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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.98}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=2014 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_all2014.txt -ob lmd_all2014.bib ./}}
  author = {{Cheruy}, F. and {Dufresne}, J.~L. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Ducharne}, A.
  title = {{Role of clouds and land-atmosphere coupling in midlatitude continental summer warm biases and climate change amplification in CMIP5 simulations}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {model biases, land-atmosphere coupling, CMIP5, climate change},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {6493-6500},
  abstract = {{Over land, most state-of-the-art climate models contributing to Coupled
Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) share a strong summertime
warm bias in midlatitude areas, especially in regions where the coupling
between soil moisture and atmosphere is effective. The most biased
models overestimate solar incoming radiation, because of cloud deficit
and have difficulty to sustain evaporation. These deficiencies are also
involved in the spread of the summer temperature projections among
models in the midlatitude; the models which simulate a
higher-than-average warming overestimate the present climate net
shortwave radiation which increases more-than-average in the future, in
link with a decrease of cloudiness. They also show a higher-than-average
reduction of evaporative fraction in areas with soil moisture-limited
evaporation regimes. Over these areas, the most biased models in the
present climate simulate a larger warming in response to climate change
which is likely to be overestimated.
  doi = {10.1002/2014GL061145},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rotstayn}, L.~D. and {Plymin}, E.~L. and {Collier}, M.~A. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Luo}, J.-J. and {von Salzen}, K. and 
	{Jeffrey}, S.~J. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Ming}, Y. and {Horowitz}, L.~W.
  title = {{Declining Aerosols in CMIP5 Projections: Effects on Atmospheric Temperature Structure and Midlatitude Jets}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {6960-6977},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00258.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Voigt}, A. and {Bony}, S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Stevens}, B.
  title = {{The radiative impact of clouds on the shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {clouds, radiation, ITCZ, circulation changes},
  year = 2014,
  month = jun,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {4308-4315},
  abstract = {{Whereas it is well established that clouds are important to changes in
Earth's surface temperature, their impact on changes of the large-scale
atmospheric circulation is less well understood. Here we study the
radiative impact of clouds on the shift of the Intertropical Convergence
Zone (ITCZ) in response to hemispheric surface albedo forcings. The
problem is approached using aquaplanet simulations with four
comprehensive atmosphere models. The radiative impact of clouds on the
ITCZ shift differs in sign and magnitude across models and is
responsible for half of the model spread in the ITCZ shift. The model
spread is dominated by tropical clouds whose radiative impact is linked
to the dependence of their cloud radiative properties on the
circulation. The simulations not only demonstrate the importance of
clouds for circulation changes but also propose a way to reduce the
model uncertainty in ITCZ shifts.
  doi = {10.1002/2014GL060354},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Sherwood}, S.~C. and {Bony}, S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.},
  title = {{Spread in model climate sensitivity traced to atmospheric convective mixing}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 505,
  pages = {37-42},
  abstract = {{Equilibrium climate sensitivity refers to the ultimate change in global
mean temperature in response to a change in external forcing. Despite
decades of research attempting to narrow uncertainties, equilibrium
climate sensitivity estimates from climate models still span roughly 1.5
to 5 degrees Celsius for a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide
concentration, precluding accurate projections of future climate. The
spread arises largely from differences in the feedback from low clouds,
for reasons not yet understood. Here we show that differences in the
simulated strength of convective mixing between the lower and middle
tropical troposphere explain about half of the variance in climate
sensitivity estimated by 43 climate models. The apparent mechanism is
that such mixing dehydrates the low-cloud layer at a rate that increases
as the climate warms, and this rate of increase depends on the initial
mixing strength, linking the mixing to cloud feedback. The mixing
inferred from observations appears to be sufficiently strong to imply a
climate sensitivity of more than 3 degrees for a doubling of carbon
dioxide. This is significantly higher than the currently accepted lower
bound of 1.5 degrees, thereby constraining model projections towards
relatively severe future warming.
  doi = {10.1038/nature12829},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gedney}, N. and {Huntingford}, C. and {Weedon}, G.~P. and {Bellouin}, N. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Cox}, P.~M.},
  title = {{Detection of solar dimming and brightening effects on Northern Hemisphere river flow}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2014,
  month = nov,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {796-800},
  abstract = {{Anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere have the potential to affect
regional-scale land hydrology through solar dimming. Increased aerosol
loading may have reduced historical surface evaporation over some
locations, but the magnitude and extent of this effect is uncertain. Any
reduction in evaporation due to historical solar dimming may have
resulted in an increase in river flow. Here we formally detect and
quantify the historical effect of changing aerosol concentrations, via
solar radiation, on observed river flow over the heavily industrialized,
northern extra-tropics. We use a state-of-the-art estimate of twentieth
century surface meteorology as input data for a detailed land surface
model, and show that the simulations capture the observed strong
inter-annual variability in runoff in response to climatic fluctuations.
Using statistical techniques, we identify a detectable aerosol signal in
the observed river flow both over the combined region, and over
individual river basins in Europe and North America. We estimate that
solar dimming due to rising aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere
around 1980 led to an increase in river runoff by up to 25\% in the most
heavily polluted regions in Europe. We propose that, conversely, these
regions may experience reduced freshwater availability in the future, as
air quality improvements are set to lower aerosol loading and solar
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2263},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Blanchard}, Y. and {Pelon}, J. and {Eloranta}, E.~W. and {Moran}, K.~P. and 
	{Delanoë}, J. and {Sèze}, G.},
  title = {{A Synergistic Analysis of Cloud Cover and Vertical Distribution from A-Train and Ground-Based Sensors over the High Arctic Station Eureka from 2006 to 2010}},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology},
  year = 2014,
  month = nov,
  volume = 53,
  pages = {2553-2570},
  doi = {10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0021.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ortega}, P. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Vinther}, B. and {Yiou}, P. and {Vautard}, R. and 
	{Yoshimura}, K.},
  title = {{Characterizing atmospheric circulation signals in Greenland ice cores: insights from a weather regime approach}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {North Atlantic weather regimes, Modes of climate variability, Greenland climate variability, Isotope reanalyses, Ice cores, Water stable isotopes},
  year = 2014,
  month = nov,
  volume = 43,
  pages = {2585-2605},
  abstract = {{Greenland ice cores offer seasonal to annual records of
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, a proxy for precipitation-weighted temperature,
over the last few centuries to millennia. Here, we investigate the
regional footprints of the North Atlantic weather regimes on Greenland
isotope and climate variability, using a compilation of 22 different
shallow ice-cores and the atmospheric pressure conditions from the
twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). As a first step we have verified
that the leading modes of winter and annual {$\delta$}$^{18}$O are
well correlated with oceanic (Atlantic multidecadal oscillation) and
atmospheric [North Atlantic oscillation (NAO)] indices respectively, and
also marginally with external forcings, thus confirming earlier studies.
