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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=2014 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li2014.txt -ob lmd_Li2014.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Rotstayn}, L.~D. and {Plymin}, E.~L. and {Collier}, M.~A. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Luo}, J.-J. and {von Salzen}, K. and 
	{Jeffrey}, S.~J. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Ming}, Y. and {Horowitz}, L.~W.
  title = {{Declining Aerosols in CMIP5 Projections: Effects on Atmospheric Temperature Structure and Midlatitude Jets}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {6960-6977},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00258.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Harzallah}, A. and {Alioua}, M. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Mass exchange at the Strait of Gibraltar in response to tidal and lower frequency forcing as simulated by a Mediterranean Sea model}},
  journal = {Tellus Series A},
  keywords = {Strait of Gibraltar, Mediterranean Sea, tide, thermohaline circulation, water flow, hydrographic changes},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 66,
  pages = {23871},
  abstract = {{The exchange between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean at the Strait of
Gibraltar is studied based on numerical simulations of the Mediterranean
Sea compared to two sets of observations. The model used has a varying
horizontal resolution, highest at the Strait of Gibraltar. Numerical
simulations forced by tide, by the subinertial variability, by both and
by increasing the diffusion at the Strait are performed and compared to
each other. The model successfully reproduces the main observed features
of the variability at the tidal and at the lower frequency time scales
including the phasing between the barotropic and baroclinic flow
components and density variations. The model also simulates the strong
mixing at the strait by tide and the resulting fortnightly modulation of
the flow, with exchange reduction during spring tides and outflowing
waters and acceleration during neap tides and inflowing waters. It is
shown that tidal oscillations reduce the two-way exchange by interaction
with the subinertial variability. The effects of tide on the
Mediterranean Sea thermohaline circulation are also examined using
multi-decadal simulations. It is shown that the model reproduces the
cooling and saltening of waters crossing the strait in the upper layer
and the warming and freshening of waters crossing the strait in the
deeper layer, as previously shown by high resolution models of the
Strait of Gibraltar. These changes are shown to cool and increase the
salinity of the Mediterranean waters especially in the upper and
intermediate layers. The water-cooling is shown to lead to a reduction
of the heat loss at the sea surface. Based on model results, it is
concluded that tide may have an effect on the Mediterranean Sea heat
budget and hence on the atmosphere above. A validation of this
conclusion is however needed, in particular using higher resolution
  doi = {10.3402/tellusa.v66.23871},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pessacg}, N.~L. and {Solman}, S.~A. and {Samuelsson}, P. and 
	{Sanchez}, E. and {Marengo}, J. and {Li}, L. and {Remedio}, A.~R.~C. and 
	{da Rocha}, R.~P. and {Mour{\~a}o}, C. and {Jacob}, D.},
  title = {{The surface radiation budget over South America in a set of regional climate models from the CLARIS-LPB project}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Regional climate models, Surface radiation budget, Heat fluxes, South America, Uncertainties},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 43,
  pages = {1221-1239},
  abstract = {{The performance of seven regional climate models in simulating the
radiation and heat fluxes at the surface over South America (SA) is
evaluated. Sources of uncertainty and errors are identified. All
simulations have been performed in the context of the CLARIS-LPB Project
for the period 1990-2008 and are compared with the GEWEX-SRB, CRU, and
GLDAS2 dataset and NCEP-NOAA reanalysis. Results showed that most of the
models overestimate the net surface short-wave radiation over tropical
SA and La Plata Basin and underestimate it over oceanic regions. Errors
in the short-wave radiation are mainly associated with uncertainties in
the representation of surface albedo and cloud fraction. For the net
surface long-wave radiation, model biases are diverse. However, the
ensemble mean showed a good agreement with the GEWEX-SRB dataset due to
the compensation of individual model biases. Errors in the net surface
long-wave radiation can be explained, in a large proportion, by errors
in cloud fraction. For some particular models, errors in temperature
also contribute to errors in the net long-wave radiation. Analysis of
the annual cycle of each component of the energy budget indicates that
the RCMs reproduce generally well the main characteristics of the short-
and long-wave radiations in terms of timing and amplitude. However, a
large spread among models over tropical SA is apparent. The annual cycle
of the sensible heat flux showed a strong overestimation in comparison
with the reanalysis and GLDAS2 dataset. For the latent heat flux, strong
differences between the reanalysis and GLDAS2 are calculated
particularly over tropical SA.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-013-1916-4},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Liu}, Z. and {Yoshimura}, K. and {Bowen}, G.~J. and {Buenning}, N.~H. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Welker}, J.~M. and {Yuan}, F.},
  title = {{Paired oxygen isotope records reveal modern North American atmospheric dynamics during the Holocene}},
  journal = {Nature Communications},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 5,
  eid = {3701},
  pages = {3701},
  abstract = {{The Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection has a strong influence
on North American climate. Instrumental records and century-scale
reconstructions indicate an accelerating tendency towards the positive
PNA state since the mid-1850s, but much less is known about long-term
PNA variability. Here we reconstruct PNA-like climate variability during
the mid- and late Holocene using paired oxygen isotope records from two
regions in North America with robust, anticorrelated isotopic response
to the modern PNA. We identify mean states of more negative and positive
PNA-like climate during the mid- and late Holocene, respectively.
