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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1999 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_EMC31999.txt -ob lmd_EMC31999.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Scott}, N.~A. and {Chédin}, A. and {Armante}, R. and {Francis}, J. and 
	{Stubenrauch}, C. and {Chaboureau}, J.-P. and {Chevallier}, F. and 
	{Claud}, C. and {Cheruy}, F.},
  title = {{Characteristics of the TOVS Pathfinder Path-B Dataset.}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 1999,
  month = dec,
  volume = 80,
  pages = {2679-2702},
  abstract = {{From 1979 to present, sensors aboard the NOAA series of polar
meteorological satellites have provided continuous measurements of the
earth's surface and atmosphere. One of these sensors, the TIROS-N
Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), observes earth-emitted radiation in
27 wavelength bands within the infrared and microwave portions of the
spectrum, thereby creating a valuable resource for studying the climate
of our planet. The NOAA-NASA Pathfinder program was conceived to make
these data more readily accessible to the community in the form of
processed geophysical variables. The Atmospheric Radiation Analysis
group at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique of the
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France was selected to
process TOVS data into climate products (Path-B). The Improved
Initialization Inversion (3I) retrieval algorithm is used to compute
these products from the satellite-observed radiances. The processing
technique ensures internal coherence and minimizes both observational
and computational biases. Products are at a 1{\deg} {\times} 1{\deg}
latitude-longitude grid and include atmospheric temperature profiles (up
to 10 hPa); total precipitable water vapor and content above four levels
up to 300 hPa; surface skin temperature; and cloud properties (amount,
type, and cloud-top pressure and temperature). The information is
archived as 1-day, 5-day, and monthly means on the entire globe; a.m.
and p.m. products for each satellite are stored separately. Eight years
have been processed to date, and processing continues at the rate of
approximately two satellite-months per day of computer time. Quality
assessment studies are presented. They consist of comparisons to
conventional meteorological data and to other remote sensing datasets.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2679:COTTPP>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Li}, X.~H. and {Kinny}, P.~D. and {Wang}, J.
  title = {{The breakup of Rodinia: did it start with a mantle plume beneath South China?}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  year = 1999,
  month = nov,
  volume = 173,
  pages = {171-181},
  abstract = {{Mafic to ultramafic dykes and sills in South China, dated as
828{\plusmn}7 Ma old, are identical in age to the 827{\plusmn}6 Ma
Gairdner Dyke Swarm in Australia, thought to be of mantle plume origin.
These intrusive rocks, accompanied by widespread granite intrusions and
rapid unroofing at a lateral extent of ca. 1000 km, and followed by
continental rifting, are interpreted to indicate the arrival of a plume
head centred beneath South China. This interpretation supports the idea
that South China lay between Australia and Laurentia in the Rodinia
supercontinent, and suggests that Rodinia breakup may have started with
a mantle plume which initiated continental rifting at about 820 Ma ago.
  doi = {10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00240-X},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Issartel}, J.-P. and {Cabrit}, B. and {Idelkadi}, A.
  title = {{Reciprocity of atmospheric transport of trace species}},
  journal = {Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science},
  year = 1999,
  month = nov,
  volume = 329,
  pages = {623-628},
  abstract = {{We present a new approach for the inversion of atmospheric transport of
trace species based on the time symmetry of the transport equations.