The link between weather regimes and Greenland precipitation,
precipitation-weighted temperature and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O is further
explored by using an isotope simulation from the LMDZ-iso model, where
the 3-dimensional wind fields are nudged to those of 20CR. In winter,
the NAO+ and NAO- regimes in LMDZ-iso produce the largest isotopic
changes over the entire Greenland region, with maximum anomalies in the
South. Likewise, the Scandinavian blocking and the Atlantic ridge also
show remarkable imprints on isotopic composition over the region. To
assess the robustness and model dependency of our findings, a second
isotope simulation from the isotopic model is also explored. The
percentage of Greenland {$\delta$}$^{18}$O variance explained by the
ensemble of weather regimes is increased by a factor near two in both
LMDZ-iso and IsoGSM when compared to the contribution of the NAO index
only. Similarly, weather regimes provide a net gain in the
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O variance explained of similar magnitude for the
whole set of ice core records. Greenland {$\delta$}$^{18}$O also
appears to be locally affected by the low-frequency variations in the
centres of action of the weather regimes, with clearer imprints in the
LMDZ-iso simulation. This study opens the possibility for reconstructing
past changes in the frequencies of occurrence of the weather regimes,
which would rely on the sensitive regions identified here, and the use
of additional proxies over the North Atlantic region.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2074-z},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Belmadani}, A. and {Echevin}, V. and {Codron}, F. and {Takahashi}, K. and 
	{Junquas}, C.},
  title = {{What dynamics drive future wind scenarios for coastal upwelling off Peru and Chile?}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Regional climate change, Peru-Chile upwelling system, Dynamical downscaling, Upwelling-favorable winds, Climate scenarios},
  year = 2014,
  month = oct,
  volume = 43,
  pages = {1893-1914},
  abstract = {{The dynamics of the Peru-Chile upwelling system (PCUS) are primarily
driven by alongshore wind stress and curl, like in other eastern
boundary upwelling systems. Previous studies have suggested that
upwelling-favorable winds would increase under climate change, due to an
enhancement of the thermally-driven cross-shore pressure gradient. Using
an atmospheric model on a stretched grid with increased horizontal
resolution in the PCUS, a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios
from a global coupled general circulation model (CGCM) is performed to
investigate the processes leading to sea-surface wind changes.
Downscaled winds associated with present climate show reasonably good
agreement with climatological observations. Downscaled winds under
climate change show a strengthening off central Chile south of 35{\deg}S
(at 30{\deg}S-35{\deg}S) in austral summer (winter) and a weakening
elsewhere. An alongshore momentum balance shows that the wind slowdown
(strengthening) off Peru and northern Chile (off central Chile) is
associated with a decrease (an increase) in the alongshore pressure
gradient. Whereas the strengthening off Chile is likely due to the
poleward displacement and intensification of the South Pacific
Anticyclone, the slowdown off Peru may be associated with increased
precipitation over the tropics and associated convective anomalies, as
suggested by a vorticity budget analysis. On the other hand, an increase
in the land-sea temperature difference is not found to drive similar
changes in the cross-shore pressure gradient. Results from another
atmospheric model with distinct CGCM forcing and climate scenarios
suggest that projected wind changes off Peru are sensitive to concurrent
changes in sea surface temperature and rainfall.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-013-2015-2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Schr{\"o}der}, M. and {Roca}, R. and {Picon}, L. and {Kniffka}, A. and 
	{Brogniez}, H.},
  title = {{Climatology of free-tropospheric humidity: extension into the SEVIRI era, evaluation and exemplary analysis}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = oct,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {11129-11148},
  abstract = {{A new free-tropospheric humidity (FTH) data record is presented. It is
based on observations from the Meteosat Visible and Infrared Imager
(MVIRI) onboard Meteosat-2-Meteosat-5, as well as Meteosat-7, and the
Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard
Meteosat-8 and Meteosat-9 at the water absorption band near 6.3 {$\mu$}m.
The data set is available under clear-sky and low-level cloud
conditions. With the extension to SEVIRI observations, the data record
covers the period 1983-2009 with a spatial resolution of 0.625{\deg}
{\times} 0.625{\deg} and a temporal resolution of 3 h. 

The FTH is the mean relative humidity (RH) in a broad layer in the free troposphere. The relation between the observed brightness temperature (BT) and the FTH is well established. Previous retrievals are refined by taking into account the relative humidity Jacobians in the training process of the statistical retrieval. The temporal coverage is extended into the SEVIRI period, the homogenization of the BT record is improved, and the full archive is reprocessed using updated regression coefficients.

The FTH estimated from the Meteosat observations is compared to the FTH computed from the RH profiles of the Analyzed RadioSoundings Archive (ARSA). An average relative bias of -3.2\% and a relative root-mean-square difference (RMSD) of 16.8\% are observed. This relative RMSD agrees with the outcome of an analysis of the total uncertainty of the FTH product. The decadal stability of the FTH data record is 0.5 {\plusmn} 0.45\% per decade.

