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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Hourdin"  ' -c year=2005 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Hourdin2005.txt -ob lmd_Hourdin2005.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Haeffelin}, M. and {Barthès}, L. and {Bock}, O. and {Boitel}, C. and 
	{Bony}, S. and {Bouniol}, D. and {Chepfer}, H. and {Chiriaco}, M. and 
	{Cuesta}, J. and {Delanoë}, J. and {Drobinski}, P. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Flamant}, C. and {Grall}, M. and {Hodzic}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Lapouge}, F. and {Lema{\^i}tre}, Y. and {Mathieu}, A. and {Morille}, Y. and 
	{Naud}, C. and {Noël}, V. and {O'Hirok}, W. and {Pelon}, J. and 
	{Pietras}, C. and {Protat}, A. and {Romand}, B. and {Scialom}, G. and 
	{Vautard}, R.},
  title = {{SIRTA, a ground-based atmospheric observatory for cloud and aerosol research}},
  journal = {Annales Geophysicae},
  year = 2005,
  month = feb,
  volume = 23,
  pages = {253-275},
  abstract = {{Ground-based remote sensing observatories have a crucial role to play in
providing data to improve our understanding of atmospheric processes, to
test the performance of atmospheric models, and to develop new methods
for future space-borne observations. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, a
French research institute in environmental sciences, created the Site
Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection
Atmosphérique (SIRTA), an atmospheric observatory with these
goals in mind. Today SIRTA, located 20km south of Paris, operates a
suite a state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instruments
dedicated to routine monitoring of cloud and aerosol properties, and key
atmospheric parameters. Detailed description of the state of the
atmospheric column is progressively archived and made accessible to the
scientific community. This paper describes the SIRTA infrastructure and
database, and provides an overview of the scientific research associated
with the observatory. Researchers using SIRTA data conduct research on
atmospheric processes involving complex interactions between clouds,
aerosols and radiative and dynamic processes in the atmospheric column.
Atmospheric modellers working with SIRTA observations develop new
methods to test their models and innovative analyses to improve
parametric representations of sub-grid processes that must be accounted
for in the model. SIRTA provides the means to develop data
interpretation tools for future active remote sensing missions in space
(e.g. CloudSat and CALIPSO). SIRTA observation and research activities
take place in networks of atmospheric observatories that allow
scientists to access consistent data sets from diverse regions on the
  doi = {10.5194/angeo-23-253-2005},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and {Hourdin}, F.
  title = {{Net Exchange Reformulation of Radiative Transfer in the CO$_{2}$ 15-{$\mu$}m Band on Mars.}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2005,
  month = sep,
  volume = 62,
  pages = {3303-3319},
  abstract = {{The net exchange formulation (NEF) is an alternative to the usual
radiative transfer formulation. It was proposed by two authors in 1967,
but until now, this formulation has been used only in a very few cases
for atmospheric studies. The aim of this paper is to present the NEF and
its main advantages and to illustrate them in the case of planet Mars.In
the NEF, the radiative fluxes are no longer considered. The basic
variables are the net exchange rates between each pair of atmospheric
layers i, j. NEF offers a meaningful matrix representation of radiative
exchanges, allows qualification of the dominant contributions to the
local heating rates, and provides a general framework to develop
approximations satisfying reciprocity of radiative transfer as well as
the first and second principles of thermodynamics. This may be very
useful to develop fast radiative codes for GCMs.A radiative code
developed along those lines is presented for a GCM of Mars. It is shown
that computing the most important optical exchange factors at each time
step and the other exchange factors only a few times a day strongly
reduces the computation time without any significant precision lost.
With this solution, the computation time increases proportionally to the
number N of the vertical layers and no longer proportionally to its
square N$^{2}$. Some specific points, such as numerical
instabilities that may appear in the high atmosphere and errors that may
be introduced if inappropriate treatments are performed when reflection
at the surface occurs, are also investigated.
  doi = {10.1175/JAS3537.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lott}, F. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Levan}, P.
  title = {{The stratospheric version of LMDz: dynamical climatologies, arctic oscillation, and impact on the surface climate}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2005,
  month = dec,
  volume = 25,
  pages = {851-868},
  abstract = {{A climatology of the stratosphere is determined from a 20-year
integration with the stratospheric version of the Atmospheric General
Circulation Model LMDz. The model has an upper boundary at near 65 km,
uses a Doppler spread non-orographic gravity waves drag parameterization
and a subgrid-scale orography parameterization. It also has a Rayleigh
damping layer for resolved waves only (not the zonal mean flow) over the
top 5 km. This paper describes the basic features of the model and some
aspects of its radiative-dynamical climatology. Standard first order
diagnostics are presented but some emphasis is given to the
model{\rsquo}s ability to reproduce the low frequency variability of the
stratosphere in the winter northern hemisphere. In this model, the
stratospheric variability is dominated at each altitudes by patterns
which have some similarities with the arctic oscillation (AO). For those
patterns, the signal sometimes descends from the stratosphere to the
troposphere. In an experiment where the parameterized orographic gravity
waves that reach the stratosphere are exaggerated, the model
stratosphere in the NH presents much less variability. Although the
stratospheric variability is still dominated by patterns that resemble
to the AO, the downward influence of the stratosphere along these
patterns is near entirely lost. In the same time, the persistence of the
surface AO decreases, which is consistent with the picture that this
persistence is linked to the descent of the AO signal from the
stratosphere to the troposphere. A comparison between the stratospheric
version of the model, and its routinely used tropospheric version is
also done. It shows that the introduction of the stratosphere in a model
that already has a realistic AO persistence can lead to overestimate the
actual influence of the stratospheric dynamics onto the surface AO.