Whereas the classical use of Lagrangian back-tracking only accounts for
large-scale transport, our approach can also be applied to other
transport processes such as turbulent mixing and linear sources and
sinks. It hence provides a simple and systematic way of quantifying the
source to detector connection with a wide field of potential
applications. We present both theoretical background and numerical
illustrations in the context of the European Transport Experiment
  doi = {10.1016/S1251-8050(00)87638-7},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lewis}, S.~R. and {Collins}, M. and {Read}, P.~L. and {Forget}, F. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and {Talagrand}, O. and 
	{Huot}, J.-P.},
  title = {{A climate database for Mars}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  year = 1999,
  month = oct,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {24177-24194},
  abstract = {{A database of statistics which describe the climate and surface
environment of Mars has been constructed directly on the basis of output
from multiannual integrations of two general circulation models
developed jointly at Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
du Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, France, and the
University of Oxford, United Kingdom, with support from the European
Space Agency. The models have been developed and validated to reproduce
the main features of the meteorology of Mars, as observed by past
spacecraft missions. As well as the more standard statistical measures
for mission design studies, the Mars Climate Database includes a novel
representation of large-scale variability, using empirical
eigenfunctions derived from an analysis of the full simulations, and
small-scale variability using parameterizations of processes such as
gravity wave propagation. The database may be used as a tool for mission
planning and also provides a valuable resource for scientific studies of
the Martian atmosphere. The database is described and critically
compared with a representative range of currently available
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001024},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and 
	{Talagrand}, O. and {Collins}, M. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and 
	{Huot}, J.-P.},
  title = {{Improved general circulation models of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  year = 1999,
  month = oct,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {24155-24176},
  abstract = {{We describe a set of two ``new generation'' general circulation models
of the Martian atmosphere derived from the models we originally
developed in the early 1990s. The two new models share the same physical
parameterizations but use two complementary numerical methods to solve
the atmospheric dynamic equations. The vertical resolution near the
surface has been refined, and the vertical domain has been extended to
above 80 km. These changes are accompanied by the inclusion of
state-of-the -art parameterizations to better simulate the dynamical and
physical processes near the surface (boundary layer scheme,
subgrid-scale topography parameterization, etc.) and at high altitude
(gravity wave drag). In addition, radiative transfer calculations and
the representation of polar processes have been significantly improved.
We present some examples of zonal-mean fields from simulations using the
model at several seasons. One relatively novel aspect, previously
introduced by Wilson [1997], is that around northern winter solstice the
strong pole to pole diabatic forcing creates a quasi-global,
angular-momentum conserving Hadley cell which has no terrestrial
equivalent. Within such a cell the Coriolis forces accelerate the winter
meridional flow toward the pole and induce a strong warming of the
middle polar atmosphere down to 25 km. This winter polar warming had
been observed but not properly modeled until recently. In fact, thermal
inversions are generally predicted above one, and often both, poles
around 60-70 km. However, the Mars middle atmosphere above 40 km is
found to be very model-sensitive and thus difficult to simulate
accurately in the absence of observations.
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001025},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Mathieu}, A. and {Seze}, G. and {Guerin}, C. and {Dupuis}, H. and 
	{Weill}, A.},
  title = {{Mesoscale boundary layer clouds structures as observed during the semaphore campaign}},
  journal = {Physics and Chemistry of the Earth B},
  year = 1999,
  month = sep,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {933-938},
  doi = {10.1016/S1464-1909(99)00106-9},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Seze}, G. and {Vanbauce}, C. and {Buriez}, J.~C. and {Parol}, F. and 
	{Couvert}, P.},
  title = {{Cloud cover observed simultaneously from POLDER and METEOSAT}},
  journal = {Physics and Chemistry of the Earth B},
  year = 1999,
  month = sep,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {921-926},
  doi = {10.1016/S1464-1909(99)00104-5},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stubenrauch}, C.~J. and {Rossow}, W.~B. and {Chéruy}, F. and 
	{Chédin}, A. and {Scott}, N.~A.},
  title = {{Clouds as Seen by Satellite Sounders (3I) and Imagers (ISCCP). Part I: Evaluation of Cloud Parameters.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1999,
  month = aug,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {2189-2213},
  abstract = {{The improved initialization inversion (3I) algorithms convert TIROS-N
Operational Vertical Sounder observations from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting environmental
satellites into atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles,
together with cloud and surface properties. Their relatively good
spectral resolution and coverage make IR sounders a very useful tool for
the determination of cloud properties both day and night. The iterative
process of detailed comparisons between cloud parameters obtained from
this global dataset, which is available in the framework of the
NOAA-National Aeronautics and Space Administration Pathfinder Program,
with time-space-collocated observations of clouds from the recently
reprocessed International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP)