Superimposed on the secular change between states is a robust,
quasi-200-year oscillation, which we associate with the de Vries solar
cycle. These findings suggest the persistence of PNA-like climate
variability throughout the mid- and late Holocene, provide evidence for
modulation of PNA over multiple timescales and may help researchers
de-convolve PNA pattern variation from other factors reflected in
  doi = {10.1038/ncomms4701},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Y. and {Thompson}, D.~W.~J. and {Stephens}, G.~L. and 
	{Bony}, S.},
  title = {{A global survey of the instantaneous linkages between cloud vertical structure and large-scale climate}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {cloud vertical structure, large-scale climate, CloudSat/CALIPSO, SST regimes, Arctic, storm track activity},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {3770-3792},
  abstract = {{The instantaneous linkages between cloud vertical structure and various
large-scale meteorological parameters are investigated using 5 years of
data from the CloudSat/CALIPSO instruments. The linkages are
systemically explored and quantified at all vertical levels and
throughout the global ocean in both the long-term mean and on
month-to-month timescales. A number of novel large-scale meteorological
parameters are used in the analysis, including tropopause temperatures,
upper tropospheric stability, and storm track activity. The results
provide a baseline for evaluating physical parameterizations of clouds
in GCMs and a reference for interpreting the signatures of large-scale
atmospheric phenomena in cloud vertical structure. In the long-term
mean, upper tropospheric cloud incidence throughout the globe increases
with (1) decreasing tropopause temperature (at a rate of {\tilde}2-4\%
K$^{-1}$), (2) decreasing upper tropospheric stability
({\tilde}5-10\% per K km$^{-1}$), and (3) increasing large-scale
vertical motion ({\tilde}1-4\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$). In contrast,
lower tropospheric cloud incidence increases with (1) increasing lower
tropospheric stability (10\% per K km$^{-1}$) and descending motion
(1\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$) in regions of subtropical regime but (2)
decreasing lower tropospheric stability (4\% per K km$^{-1}$) and
ascending motion (2\% per 10 hPa d$^{-1}$) over the Arctic region.
Variations in static stability and vertical motion account for
{\tilde}20-35\% of the month-to-month variance in upper tropospheric
cloudiness but less than 10\% of the variance in lower tropospheric
clouds. Upper tropospheric cloud incidence in the storm track regions is
strongly linked to the variance of large-scale vertical motion and thus
the amplitude of baroclinic waves.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020669},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ménégoz}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Cozic}, A. and {Lim}, S. and {Ginot}, P. and 
	{Laj}, P. and {Gallée}, H. and {Wagnon}, P. and {Marinoni}, A. and 
	{Jacobi}, H.~W.},
  title = {{Snow cover sensitivity to black carbon deposition in the Himalayas: from atmospheric and ice core measurements to regional climate simulations}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {4237-4249},
  abstract = {{We applied a climate-chemistry global model to evaluate the impact of
black carbon (BC) deposition on the Himalayan snow cover from 1998 to
2008. Using a stretched grid with a resolution of 50 km over this
complex topography, the model reproduces reasonably well the remotely
sensed observations of the snow cover duration. Similar to observations,
modelled atmospheric BC concentrations in the central Himalayas reach a
minimum during the monsoon and a maximum during the post- and
pre-monsoon periods. Comparing the simulated BC concentrations in the
snow with observations is more challenging because of their high spatial
variability and complex vertical distribution. We simulated spring BC
concentrations in surface snow varying from tens to hundreds of {$\mu$}g
kg$^{-1}$, higher by one to two orders of magnitude than those
observed in ice cores extracted from central Himalayan glaciers at high
elevations ({\gt}6000 m a.s.l.), but typical for seasonal snow cover
sampled in middle elevation regions ({\lt}6000 m a.s.l.). In these areas,
we estimate that both wet and dry BC depositions affect the Himalayan
snow cover reducing its annual duration by 1 to 8 days. In our
simulations, the effect of anthropogenic BC deposition on snow is quite
low over the Tibetan Plateau because this area is only sparsely snow
covered. However, the impact becomes larger along the entire Hindu-Kush,
Karakorum and Himalayan mountain ranges. In these regions, BC in snow
induces an increase of the net short-wave radiation at the surface with
an annual mean of 1 to 3 W m$^{-2}$ leading to a localised warming
between 0.05 and 0.3 {\deg}C.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-14-4237-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ma}, H.-Y. and {Xie}, S. and {Klein}, S.~A. and {Williams}, K.~D. and 
	{Boyle}, J.~S. and {Bony}, S. and {Douville}, H. and {Fermepin}, S. and 
	{Medeiros}, B. and {Tyteca}, S. and {Watanabe}, M. and {Williamson}, D.
