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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=2002 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li2002.txt -ob lmd_Li2002.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Roca}, R. and {Viollier}, M. and {Picon}, L. and {Desbois}, M.
  title = {{A multisatellite analysis of deep convection and its moist environment over the Indian Ocean during the winter monsoon}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309), Global Change: Remote sensing, Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Convective processes,},
  year = 2002,
  month = aug,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {8012},
  pages = {8012},
  abstract = {{The aim of this paper is to characterize the deep convective systems
over the Indian Ocean during Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) and their
relationship to cloudiness and to the Upper Tropospheric Humidity (UTH)
of their environment together with the relevant longwave radiation
fields. Multisatellite analyses are performed (Meteosat, Scanner for
Radiation Budget (ScaRaB), and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I))
to measure these environmental parameters. The use of Meteosat water
vapor (WV) channel appears very efficient not only for estimating UTH
but also for separating high level cloudiness, including thin cirrus,
from clear sky and low clouds. The Meteosat infrared (IR) and WV
channels are also used for correlating Meteosat and ScaRaB measurements,
allowing to retrieve continuously the longwave radiative flux. The
longwave flux is used to compute the cloud radiative forcing as well as
the clear-sky greenhouse effect. Spatial relationships between upper
level cloudiness and UTH are established. A strong positive linear
relationship is found suggesting a local moistening of the upper
troposphere by convection. The temporal analysis reveals that during the
active phase of the intraseasonal oscillation, the longwave cloud
radiative forcing reaches a mean value up to 40 W m$^{-2}$ over a
large region in the open ocean, while the average clear-sky greenhouse
effect is in excess of 180 W m$^{-2}$. These radiative parameters
are strongly correlated with the upper level cloudiness and upper level
moisture, respectively. The temporal variability of UTH explains up to
80\% of the greenhouse effect variability. The structure of the
convective cloud systems is then studied. The observed population of
systems spans a wide spectrum of area from 100 to 1,000,000
km$^{2}$. The contribution to the high level cloudiness of the
systems with a strong vertical development is dominant. These systems,
with at least one convective cell reaching the highest levels (below 210
K), present indices of overshooting tops and are the most horizontally
extended. The largest system exhibits an average longwave radiative
forcing of around 100 W m$^{-2}$. Their contribution to the cloud
forcing over the Indian Ocean is overwhelming. The spatial and temporal
variability of the systems is finally related to the UTH and to the
clear-sky greenhouse effect. Strong correlations are found indicating
that these organized convective systems at mesoscale play a leading role
in the Indian Ocean climate. The analysis suggests that deeper
convection is associated with larger cloud desks with larger cloud
radiative forcing. It is also associated with a moister upper
troposphere and a larger clear-sky greenhouse effect. These two effects
would provide a positive feedback on the surface conditions.
  doi = {10.1029/2000JD000040},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Le Treut}, H. and 
	{Berthelot}, M. and {Bopp}, L. and {Ciais}, P. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Monfray}, P.},
  title = {{On the magnitude of positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805), Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Biosphere/atmosphere interactions, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere,},
  year = 2002,
  month = may,
  volume = 29,
  eid = {1405},
  pages = {1405},
  abstract = {{We use an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model coupled to land and
ocean carbon models to simulate the evolution of climate and atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ from 1860 to 2100. Our model reproduces the observed
global mean temperature changes and the growth rate of atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ for the period 1860-2000. For the future, we simulate
that the climate change due to CO$_{2}$ increase will reduce the
land carbon uptake, leaving a larger fraction of anthropogenic
CO$_{2}$ in the atmosphere. By 2100, we estimate that atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ will be 18\% higher due to the climate change impact on
the carbon cycle. Such a positive feedback has also been found by Cox et
al. [2000]. However, the amplitude of our feedback is three times
smaller than the one they simulated. We show that the partitioning
between carbon stored in the living biomass or in the soil, and their
respective sensitivity to increased CO$_{2}$ and climate change
largely explain this discrepancy.
  doi = {10.1029/2001GL013777},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Zhou}, T.-J. and {Li}, Z.-X.},
  title = {{Simulation of the east asian summer monsoon using a variable resolution atmospheric GCM}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2002,
  month = feb,
  volume = 19,
  pages = {167-180},
  abstract = {{The East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) is simulated with a variable
resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) developed
at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, France. The
version used has a local zoom centered on China. This study validates
the model's capability in reproducing the fundamental features of the
EASM. The monsoon behaviors over East Asia revealed by the ECMWF
reanalysis data are also addressed systematically, providing as
observational evidence. The mean state of the EASM is generally
portrayed well in the model, including the large-scale monsoon airflows,
the monsoonal meridional circulation, the cross-equatorial low-level
jets, the monsoon trough in the South China Sea, the surface cold high
in Australia, and the upper-level northeasterly return flow. While the
performance of simulating large-scale monsoonal climate is encouraging,
the model's main deficiency lies in the rainfall. The marked rainbelt
observed along the Yangtze River Valley is missed in the simulation.
This is due to the weakly reproduced monsoonal components in essence and
is directly related to the weak western Pacific subtropical high, which
leads to a fragile subtropical southwest monsoon on its western flank
and results in a weaker convergence of the southwest monsoon flow with
the midlatitude westerlies. The excessively westward extension of the
high, together with the distorted Indian low, also makes the
contribution of the tropical southwest monsoon to the moisture
convergence over the Yangtze River Valley too weak in the model. The
insufficient plateau heating and the resulting weak land-sea thermal
contrast are responsible for the weakly reproduced monsoon. It is the
deficiency of the model in handling the low-level cloud cover over the
plateau rather than the horizontal resolution and the associated
depiction of plateau topography that results in the insufficient plateau
heating. Comparison with the simulation employing regular coarser mesh
model reveals that the local zoom technique improves, in a general
manner, the EASM simulation.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-001-0214-8},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bréon}, F.~M. and {Buriez}, J.~C. and {Couvert}, P. and 
	{Deschamps}, P.~Y. and {Deuzé}, J.~L. and {Herman}, M. and 
	{Goloub}, P. and {Leroy}, M. and {Lifermann}, A. and {Moulin}, C. and 
	{Parol}, F. and {Sèze}, G. and {Tanré}, D. and {Vanbauce}, C. and 
	{Vesperini}, M.},
  title = {{Scientific results from the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER)}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 30,
  pages = {2383-2386},
  abstract = {{The POLDER (POlarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances)
instrument, developed by the French Space Agency (CNES) has flown on
board the ADEOS-1/NASDA platform from November 1996 until June 1997. The
sensor has a wide field of view (2400km swath) for collecting global
daily data and has multi-angle viewing capability. It measures the solar
radiation reflected by the Earth in eight spectral bands. For three of
these bands (0.443, 0.670 and 0.865 {$\mu$}m), measurements include the
polarization ratio by the use of 3 polarizers. This measurement strategy
provides unique information on aerosols, clouds and surfaces.
  doi = {10.1016/S0273-1177(02)80282-4},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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