As exemplary applications, the interannual standard deviation, the differences on decadal scales, and the linear trend in the FTH data record and in the frequency of occurrence of FTH {\lt} 10\% (FTHp10) are analyzed per season. Interannual standard deviation maxima and maxima in absolute decadal differences are featured in gradient areas between dry and wet regions, as well as in areas where FTH reaches minima and FTHp10 reaches maxima. An analysis of the FTH linear trends and of the associated uncertainty estimates is achieved to identify possible problems with the data record. Positive trends in FTHp10 are featured in gradient areas between wet and dry regions, in regions where the FTH is minimum, in regions where FTHp10 is maximum, and in regions where differences between FTHp10 averaged over the 2000s and 1990s are negative. However, these positive trends in FTHp10 are associated with maximum standard deviation and are thus hardly significant. This analysis and intercomparisons with other humidity data records are part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Water Vapor Assessment (G-VAP). }}, doi = {10.5194/acp-14-11129-2014}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Harzallah}, A. and {Alioua}, M. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Mass exchange at the Strait of Gibraltar in response to tidal and lower frequency forcing as simulated by a Mediterranean Sea model}},
  journal = {Tellus Series A},
  keywords = {Strait of Gibraltar, Mediterranean Sea, tide, thermohaline circulation, water flow, hydrographic changes},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 66,
  pages = {23871},
  abstract = {{The exchange between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean at the Strait of
Gibraltar is studied based on numerical simulations of the Mediterranean
Sea compared to two sets of observations. The model used has a varying
horizontal resolution, highest at the Strait of Gibraltar. Numerical
simulations forced by tide, by the subinertial variability, by both and
by increasing the diffusion at the Strait are performed and compared to
each other. The model successfully reproduces the main observed features
of the variability at the tidal and at the lower frequency time scales
including the phasing between the barotropic and baroclinic flow
components and density variations. The model also simulates the strong
mixing at the strait by tide and the resulting fortnightly modulation of
the flow, with exchange reduction during spring tides and outflowing
waters and acceleration during neap tides and inflowing waters. It is
shown that tidal oscillations reduce the two-way exchange by interaction
with the subinertial variability. The effects of tide on the
Mediterranean Sea thermohaline circulation are also examined using
multi-decadal simulations. It is shown that the model reproduces the
cooling and saltening of waters crossing the strait in the upper layer
and the warming and freshening of waters crossing the strait in the
deeper layer, as previously shown by high resolution models of the
Strait of Gibraltar. These changes are shown to cool and increase the
salinity of the Mediterranean waters especially in the upper and
intermediate layers. The water-cooling is shown to lead to a reduction
of the heat loss at the sea surface. Based on model results, it is
concluded that tide may have an effect on the Mediterranean Sea heat
budget and hence on the atmosphere above. A validation of this
conclusion is however needed, in particular using higher resolution
  doi = {10.3402/tellusa.v66.23871},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lahellec}, A. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.},
  title = {{A Formal Analysis of the Feedback Concept in Climate Models. Part II: Tangent Linear Systems in GCMs}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 71,
  pages = {3350-3375},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-13-0334.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Fermepin}, S. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Influence of low-cloud radiative effects on tropical circulation and precipitation}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {Low clouds, cloud radiative effects, precipitation, atmospheric circulation},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {513-526},
  abstract = {{clouds, which constitute the most prevalent cloud type over tropical
oceans, exert a radiative cooling within the planetary boundary layer.
By using an atmospheric general circulation model, we investigate the
role that this cloud radiative cooling plays in the present-day climate.
Low-cloud radiative effects are found to increase the tropics-wide
precipitation, to strengthen the winds at the surface of the tropical
oceans, and to amplify the atmospheric overturning circulation. An
analysis of the water and energy budgets of the atmosphere reveals that
most of these effects arises from the strong coupling of cloud-radiative
cooling with turbulent fluxes at the ocean surface. The impact of
cloud-radiative effects on atmospheric dynamics and precipitation is
shown to occur on very short time scales (a few days). Therefore,
short-term atmospheric forecasts constitute a valuable framework for
evaluating the interactions between cloud processes and atmospheric
dynamics, and for assessing their dependence on model physics.
  doi = {10.1002/2013MS000288},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pessacg}, N.~L. and {Solman}, S.~A. and {Samuelsson}, P. and 
	{Sanchez}, E. and {Marengo}, J. and {Li}, L. and {Remedio}, A.~R.~C. and 
	{da Rocha}, R.~P. and {Mour{\~a}o}, C. and {Jacob}, D.},
  title = {{The surface radiation budget over South America in a set of regional climate models from the CLARIS-LPB project}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Regional climate models, Surface radiation budget, Heat fluxes, South America, Uncertainties},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 43,
  pages = {1221-1239},
  abstract = {{The performance of seven regional climate models in simulating the
radiation and heat fluxes at the surface over South America (SA) is
evaluated. Sources of uncertainty and errors are identified. All
simulations have been performed in the context of the CLARIS-LPB Project
for the period 1990-2008 and are compared with the GEWEX-SRB, CRU, and
GLDAS2 dataset and NCEP-NOAA reanalysis. Results showed that most of the
models overestimate the net surface short-wave radiation over tropical
SA and La Plata Basin and underestimate it over oceanic regions. Errors
in the short-wave radiation are mainly associated with uncertainties in
the representation of surface albedo and cloud fraction. For the net
surface long-wave radiation, model biases are diverse. However, the
ensemble mean showed a good agreement with the GEWEX-SRB dataset due to
the compensation of individual model biases. Errors in the net surface
long-wave radiation can be explained, in a large proportion, by errors
in cloud fraction. For some particular models, errors in temperature
also contribute to errors in the net long-wave radiation. Analysis of
the annual cycle of each component of the energy budget indicates that
the RCMs reproduce generally well the main characteristics of the short-
and long-wave radiations in terms of timing and amplitude. However, a
large spread among models over tropical SA is apparent. The annual cycle
of the sensible heat flux showed a strong overestimation in comparison
with the reanalysis and GLDAS2 dataset. For the latent heat flux, strong
differences between the reanalysis and GLDAS2 are calculated
particularly over tropical SA.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-013-1916-4},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gryazin}, V. and {Risi}, C. and {Jouzel}, J. and {Kurita}, N. and 
	{Worden}, J. and {Frankenberg}, C. and {Bastrikov}, V. and {Gribanov}, K. and 
	{Stukova}, O.},
  title = {{To what extent could water isotopic measurements help us understand model biases in the water cycle over Western Siberia}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {9807-9830},
  abstract = {{We evaluate the isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation
simulated by the LMDZ (Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique-Zoom) GCM (General Circulation Model) over Siberia using
several data sets: TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and GOSAT
(Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) satellite observations of
tropospheric water vapor, GNIP (Global Network for Isotopes in
Precipitation) and SNIP (Siberian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation)
precipitation networks, and daily, in situ measurements of water vapor
and precipitation at the Kourovka site in Western Siberia. LMDZ captures
the spatial, seasonal and daily variations reasonably well, but it
underestimates humidity (q) in summer and overestimates {$\delta$}D in the
vapor and precipitation in all seasons. The performance of LMDZ is put
in the context of other isotopic models from the SWING2 (Stable Water
Intercomparison Group phase 2) models. There is significant spread among
models in the simulation of {$\delta$}D, and of the {$\delta$}D-q
relationship. This confirms that {$\delta$}D brings additional information
compared to q only. We specifically investigate the added value of water
isotopic measurements to interpret the warm and dry bias featured by
most GCMs over mid and high latitude continents in summer. The analysis
of the slopes in {$\delta$}D-q diagrams and of processes controlling
{$\delta$}D and q variations suggests that the cause of the dry bias could
be either a problem in the large-scale advection transporting too much
dry and warm air from the south, or too strong boundary-layer mixing.
