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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Bony"  ' -c year=2014 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Bony2014.txt -ob lmd_Bony2014.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Voigt}, A. and {Bony}, S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Stevens}, B.
  title = {{The radiative impact of clouds on the shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {clouds, radiation, ITCZ, circulation changes},
  year = 2014,
  month = jun,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {4308-4315},
  abstract = {{Whereas it is well established that clouds are important to changes in
Earth's surface temperature, their impact on changes of the large-scale
atmospheric circulation is less well understood. Here we study the
radiative impact of clouds on the shift of the Intertropical Convergence
Zone (ITCZ) in response to hemispheric surface albedo forcings. The
problem is approached using aquaplanet simulations with four
comprehensive atmosphere models. The radiative impact of clouds on the
ITCZ shift differs in sign and magnitude across models and is
responsible for half of the model spread in the ITCZ shift. The model
spread is dominated by tropical clouds whose radiative impact is linked
to the dependence of their cloud radiative properties on the
circulation. The simulations not only demonstrate the importance of
clouds for circulation changes but also propose a way to reduce the
model uncertainty in ITCZ shifts.
  doi = {10.1002/2014GL060354},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Sherwood}, S.~C. and {Bony}, S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.},
  title = {{Spread in model climate sensitivity traced to atmospheric convective mixing}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 505,
  pages = {37-42},
  abstract = {{Equilibrium climate sensitivity refers to the ultimate change in global
mean temperature in response to a change in external forcing. Despite
decades of research attempting to narrow uncertainties, equilibrium
climate sensitivity estimates from climate models still span roughly 1.5
to 5 degrees Celsius for a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide
concentration, precluding accurate projections of future climate. The
spread arises largely from differences in the feedback from low clouds,
for reasons not yet understood. Here we show that differences in the
simulated strength of convective mixing between the lower and middle
tropical troposphere explain about half of the variance in climate
sensitivity estimated by 43 climate models. The apparent mechanism is
that such mixing dehydrates the low-cloud layer at a rate that increases
as the climate warms, and this rate of increase depends on the initial
mixing strength, linking the mixing to cloud feedback. The mixing
inferred from observations appears to be sufficiently strong to imply a
climate sensitivity of more than 3 degrees for a doubling of carbon
dioxide. This is significantly higher than the currently accepted lower
bound of 1.5 degrees, thereby constraining model projections towards
relatively severe future warming.
  doi = {10.1038/nature12829},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Fermepin}, S. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Influence of low-cloud radiative effects on tropical circulation and precipitation}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {Low clouds, cloud radiative effects, precipitation, atmospheric circulation},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {513-526},
  abstract = {{Low-level clouds, which constitute the most prevalent cloud type over
tropical oceans, exert a radiative cooling within the planetary boundary
layer. By using an atmospheric general circulation model, we investigate
the role that this cloud radiative cooling plays in the present-day
climate. Low-cloud radiative effects are found to increase the
tropics-wide precipitation, to strengthen the winds at the surface of
the tropical oceans, and to amplify the atmospheric overturning
circulation. An analysis of the water and energy budgets of the
atmosphere reveals that most of these effects arises from the strong
coupling of cloud-radiative cooling with turbulent fluxes at the ocean
surface. The impact of cloud-radiative effects on atmospheric dynamics
and precipitation is shown to occur on very short time scales (a few
days). Therefore, short-term atmospheric forecasts constitute a valuable
framework for evaluating the interactions between cloud processes and
atmospheric dynamics, and for assessing their dependence on model
  doi = {10.1002/2013MS000288},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Bellon}, G. and {Klocke}, D. and {Sherwood}, S. and 
	{Fermepin}, S. and {Denvil}, S.},
  title = {{Addendum: Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical circulation and regional precipitation}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2014,
  month = jul,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {547},
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2192},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Y. and {Thompson}, D.~W.~J. and {Stephens}, G.~L. and 
	{Bony}, S.},
  title = {{A global survey of the instantaneous linkages between cloud vertical structure and large-scale climate}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {cloud vertical structure, large-scale climate, CloudSat/CALIPSO, SST regimes, Arctic, storm track activity},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {3770-3792},
  abstract = {{The instantaneous linkages between cloud vertical structure and various
large-scale meteorological parameters are investigated using 5 years of
data from the CloudSat/CALIPSO instruments. The linkages are
systemically explored and quantified at all vertical levels and
throughout the global ocean in both the long-term mean and on
month-to-month timescales. A number of novel large-scale meteorological
parameters are used in the analysis, including tropopause temperatures,
upper tropospheric stability, and storm track activity. The results
provide a baseline for evaluating physical parameterizations of clouds
in GCMs and a reference for interpreting the signatures of large-scale
atmospheric phenomena in cloud vertical structure. In the long-term
mean, upper tropospheric cloud incidence throughout the globe increases
with (1) decreasing tropopause temperature (at a rate of {\tilde}2-4\%
K$^{-1}$), (2) decreasing upper tropospheric stability
({\tilde}5-10\% per K km$^{-1}$), and (3) increasing large-scale
vertical motion ({\tilde}1-4\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$). In contrast,
lower tropospheric cloud incidence increases with (1) increasing lower
tropospheric stability (10\% per K km$^{-1}$) and descending motion
(1\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$) in regions of subtropical regime but (2)
decreasing lower tropospheric stability (4\% per K km$^{-1}$) and
ascending motion (2\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$) over the Arctic region.
Variations in static stability and vertical motion account for
{\tilde}20-35\% of the month-to-month variance in upper tropospheric
cloudiness but less than 10\% of the variance in lower tropospheric
clouds. Upper tropospheric cloud incidence in the storm track regions is
strongly linked to the variance of large-scale vertical motion and thus
the amplitude of baroclinic waves.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020669},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ma}, H.-Y. and {Xie}, S. and {Klein}, S.~A. and {Williams}, K.~D. and 
	{Boyle}, J.~S. and {Bony}, S. and {Douville}, H. and {Fermepin}, S. and 
	{Medeiros}, B. and {Tyteca}, S. and {Watanabe}, M. and {Williamson}, D.
  title = {{On the Correspondence between Mean Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in CMIP5 Models}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = feb,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {1781-1798},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00474.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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