  title = {{On the Correspondence between Mean Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in CMIP5 Models}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = feb,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {1781-1798},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00474.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Benetti}, M. and {Reverdin}, G. and {Pierre}, C. and {Merlivat}, L. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Vimeux}, F.},
  title = {{Deuterium excess in marine water vapor: Dependency on relative humidity and surface wind speed during evaporation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Deuterium excess, evaporation, wind speed, surface roughness},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {584-593},
  abstract = {{We provide the first continuous measurements of isotopic composition
({$\delta$}D and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O) of water vapor over the subtropical
Eastern North Atlantic Ocean from mid-August to mid-September 2012. The
ship was located mostly around 26{\deg}N, 35{\deg}W where evaporation
exceeded by far precipitation and water vapor at 20 m largely originated
from surface evaporation. The only large deviations from that occurred
during a 2 day period in the vicinity of a weak low-pressure system. The
continuous measurements were used to investigate deuterium excess
(d-excess) relation to evaporation. During 25 days d-excess was
negatively correlated with relative humidity (r$^{2}$ = 0.89).
Moreover, d-excess estimated in an evaporative model with a closure
assumption reproduced most of the observed variability. From these
observations, the d-excess parameter seems to be a good indicator of
evaporative conditions. We also conclude that in this region, d-excess
into the marine boundary layer is less affected by mixing with the free
troposphere than the isotopic composition. From our data, the transition
from smooth to rough regime at the ocean surface is associated with a
d-excess decrease of 5{\permil}, which suggests the importance of the
ocean surface roughness in controlling d-excess in this region.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020535},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Moore}, J.~C. and {Rinke}, A. and {Yu}, X. and {Ji}, D. and 
	{Cui}, X. and {Li}, Y. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and 
	{Muri}, H. and {Boucher}, O. and {Huneeus}, N. and {Kravitz}, B. and 
	{Robock}, A. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Schulz}, M. and {Tilmes}, S. and 
	{Watanabe}, S. and {Yang}, S.},
  title = {{Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation under the GeoMIP G1 scenario}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengeneering, Arctic sea ice, Arctic atmosphere},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {567-583},
  abstract = {{We analyze simulated sea ice changes in eight different Earth System
Models that have conducted experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model
Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The simulated response of balancing
abrupt quadrupling of CO$_{2}$ (abrupt4xCO2) with reduced
shortwave radiation successfully moderates annually averaged Arctic
temperature rise to about 1{\deg}C, with modest changes in seasonal sea
ice cycle compared with the preindustrial control simulations
(piControl). Changes in summer and autumn sea ice extent are spatially
correlated with temperature patterns but much less in winter and spring
seasons. However, there are changes of {\plusmn}20\% in sea ice
concentration in all seasons, and these will induce changes in
atmospheric circulation patterns. In summer and autumn, the models
consistently simulate less sea ice relative to preindustrial simulations
in the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas, and some
models show increased sea ice in the Barents/Kara Seas region. Sea ice
extent increases in the Greenland Sea, particularly in winter and spring
and is to some extent associated with changed sea ice drift. Decreased
sea ice cover in winter and spring in the Barents Sea is associated with
increased cyclonic activity entering this area under G1. In comparison,
the abrupt4xCO2 experiment shows almost total sea ice loss in September
and strong correlation with regional temperatures in all seasons
consistent with open ocean conditions. The tropospheric circulation
displays a Pacific North America pattern-like anomaly with negative
phase in G1-piControl and positive phase under abrupt4xCO2-piControl.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD021060},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bodas-Salcedo}, A. and {Williams}, K.~D. and {Ringer}, M.~A. and 
	{Beau}, I. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Koshiro}, T. and 
	{Stevens}, B. and {Wang}, Z. and {Yokohata}, T.},
  title = {{Origins of the Solar Radiation Biases over the Southern Ocean in CFMIP2 Models*}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {41-56},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00169.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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