However, {$\delta$}D-q diagrams using the available data do not tell the
full story. Additional measurements would be needed, or a more
sophisticated theoretical framework would need to be developed.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-14-9807-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Bellon}, G. and {Klocke}, D. and {Sherwood}, S. and 
	{Fermepin}, S. and {Denvil}, S.},
  title = {{Addendum: Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical circulation and regional precipitation}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2014,
  month = jul,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {547},
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2192},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Navarro}, T. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Forget}, F. and {Spiga}, A. and 
	{Millour}, E. and {Montmessin}, F. and {M{\"a}{\"a}tt{\"a}nen}, A.
  title = {{Global climate modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1310.1010},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  keywords = {Mars, atmosphere, climate, global climate model, clouds, water},
  year = 2014,
  month = jul,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {1479-1495},
  abstract = {{Water ice clouds play a key role in the radiative transfer of the
Martian atmosphere, impacting its thermal structure, its circulation,
and, in turn, the water cycle. Recent studies including the radiative
effects of clouds in global climate models (GCMs) have found that the
corresponding feedbacks amplify the model defaults. In particular, it
prevents models with simple microphysics from reproducing even the basic
characteristics of the water cycle. Within that context, we propose a
new implementation of the water cycle in GCMs, including a detailed
cloud microphysics taking into account nucleation on dust particles, ice
particle growth, and scavenging of dust particles due to the
condensation of ice. We implement these new methods in the Laboratoire
de Météorologie Dynamique GCM and find satisfying
agreement with the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of both
water vapor and cloud opacities, with a significant improvement when
compared to GCMs taking into account radiative effects of water ice
clouds without this implementation. However, a lack of water vapor in
the tropics after Ls = 180{\deg} is persistent in simulations compared to
observations, as a consequence of aphelion cloud radiative effects
strengthening the Hadley cell. Our improvements also allow us to explore
questions raised by recent observations of the Martian atmosphere.
Supersaturation above the hygropause is predicted in line with
Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of
Mars observations. The model also suggests for the first time that the
scavenging of dust by water ice clouds alone fails to fully account for
the detached dust layers observed by the Mars Climate Sounder.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JE004550},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Irvine}, P.~J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Kravitz}, B. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and 
	{Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Ji}, D. and {Jones}, A. and {Lunt}, D.~J. and 
	{Moore}, J.~C. and {Muri}, H. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Robock}, A. and 
	{Singh}, B. and {Tilmes}, S. and {Watanabe}, S. and {Yang}, S. and 
	{Yoon}, J.-H.},
  title = {{Key factors governing uncertainty in the response to sunshade geoengineering from a comparison of the GeoMIP ensemble and a perturbed parameter ensemble}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengineering, climate engineering, GeoMIP, perturbed parameter ensemble, climate, solar radiation management},
  year = 2014,
  month = jul,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {7946-7962},
  abstract = {{model studies of the consequences of solar geoengineering are central to
evaluating whether such approaches may help to reduce the harmful
impacts of global warming. In this study we compare the sunshade solar
geoengineering response of a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) of the
Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3) with a multimodel
ensemble (MME) by analyzing the G1 experiment from the Geoengineering
Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The PPE only perturbed a small
number of parameters and shares a common structure with the unperturbed
HadCM3 model, and so the additional weight the PPE adds to the
robustness of the common climate response features in the MME is minor.
However, analysis of the PPE indicates some of the factors that drive
the spread within the MME. We isolate the role of global mean
temperature biases for both ensembles and find that these biases have
little effect on the ensemble spread in the hydrological response but do
reduce the spread in surface air temperature response, particularly at
high latitudes. We investigate the role of the preindustrial climatology
and find that biases here are likely a key source of ensemble spread at
the zonal and grid cell level. The role of vegetation, and its response
to elevated CO$_{2}$ concentrations through the CO$_{2}$
physiological effect and changes in plant productivity, is also
investigated and proves to have a substantial effect on the terrestrial
hydrological response to solar geoengineering and to be a major source
of variation within the GeoMIP ensemble.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020716},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Head}, J.~W. and {Forget}, F. and {Navarro}, T. and 
	{Millour}, E. and {Spiga}, A. and {Cola{\"i}tis}, A. and {M{\"a}{\"a}tt{\"a}nen}, A. and 
	{Montmessin}, F. and {Dickson}, J.~L.},
  title = {{Recent Ice Ages on Mars: The role of radiatively active clouds and cloud microphysics}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Glaciation, Mars, Paleoclimate, Climate model, Clouds, Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = jul,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {4873-4879},
  abstract = {{Global climate models (GCMs) have been successfully employed to explain
the origin of many glacial deposits on Mars. However, the
latitude-dependent mantle (LDM), a dust-ice mantling deposit that is
thought to represent a recent ''Ice Age,'' remains poorly explained by
GCMs. We reexamine this question by considering the effect of
radiatively active water-ice clouds (RACs) and cloud microphysics. We
find that when obliquity is set to 35{\deg}, as often occurred in the
past 2 million years, warming of the atmosphere and polar caps by clouds
modifies the water cycle and leads to the formation of a several
centimeter-thick ice mantle poleward of 30{\deg} in each hemisphere
during winter. This mantle can be preserved over the summer if increased
atmospheric dust content obscures the surface and provides dust nuclei
to low-altitude clouds. We outline a scenario for its deposition and
preservation that compares favorably with the characteristics of the
  doi = {10.1002/2014GL059861},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Webb}, M.~J. and {Lock}, A.~P. and {Bodas-Salcedo}, A. and 
	{Bony}, S. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Koshiro}, T. and {Kawai}, H. and 
	{Lacagnina}, C. and {Selten}, F.~M. and {Roehrig}, R. and {Stevens}, B.