dataset has led to an improved 3I cloud analysis scheme based on a
weighted-$^{2}$ method described in the second article of this
series. This process also provides a first evaluation of the ISCCP
reanalysis. The new 3I cloud scheme obtains cloud properties very
similar to those from ISCCP for homogeneous cloud scenes. Improvement is
especially notable in the stratocumulus regimes where the new 3I scheme
detects much more of the low-level cloudiness. Remaining discrepancies
in cloud classification can now be explained by differences in cloud
detection sensitivity, differences in temperature profiles used, and
inhomogeneous or partly cloudy fields. Cirrus cloud identification
during the daytime in the recent ISCCP dataset is improved relative to
the first version of ISCCP, but is still an underestimate. At night only
multispectral IR analyses like 3I can provide cirrus information. The
reprocessed ISCCP dataset also shows considerable improvement in cloud
cover at higher latitudes. Differences in 3I and ISCCP summertime cloud
cover over deserts may be caused by different sensitivities to dust
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<2189:CASBSS>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Parol}, F. and {Buriez}, J.-C. and {Vanbauce}, C. and {Couvert}, P. and 
	{Seze}, G. and {Goloub}, P. and {Cheinet}, S.},
  title = {{First results of the POLDER ''Earth Radiation Budget and Clouds'' operational algorithm}},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
  year = 1999,
  month = may,
  volume = 37,
  pages = {1597-1612},
  doi = {10.1109/36.763273},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Le Treut}, H.},
  title = {{Transient behavior of the meridional moisture transport across South America and its relation to atmospheric circulation patterns}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Synoptic-scale meteorology, Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309)},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 26,
  pages = {1409-1412},
  abstract = {{ The transient behavior of meridional moisture transport across the
South American continent is examined with the reanalysis data provided
by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The
results show clearly the effects of the valley between the Andes and the
Brazilian Plateau in canalizing the southward moisture transport: an
intense jet is episodically formed in this valley. The synoptic
variability of this low-level jet and its relation to the large-scale
atmospheric circulation are studied.
  doi = {10.1029/1999GL900274},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.-X.},
  title = {{Ensemble Atmospheric GCM Simulation of Climate Interannual Variability from 1979 to 1994.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1999,
  month = apr,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {986-1001},
  abstract = {{The climate interannual variability is examined using the general
circulation model (GCM) developed at the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique. The model is forced by the
observed sea surface temperature for the period 1979-94. An ensemble of
eight simulations is realized with different initial conditions. The
variability of the Southern Oscillation is studied. The simulated sea
level pressure anomalies at both Tahiti and Darwin are realistic
compared to observations. It is revealed, however, that the simulated
convection activity response to the warm episode of El Ni{\~n}o is
too weak over the eastern part of the tropical Pacific. This explains
why the simulated Pacific-North American pattern is shifted westward. A
global El Ni{\~n}o pattern index is defined and calculated for both
the simulation and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction
(NCEP) reanalysis data. This serves as a quantitative measure of El
Ni{\~n}o's global impact. A singular value decomposition analysis
performed with the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature and the
Northern Hemisphere 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the model's
teleconnection between the Tropics and high latitudes is similar to that
of the NCEP reanalysis data.In an exploratory manner, the model's
internal variability versus the external forced variability is studied.
It is shown that, except for the equatorial strip, the internal model
variability is larger than the external variability. An ensemble mean is
thus necessary in order to focus on the model's response to external sea
surface temperature anomalies. An attempt is also made to evaluate
statistically the influence of the ensemble's size on the model's
reproducibility. It is shown that, with this particular GCM, at least
five realizations are necessary to correctly assess the teleconnection
between the Tropics and the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. This
dependency on the number of realizations is less for the tropical
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0986:EAGSOC>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Air traffic may increase cirrus cloudiness}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 1999,
  month = jan,
  volume = 397,
  pages = {30-31},
  abstract = {{High-level cirrus clouds can evolve,  from the condensation trails of
aircraft, which form as the mixture of warm, humid exhaust gases and
colder, drier air exceeds water saturation. In addition, the particles
in exhaust plumes from aircraft may allow ice nucleation at lower
supersaturations than those required under natural conditions. This
mechanism is sensitive to environmental conditions, but may occur
downstream of the exhaust aerosol source regions. Here I show that
cirrus clouds increased in occurrence and coverage in the main
air-traffic flight corridors between 1982 and 1991.
  doi = {10.1038/16169},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Armengaud}, A.},
  title = {{The Use of Finite-Volume Methods for Atmospheric Advection of Trace Species. Part I: Test of Various Formulations in a General Circulation Model}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 127,
  pages = {822},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<0822:TUOFVM>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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