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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Bonazzola"  ' -c year=2004 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Bonazzola2004.txt -ob lmd_Bonazzola2004.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Bonazzola}, M. and {Haynes}, P.~H.},
  title = {{A trajectory-based study of the tropical tropopause region}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Stratosphere/troposphere interactions, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Tropical meteorology, Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309), tropical tropopause, stratospheric water vapor, El Ni{\~n}o, tropical dehydration},
  year = 2004,
  month = oct,
  volume = 109,
  number = d18,
  eid = {D20112},
  pages = {20112},
  abstract = {{Large ensembles of 90-day backward trajectory calculations from the
tropical lower stratosphere are performed for Northern Hemisphere (NH)
winters 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 and summer 1999 on the basis of European
Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts operational analysis data. The
calculated trajectories are analyzed to determine patterns of transport
and encountered temperatures and implications for lower stratospheric
water vapor. For each set of back-trajectories, a
troposphere-to-stratosphere (TS) ensemble, originating below 355 K, is
identified. Trajectories in the TS ensemble sample the coldest regions
of the tropical tropopause region very efficiently. Corresponding water
vapor concentrations are calculated using two simple dehydration models,
one (model 1) assuming instantaneous dehydration and the other (model 2)
taking some account of time delays associated with microphysical
processes. Model 1 predicts average concentrations for the TS ensembles
of 1.5 and 2.0 ppmv in the two NH winters and 3.8 ppmv in NH summer.
Model 2 predicts concentrations that are about 0.5 ppmv larger. The
effect of temperature variability along the trajectories is considered
and is shown to arise primarily through horizontal advection through
strong gradients rather than through temporal variability. A
quantitative method is described to assess the efficiency of sampling of
cold regions, the roles played by different transport processes, and
differences between seasons or years. Both vertical transport (the
''stratospheric fountain'' effect) and horizontal transport are shown to
play important roles in dehydration, with the former more important in
NH winter and the latter more important in NH summer. Differences in
predicted water vapor between NH winter 1997-1998 (El Ni{\~n}o) and
1998-1999 (La Ni{\~n}a) are due to the warmer region of coldest
temperatures in 1997-1998 than in 1998-1999 and to the less efficient
sampling of cold temperatures by both horizontal and vertical
circulations during the former.
  doi = {10.1029/2003JD004356},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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