  title = {{The diurnal cycle of marine cloud feedback in climate models}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Diurnal cycle, Cloud feedback, Climate change},
  year = 2014,
  month = jul,
  abstract = {{We examine the diurnal cycle of marine cloud feedback using high
frequency outputs in CFMIP-2 idealised uniform +4 K SST perturbation
experiments from seven CMIP5 models. Most of the inter-model spread in
the diurnal mean marine shortwave cloud feedback can be explained by low
cloud responses, although these do not explain the model responses at
the neutral/weakly negative end of the feedback range, where changes in
mid and high level cloud properties are more important. All of the
models show reductions in marine low cloud fraction in the warmer
climate, and these are in almost all cases largest in the mornings when
more cloud is present in the control simulations. This results in
shortwave cloud feedbacks being slightly stronger and having the largest
inter-model spread at this time of day. The diurnal amplitudes of the
responses of marine cloud properties to the warming climate are however
small compared to the inter-model differences in their diurnally meaned
responses. This indicates that the diurnal cycle of cloud feedback is
not strongly relevant to understanding inter-model spread in overall
cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. A number of unusual behaviours
in individual models are highlighted for future investigation.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2234-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pommier}, M. and {Lacour}, J.-L. and {Risi}, C. and {Bréon}, F.~M. and 
	{Clerbaux}, C. and {Coheur}, P.-F. and {Gribanov}, K. and {Hurtmans}, D. and 
	{Jouzel}, J. and {Zakharov}, V.},
  title = {{Observation of tropospheric {$\delta$}D by IASI over western Siberia: comparison with a general circulation model}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  year = 2014,
  month = jun,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {1581-1595},
  abstract = {{This study presents the joint H$_{2}$$^{16}$O and HDO
retrieval from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)
spectra over western Siberia. IASI is an instrument on board the MetOp-A
European satellite. The global coverage of the instrument and the good
signal-to-noise ratio allow us to provide information on {$\delta$}D over
this remote region. We show that IASI measurements may be used to
estimate integrated {$\delta$}D between the surface and 3 km altitude or
from 1 to 5 km depending on the thermal contrast, with observational
errors lower than 4\% and 7\%, respectively. The retrieved data are
compared to simulations from an isotopic general circulation model,
LMDZ-iso for 2011. The satellite measurements and the model agree well
and they reproduce well the seasonal and day-to-day variations for
{$\delta$}D, presenting a good correlation (r up to 0.8 with the smoothed
data in summer). The IASI-based retrievals also show the seasonal
variation of the specific humidity in both altitude ranges.
  doi = {10.5194/amt-7-1581-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Butzin}, M. and {Werner}, M. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Frankenberg}, C. and {Gribanov}, K. and {Jouzel}, J. and 
	{Zakharov}, V.~I.},
  title = {{Variations of oxygen-18 in West Siberian precipitation during the last 50 years}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = jun,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {5853-5869},
  abstract = {{Global warming is associated with large increases in surface air
temperature in Siberia. Here, we apply the isotope-enabled atmospheric
general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso to explore the potential of water
isotope measurements at a recently opened monitoring station in Kourovka
(57.04{\deg} N, 59.55{\deg} E) in order to successfully trace climate
change in western Siberia. Our model is constrained to atmospheric
reanalysis fields for the period 1957-2013 to facilitate the comparison
with observations of {$\delta$}D in total column water vapour from the
GOSAT satellite, and with precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
measurements from 15 Russian stations of the Global Network of Isotopes
in Precipitation. The model captures the observed Russian climate within
reasonable error margins, and displays the observed isotopic gradients
associated with increasing continentality and decreasing meridional
temperatures. The model also reproduces the observed seasonal cycle of
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, which parallels the seasonal cycle of temperature
and ranges from -25 {\permil} in winter to -5 {\permil} in summer.
Investigating West Siberian climate and precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O variability during the last 50 years, we find
long-term increasing trends in temperature and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O,
while precipitation trends are uncertain. During the last 50 years,
winter temperatures have increased by 1.7 {\deg}C. The simulated
long-term increase of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O is at the
detection limit ({\lt}1 {\permil} per 50 years) but significant. West
Siberian climate is characterized by strong interannual variability,
which in winter is strongly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation.
In winter, regional temperature is the predominant factor controlling
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O variations on interannual to decadal timescales
with a slope of about 0.5 {\permil} {\deg}C$^{-1}$. In summer, the
interannual variability of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O can be attributed to
short-term, regional-scale processes such as evaporation and convective
precipitation. This finding suggests that precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O has the potential to reveal hydrometeorological
regime shifts in western Siberia which are otherwise difficult to
identify. Focusing on Kourovka, the simulated evolution of temperature,
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and, to a smaller extent, precipitation during the
last 50 years is synchronous with model results averaged over all of
western Siberia, suggesting that this site will be representative to
monitor future isotopic changes in the entire region.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-14-5853-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Huneeus}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and 
	{Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Curry}, C.~L. and {Ji}, D. and {Jones}, A. and 
	{Kravitz}, B. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and {Moore}, J.~C. and 
	{Muri}, H. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Rasch}, P. and {Robock}, A. and 
	{Singh}, B. and {Schmidt}, H. and {Schulz}, M. and {Tilmes}, S. and 
	{Watanabe}, S. and {Yoon}, J.-H.},
  title = {{Forcings and feedbacks in the GeoMIP ensemble for a reduction in solar irradiance and increase in CO$_{2}$}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengineering, energy balance, effective radiative forcing, climate sensitivity},
  year = 2014,
  month = may,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {5226-5239},
  abstract = {{effective radiative forcings (including rapid adjustments) and feedbacks
associated with an instantaneous quadrupling of the preindustrial
CO$_{2}$ concentration and a counterbalancing reduction of the
solar constant are investigated in the context of the Geoengineering
Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The forcing and feedback
parameters of the net energy flux, as well as its different components
at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface, were examined in 10 Earth
System Models to better understand the impact of solar radiation
management on the energy budget. In spite of their very different
nature, the feedback parameter and its components at the TOA and surface
are almost identical for the two forcing mechanisms, not only in the
global mean but also in their geographical distributions. This
conclusion holds for each of the individual models despite intermodel
differences in how feedbacks affect the energy budget. This indicates
that the climate sensitivity parameter is independent of the forcing
(when measured as an effective radiative forcing). We also show the
existence of a large contribution of the cloudy-sky component to the
shortwave effective radiative forcing at the TOA suggesting rapid cloud
adjustments to a change in solar irradiance. In addition, the models
present significant diversity in the spatial distribution of the
shortwave feedback parameter in cloudy regions, indicating persistent
uncertainties in cloud feedback mechanisms.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD021110},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Tremoy}, G. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Soumana}, S. and {Souley}, I. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Favreau}, G. and {O{\"i}}, M.},
  title = {{Clustering mesoscale convective systems with laser-based water vapor {$\delta$}$^{18}$O monitoring in Niamey (Niger)}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water vapor isotopic composition, mesoscale convective systems, convective processes, rain evaporation, Sahel rainfall},
  year = 2014,
  month = may,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {5079-5103},
  abstract = {{isotopic composition of surface water vapor ({$\delta$}$_{v}$) has
been measured continuously in Niamey along with the isotopic composition
of event-based precipitation ({$\delta$}$_{p}$) since 2010. We
investigate the evolution of water vapor and precipitation isotope
ratios during rain events of the 2010, 2011, and 2012 monsoon periods.
