an estimated decrease in
single-scattering albedo from ca. 0.97 to 0.91. The roughly tenfold
increase in many of the measured parameters attests to the dramatic
effect that extensive seasonal biomass burning (deforestation, pasture
cleaning) is having on the composition and properties of aerosols over
Amazonia. The potential exists for these changes to impact on regional
and global climate through changes to the extinction of solar radiation
as well as the alteration of cloud properties.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Picon}, L. and {Roca}, R. and {Serrar}, S. and {Monge}, J.~L. and 
	{Desbois}, M.},
  title = {{A new METEOSAT ``water vapor'' archive for climate studies}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology (1620), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Remote sensing, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Tropical meteorology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Instruments and techniques, water vapor, upper tropospheric humidity, calibration, satellite climatology, satellite archive, METEOSAT},
  year = 2003,
  month = may,
  volume = 108,
  eid = {4301},
  pages = {4301},
  abstract = {{Water vapor plays an important role in the climate system through a
number of mechanisms spanning a wide range of space and timescale. Since
1977, the METEOSAT satellites are equipped with a radiometer dedicated
to the measurements of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) which covers a
relevant range of scales for a better understanding of the water vapor
role in the climate. Due to the changes of the satellites and the
calibration techniques over the last 20 years, this water vapor METEOSAT
archive is not homogeneous and cannot be directly used for climatic
studies. Hence the authors present in this paper a newly homogenized
METEOSAT water vapor channel archive. Two main types of anomalies entail
the original METEOSAT archive. The first one corresponds to the
successive improvements of the calibration procedure. In this case, a
statistical correction technique based on comparisons between
ECMWF-simulated brightness temperature (BT) and water vapor
METEOSAT-observed BT is developed. The second type of anomaly concerns
the METEOSAT radiometer changes over the time. While still measuring the
UTH, the details of the filter function, indeed, evolved over the last
20 years. In this second case, the correction is based on a physical
method implying simulations of the same scene by different radiometer
filter functions. Two major cases are documented in detail for September
1987 and for February 1994. Sensitivity analysis of the techniques is
conducted and the methods are shown to be robust with respect to the
details of their implementations. The efficiency of the two methods is
then evaluated. The resulting archive reveals water vapor seasonal cycle
features in better agreement with climatological estimates. The new
homogenized METEOSAT archive consists of 3-hourly total sky radiance at
the 0.625{\deg} {\times} 0.625{\deg} resolution over the July 1983 to
February 1994 period, offering the opportunity to investigate the
variability of the regional UTH from synoptic scales to interannual and
interdecadal scales.
  doi = {10.1029/2002JD002640},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lebonnois}, S. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rannou}, P. and {Luz}, D. and 
	{Toublanc}, D.},
  title = {{Impact of the seasonal variations of composition on the temperature field of Titan's stratosphere}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2003,
  month = may,
  volume = 163,
  pages = {164-174},
  abstract = {{We investigate the role of seasonal variations of Titan's stratospheric
composition on the temperature. We use a general circulation model
coupled with idealized chemical tracers that reproduce variations of
ethane (C $_{2}$H $_{6}$), acetylene (C $_{2}$H
$_{2}$), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Enhancement of the mole
fractions of these compounds, at high latitudes in the winter hemisphere
relative to their equatorial values, induces a relative decrease in
temperature above approximately 0.2 mbar, with a peak amplitude around
-20 K, and a relative increase in temperature below, around 1 mbar, with
a peak amplitude around +7 K. These thermal effects are mainly due to
the variations of the cooling to space induced by the varying
distributions. The ethane, acetylene, and hydrogen cyanide variations
affect the cooling rates in a similar way, with the dominant effect
being due to ethane, though its latitudinal variations are small.
  doi = {10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00074-5},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Moulin}, C. and {Belviso}, S. and {Aumont}, O. and 
	{Bopp}, L. and {Cosme}, E. and {von Kuhlmann}, R. and {Lawrence}, M.~G. and 
	{Pham}, M. and {Reddy}, M.~S. and {Sciare}, J. and {Venkataraman}, C.
  title = {{DMS atmospheric concentrations and sulphate aerosol indirect radiative forcing: a sensitivity study to the DMS source representation and oxidation}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2003,
  month = jan,
  volume = 3,
  pages = {49-65},
  abstract = {{The global sulphur cycle has been simulated using a general circulation
model with a focus on the source and oxidation of atmospheric
dimethylsulphide (DMS). The sensitivity of atmospheric DMS to the
oceanic DMS climatology, the parameterisation of the sea-air transfer
and to the oxidant fields have been studied. The importance of
additional oxidation pathways (by O$_{3}$ in the gas- and
aqueous-phases and by BrO in the gas phase) not incorporated in global
models has also been evaluated. While three different climatologies of
the oceanic DMS concentration produce rather similar global DMS fluxes
to the atmosphere at 24-27 Tg S yr $^{-1}$, there are large
differences in the spatial and seasonal distribution. The relative
contributions of OH and NO$_{3}$ radicals to DMS oxidation depends
critically on which oxidant fields are prescribed in the model.
Oxidation by O$_{3}$ appears to be significant at high latitudes
in both hemispheres. Oxidation by BrO could be significant even for BrO
concentrations at sub-pptv levels in the marine boundary layer. The
impact of such refinements on the DMS chemistry onto the indirect
radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosols is also discussed.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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