We establish a classification of rain systems into three types based on
the {$\delta$}$_{v}$ temporal evolution. We find that 51\% of rain
events (class A) exhibit a sharp decrease in
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ in phase with the surface air
temperature drop, leading to a depletion of water vapor by -1.9{\permil}
on average during rainfall. Twenty-nine percent of rain events (class B)
show a similar decrease in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ in phase
with the temperature drop but are characterized by a progressive
enrichment of the vapor in the stratiform region, resulting in a
depletion of water vapor by -1.2{\permil} on average during rainfall. The
last 20\% of the rain events (class C) are associated with a progressive
increase in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ during rainfall
(+0.8{\permil}). We also examine the temporal evolution of water vapor
deuterium excess (d$_{v}$) which shows a sharp increase as
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ decreases, followed by a progressive
decrease in the stratiform part for classes A and B. Using a basic box
model, we examine for each class the respective roles that mesoscale
subsidence and rain evaporation play on the evolution of
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$. We show that those two processes are
dominant for class A, whereas other processes may exert a major role on
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ for classes B and C.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020968},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Medeiros}, B. and {Stevens}, B. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Using aquaplanets to understand the robust responses of comprehensive climate models to forcing}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate change, Climate models, Cloud radiative effect, Aquaplanet, Tropospheric adjustment, Climate feedbacks},
  year = 2014,
  month = may,
  abstract = {{Idealized climate change experiments using fixed sea-surface temperature
are investigated to determine whether zonally symmetric aquaplanet
configurations are useful for understanding climate feedbacks in more
realistic configurations. The aquaplanets capture many of the robust
responses of the large-scale circulation and hydrologic cycle to both
warming the sea-surface temperature and quadrupling atmospheric
CO$_{2}$. The cloud response to both perturbations varies across
models in both Earth-like and aquaplanet configurations, and this spread
arises primarily from regions of large-scale subsidence. Most models
produce a consistent cloud change across the subsidence regimes, and the
feedback in trade-wind cumulus regions dominates the tropical response.
It is shown that these trade-wind regions have similar cloud feedback in
Earth-like and aquaplanet warming experiments. The tropical average
cloud feedback of the Earth-like experiment is captured by five of eight
aquaplanets, and the three outliers are investigated to understand the
discrepancy. In two models, the discrepancy is due to warming induced
dissipation of stratocumulus decks in the Earth-like configuration which
are not represented in the aquaplanet. One model shows a circulation
response in the aquaplanet experiment accompanied by a cloud response
that differs from the Earth-like configuration. Quadrupling atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ in aquaplanets produces slightly greater adjusted forcing
than in Earth-like configurations, showing that land-surface effects
dampen the adjusted forcing. The analysis demonstrates how aquaplanets,
as part of a model hierarchy, help elucidate robust aspects of climate
change and develop understanding of the processes underlying them.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2138-0},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bonne}, J.-L. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Cattani}, O. and 
	{Delmotte}, M. and {Risi}, C. and {Sodemann}, H. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C.
  title = {{The isotopic composition of water vapour and precipitation in Ivittuut, southern Greenland}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = may,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {4419-4439},
  abstract = {{Since September 2011, a wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy
analyser has been remotely operated in Ivittuut, southern Greenland,
providing the first record of surface water vapour isotopic composition
based on continuous measurements in South Greenland and the first record
including the winter season in Greenland. The comparison of vapour data
with measurements of precipitation isotopic composition suggest an
equilibrium between surface vapour and precipitation. 

{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and deuterium excess are generally anti-correlated and show important seasonal variations, with respective amplitudes of \~{}10 and \~{}20{\permil}, as well as large synoptic variations. The data depict small summer diurnal variations. At the seasonal scale, {$\delta$}$^{18}$O has a minimum in November-December and a maximum in June-July, while deuterium excess has a minimum in May-June and a maximum in November. The approach of low-pressure systems towards South Greenland leads to {$\delta$}$^{18}$O increase (typically +5{\permil}) and deuterium excess decrease (typically -15{\permil}).

Seasonal and synoptic variations coincide with shifts in the moisture sources, estimated using a quantitative moisture source diagnostic based on a Lagrangian back-trajectory model. The atmospheric general circulation model LMDZiso correctly captures the seasonal and synoptic variability of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, but does not capture the observed magnitude of deuterium excess variability.

Covariations of water vapour isotopic composition with local and moisture source meteorological parameters have been evaluated. {$\delta$}$^{18}$O is strongly correlated with the logarithm of local surface humidity, consistent with Rayleigh distillation processes, and with local surface air temperature, associated with a slope of \~{}0.4{\permil} {\deg}C$^{-1}$. Deuterium excess correlates with local surface relative humidity as well as surface relative humidity from the dominant moisture source area located in the North Atlantic, south of Greenland and Iceland. }}, doi = {10.5194/acp-14-4419-2014}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Deroche}, M.-S. and {Choux}, M. and {Codron}, F. and {Yiou}, P.
  title = {{Three variables are better than one: detection of european winter windstorms causing important damages}},
  journal = {Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {981-993},
  abstract = {{In this paper, we present a new approach for detecting potentially
damaging European winter windstorms from a multi-variable perspective.
European winter windstorms being usually associated with extra-tropical
cyclones (ETCs), there is a coupling between the intensity of the
surface wind speeds and other meso-scale and large-scale features
characteristic of ETCs. Here we focus on the relative vorticity at 850
hPa and the sea level pressure anomaly, which are also used in ETC
detection studies, along with the ratio of the 10 m wind speed to its
98th percentile. When analysing 10 events known by the insurance
industry to have caused extreme damages, we find that they share an
intense signature in each of the 3 fields. This shows that the relative
vorticity and the mean sea level pressure have a predictive value of the
intensity of the generated windstorms. The 10 major events are not the
most intense in any of the 3 variables considered separately, but we
show that the combination of the 3 variables is an efficient way of
extracting these events from a reanalysis data set.
  doi = {10.5194/nhess-14-981-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Liu}, Z. and {Yoshimura}, K. and {Bowen}, G.~J. and {Buenning}, N.~H. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Welker}, J.~M. and {Yuan}, F.},
  title = {{Paired oxygen isotope records reveal modern North American atmospheric dynamics during the Holocene}},
  journal = {Nature Communications},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 5,
  eid = {3701},
  pages = {3701},
  abstract = {{The Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection has a strong influence
on North American climate. Instrumental records and century-scale
reconstructions indicate an accelerating tendency towards the positive
PNA state since the mid-1850s, but much less is known about long-term
PNA variability. Here we reconstruct PNA-like climate variability during
the mid- and late Holocene using paired oxygen isotope records from two
regions in North America with robust, anticorrelated isotopic response
to the modern PNA. We identify mean states of more negative and positive
PNA-like climate during the mid- and late Holocene, respectively.
Superimposed on the secular change between states is a robust,
quasi-200-year oscillation, which we associate with the de Vries solar
cycle. These findings suggest the persistence of PNA-like climate
variability throughout the mid- and late Holocene, provide evidence for
modulation of PNA over multiple timescales and may help researchers
de-convolve PNA pattern variation from other factors reflected in
  doi = {10.1038/ncomms4701},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Y. and {Thompson}, D.~W.~J. and {Stephens}, G.~L. and 
	{Bony}, S.},
  title = {{A global survey of the instantaneous linkages between cloud vertical structure and large-scale climate}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {cloud vertical structure, large-scale climate, CloudSat/CALIPSO, SST regimes, Arctic, storm track activity},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {3770-3792},
  abstract = {{The instantaneous linkages between cloud vertical structure and various
large-scale meteorological parameters are investigated using 5 years of
data from the CloudSat/CALIPSO instruments. The linkages are
systemically explored and quantified at all vertical levels and
throughout the global ocean in both the long-term mean and on
month-to-month timescales. A number of novel large-scale meteorological
parameters are used in the analysis, including tropopause temperatures,
upper tropospheric stability, and storm track activity. The results
provide a baseline for evaluating physical parameterizations of clouds
in GCMs and a reference for interpreting the signatures of large-scale
atmospheric phenomena in cloud vertical structure. In the long-term
mean, upper tropospheric cloud incidence throughout the globe increases
with (1) decreasing tropopause temperature (at a rate of {\tilde}2-4\%
K$^{-1}$), (2) decreasing upper tropospheric stability
({\tilde}5-10\% per K km$^{-1}$), and (3) increasing large-scale
vertical motion ({\tilde}1-4\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$). In contrast,
lower tropospheric cloud incidence increases with (1) increasing lower
tropospheric stability (10\% per K km$^{-1}$) and descending motion
(1\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$) in regions of subtropical regime but (2)
decreasing lower tropospheric stability (4\% per K km$^{-1}$) and
ascending motion (2\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$) over the Arctic region.
Variations in static stability and vertical motion account for
{\tilde}20-35\% of the month-to-month variance in upper tropospheric
cloudiness but less than 10\% of the variance in lower tropospheric
clouds. Upper tropospheric cloud incidence in the storm track regions is
strongly linked to the variance of large-scale vertical motion and thus
the amplitude of baroclinic waves.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020669},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ménégoz}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Cozic}, A. and {Lim}, S. and {Ginot}, P. and 
	{Laj}, P. and {Gallée}, H. and {Wagnon}, P. and {Marinoni}, A. and 
	{Jacobi}, H.~W.},
  title = {{Snow cover sensitivity to black carbon deposition in the Himalayas: from atmospheric and ice core measurements to regional climate simulations}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {4237-4249},
  abstract = {{We applied a climate-chemistry global model to evaluate the impact of
black carbon (BC) deposition on the Himalayan snow cover from 1998 to
2008. Using a stretched grid with a resolution of 50 km over this
complex topography, the model reproduces reasonably well the remotely
sensed observations of the snow cover duration. Similar to observations,
modelled atmospheric BC concentrations in the central Himalayas reach a
minimum during the monsoon and a maximum during the post- and
pre-monsoon periods. Comparing the simulated BC concentrations in the
snow with observations is more challenging because of their high spatial
variability and complex vertical distribution. We simulated spring BC
concentrations in surface snow varying from tens to hundreds of {$\mu$}g
kg$^{-1}$, higher by one to two orders of magnitude than those
observed in ice cores extracted from central Himalayan glaciers at high
elevations ({\gt}6000 m a.s.l.), but typical for seasonal snow cover
sampled in middle elevation regions ({\lt}6000 m a.s.l.). In these areas,
we estimate that both wet and dry BC depositions affect the Himalayan
snow cover reducing its annual duration by 1 to 8 days. In our
simulations, the effect of anthropogenic BC deposition on snow is quite
low over the Tibetan Plateau because this area is only sparsely snow
covered. However, the impact becomes larger along the entire Hindu-Kush,
Karakorum and Himalayan mountain ranges. In these regions, BC in snow
induces an increase of the net short-wave radiation at the surface with
an annual mean of 1 to 3 W m$^{-2}$ leading to a localised warming
between 0.05 and 0.3 {\deg}C.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-14-4237-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ma}, H.-Y. and {Xie}, S. and {Klein}, S.~A. and {Williams}, K.~D. and 
	{Boyle}, J.~S. and {Bony}, S. and {Douville}, H. and {Fermepin}, S. and 
	{Medeiros}, B. and {Tyteca}, S. and {Watanabe}, M. and {Williamson}, D.
  title = {{On the Correspondence between Mean Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in CMIP5 Models}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = feb,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {1781-1798},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00474.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Hirabayashi}, M. and 
	{Winkler}, R. and {Satow}, K. and {Prié}, F. and {Bayou}, N. and 
	{Brun}, E. and {Cuffey}, K.~M. and {Dahl-Jensen}, D. and {Dumont}, M. and 
	{Guillevic}, M. and {Kipfstuhl}, S. and {Landais}, A. and {Popp}, T. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Steffen}, K. and {Stenni}, B. and {Sveinbj{\"o}rnsdott{\'{\i}}r}, A.~E.
  title = {{What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2014,
  month = feb,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {377-392},
  abstract = {{Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key
paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation
isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric
models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow
metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of
the isotopic composition ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O, {$\delta$}D) of
near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm)
snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011-2012) at NEEM,
NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of $^{17}$O-excess
measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland
heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming
isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a
strong correlation between near-surface vapor {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and
air temperature (0.85 {\plusmn} 0.11{\permil} {\deg}C$^{-1}$ (R =
0.76) for 2012). The correlation with air temperature is not observed in
precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess) is
strongly anti-correlated with {$\delta$}$^{18}$O with a stronger
slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During
nine 1-5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate
parallel changes of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and d-excess in surface snow
and near-surface vapor. The changes in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O of the
vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that
6 to 20\% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In
our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to
the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with
atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor
isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in
air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in
between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic
composition are driven by these changes in near-surface vapor isotopic
composition. This is consistent with an estimated 60\% mass turnover of
surface snow per day driven by snow recrystallization processes under
NEEM summer surface snow temperature gradients. Our findings have
implications for ice core data interpretation and model-data
comparisons, and call for further process studies.
  doi = {10.5194/cp-10-377-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Schmidt}, G.~A. and {Annan}, J.~D. and {Bartlein}, P.~J. and 
	{Cook}, B.~I. and {Guilyardi}, E. and {Hargreaves}, J.~C. and 
	{Harrison}, S.~P. and {Kageyama}, M. and {LeGrande}, A.~N. and 
	{Konecky}, B. and {Lovejoy}, S. and {Mann}, M.~E. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Thompson}, D. and {Timmermann}, A. and {Tremblay}, L.-B. and 
	{Yiou}, P.},
  title = {{Using palaeo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2014,
  month = feb,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {221-250},
  abstract = {{We present a selection of methodologies for using the palaeo-climate
model component of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (Phase 5)
(CMIP5) to attempt to constrain future climate projections using the
same models. The constraints arise from measures of skill in hindcasting
palaeo-climate changes from the present over three periods: the Last
Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 000 yr before present, ka), the mid-Holocene
(MH) (6 ka) and the Last Millennium (LM) (850-1850 CE). The skill
measures may be used to validate robust patterns of climate change
across scenarios or to distinguish between models that have differing
outcomes in future scenarios. We find that the multi-model ensemble of
palaeo-simulations is adequate for addressing at least some of these
issues. For example, selected benchmarks for the LGM and MH are
correlated to the rank of future projections of
precipitation/temperature or sea ice extent to indicate that models that
produce the best agreement with palaeo-climate information give
demonstrably different future results than the rest of the models. We
also explore cases where comparisons are strongly dependent on uncertain
forcing time series or show important non-stationarity, making direct
inferences for the future problematic. Overall, we demonstrate that
there is a strong potential for the palaeo-climate simulations to help
inform the future projections and urge all the modelling groups to
complete this subset of the CMIP5 runs.
  doi = {10.5194/cp-10-221-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Gruber}, N. and {Minh}, H.-D. and 
	{Lawrence}, M.~G. and {Lenton}, T.~M. and {Maas}, A. and {Vaughan}, N.~E.
  title = {{Rethinking climate engineering categorization in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation}},
  journal = {Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Volume 5, Issue 1, pages 23{\^a}{\#128}{\#147}35},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {23},
  doi = {10.1002/wcc.261},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Benetti}, M. and {Reverdin}, G. and {Pierre}, C. and {Merlivat}, L. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Vimeux}, F.},
  title = {{Deuterium excess in marine water vapor: Dependency on relative humidity and surface wind speed during evaporation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Deuterium excess, evaporation, wind speed, surface roughness},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {584-593},
  abstract = {{provide the first continuous measurements of isotopic composition
({$\delta$}D and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O) of water vapor over the subtropical
Eastern North Atlantic Ocean from mid-August to mid-September 2012. The
ship was located mostly around 26{\deg}N, 35{\deg}W where evaporation
exceeded by far precipitation and water vapor at 20 m largely originated
from surface evaporation. The only large deviations from that occurred
during a 2 day period in the vicinity of a weak low-pressure system. The
continuous measurements were used to investigate deuterium excess
(d-excess) relation to evaporation. During 25 days d-excess was
negatively correlated with relative humidity (r$^{2}$ = 0.89).
Moreover, d-excess estimated in an evaporative model with a closure
assumption reproduced most of the observed variability. From these
observations, the d-excess parameter seems to be a good indicator of
evaporative conditions. We also conclude that in this region, d-excess
into the marine boundary layer is less affected by mixing with the free
troposphere than the isotopic composition. From our data, the transition
from smooth to rough regime at the ocean surface is associated with a
d-excess decrease of 5{\permil}, which suggests the importance of the
ocean surface roughness in controlling d-excess in this region.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020535},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Moore}, J.~C. and {Rinke}, A. and {Yu}, X. and {Ji}, D. and 
	{Cui}, X. and {Li}, Y. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and 
	{Muri}, H. and {Boucher}, O. and {Huneeus}, N. and {Kravitz}, B. and 
	{Robock}, A. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Schulz}, M. and {Tilmes}, S. and 
	{Watanabe}, S. and {Yang}, S.},
  title = {{Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation under the GeoMIP G1 scenario}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengeneering, Arctic sea ice, Arctic atmosphere},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {567-583},
  abstract = {{analyze simulated sea ice changes in eight different Earth System Models
that have conducted experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model
Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The simulated response of balancing
abrupt quadrupling of CO$_{2}$ (abrupt4xCO2) with reduced
shortwave radiation successfully moderates annually averaged Arctic
temperature rise to about 1{\deg}C, with modest changes in seasonal sea
ice cycle compared with the preindustrial control simulations
(piControl). Changes in summer and autumn sea ice extent are spatially
correlated with temperature patterns but much less in winter and spring
seasons. However, there are changes of {\plusmn}20\% in sea ice
concentration in all seasons, and these will induce changes in
atmospheric circulation patterns. In summer and autumn, the models
consistently simulate less sea ice relative to preindustrial simulations
in the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas, and some
models show increased sea ice in the Barents/Kara Seas region. Sea ice
extent increases in the Greenland Sea, particularly in winter and spring
and is to some extent associated with changed sea ice drift. Decreased
sea ice cover in winter and spring in the Barents Sea is associated with
increased cyclonic activity entering this area under G1. In comparison,
the abrupt4xCO2 experiment shows almost total sea ice loss in September
and strong correlation with regional temperatures in all seasons
consistent with open ocean conditions. The tropospheric circulation
displays a Pacific North America pattern-like anomaly with negative
phase in G1-piControl and positive phase under abrupt4xCO2-piControl.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD021060},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bodas-Salcedo}, A. and {Williams}, K.~D. and {Ringer}, M.~A. and 
	{Beau}, I. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Koshiro}, T. and 
	{Stevens}, B. and {Wang}, Z. and {Yokohata}, T.},
  title = {{Origins of the Solar Radiation Biases over the Southern Ocean in CFMIP2 Models*}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {41-56},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00169.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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