Although this result is certainly model dependent, it suggests that the
introduction of the stratosphere in a GCM also call for a new adjustment
of the model parameters that affect the tropospheric variability.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-005-0064-x},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Peylin}, P. and {Rayner}, P.~J. and {Bousquet}, P. and {Carouge}, C. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Heinrich}, P. and {Ciais}, P. and {Contributors}, A.
  title = {{Daily CO$_{2}$ flux estimates over Europe from continuous atmospheric measurements: 1, inverse methodology}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2005,
  month = nov,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {3173-3186},
  abstract = {{This paper presents an inverse method for inferring trace gas fluxes at
high temporal (daily) and spatial (model grid) resolution from
continuous atmospheric concentration measurements. The method is
designed for regional applications and for use in intensive campaigns.
We apply the method to a one month inversion of fluxes over Europe. We
show that the information added by the measurements depends critically
on the smoothness constraint assumed among the source components. We
show that the initial condition affects the inversion for 20 days,
provided one has enough observing sites to constrain regional fluxes. We
show that the impact of the far-field fluxes grows throughout the
inversion and hence a reasonable global flux field is a prerequisite for
a regional inversion.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Cosme}, E. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Genthon}, C. and {Martinerie}, P.
  title = {{Origin of dimethylsulfide, non-sea-salt sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid in eastern Antarctica}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: constituent transport and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Air/sea constituent fluxes (3339, 4504), Atmospheric Processes: Global climate models (1626, 4928), Mathematical Geophysics: Inverse theory, Geographic Location: Antarctica (4207), Antarctica, sulfur cycle, adjoint methods, backtracking},
  year = 2005,
  month = feb,
  volume = 110,
  eid = {D03302},
  pages = {3302},
  abstract = {{Ignoring the origin of atmospheric chemicals is often a strong
limitation to the full interpretation of their measurement. In this
article, this question is addressed in the case of the sulfur species in
Antarctica, with an original method of retrotransport of tracers. The
retrotransport model is derived from the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique Zoom-Tracers (LMD-ZT) atmospheric
general circulation model, optimized for polar climate and expanded to
simulate atmospheric sulfur chemistry. For two East Antarctic scientific
stations (Dumont d'Urville and Vostok) the effects of transport and
chemistry and the influence of oceanic, volcanic, and anthropogenic
sources on dimethylsulfide (DMS), non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate, and
methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentrations are evaluated in summer and
winter. The oceanic source largely dominates, but other sources can
episodically be significant. The meridional origin and the age of DMS,
MSA, and biogenic nss sulfate are also estimated. The latitudes of
origin of MSA and nss sulfate are similar in summer, but they differ
markedly in winter. This is a signature of their different chemical
production scheme. Also, the interannual variability of the origin of
the sulfur species at Vostok is weak compared to that at Dumont
d'Urville. Acknowledging that the DMS concentrations in the ocean have
no interannual variability in the model, this result suggests
unsurprisingly that inland Antarctic stations may be better observation
sites to monitor large-scale DMS bioproductivity variability than
coastal sites are. The combination of slower chemistry and more intense
atmospheric circulation in winter leads to unexpected results, such as a
younger DMS in winter than in summer at Vostok.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD004881},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rannou}, P. and {Lebonnois}, S. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Luz}, D.
  title = {{Titan atmosphere database}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 36,
  pages = {2194-2198},
  abstract = {{We have developed in the last decade a two-dimensional version of the
Titan global circulation model LMDZ. This model accounts for multiple
coupling occuring on Titan between dynamics, haze, chemistry and
radiative transfer. It was successful at explaining many observed
features related to atmosphere state (wind, temperature), haze structure
and chemical species distributions, recently, an important step in our
knowledge about Titan has been done with Cassini and Huygens visits to
Titan. In this context, we want to make the results of our model
available for the scientific community which is involved in the study of
Titan. Such a tool should be useful to give a global frame (spatial and
time behaviour of physical quantities) for interpreting ground based
telescope observations.
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2005.09.041},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Korablev}, O. and {Fonteyn}, D. and {Guibert}, S. and 
	{Chassefière}, E. and {Lefèvre}, F. and {Dimarellis}, E. and 
	{Dubois}, J.~P. and {Hauchecorne}, A. and {Cabane}, M. and {Rannou}, P. and 
	{Levasseur-Regourd}, A.~C. and {Cernogora}, G. and {Quémerais}, E. and 
	{Hermans}, C. and {Kockarts}, G. and {Lippens}, C. and {de Maziere}, M. and 
	{Moreau}, D. and {Muller}, C. and {Neefs}, E. and {Simon}, P.~C. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Moroz}, V.~I. and 
	{Rodin}, A. and {Sandel}, B. and {Stern}, A.},
  title = {{Global structure and composition of the martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars express}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 35,
  pages = {31-36},
  abstract = {{SPectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the
Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) Light, a light-weight (4.7 kg) UV-IR
instrument to be flown on Mars Express orbiter, is dedicated to the
study of the atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. A UV spectrometer
(118-320 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) is dedicated to nadir viewing, limb
viewing and vertical profiling by stellar and solar occultation (3.8
kg). It addresses key issues about ozone, its coupling with
H$_{2}$O, aerosols, atmospheric vertical temperature structure and
ionospheric studies. UV observations of the upper atmosphere will allow
studies of the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO$^{+}$,
and CO2+, and its direct interaction with the solar wind. An IR
spectrometer (1.0-1.7 {$\mu$}m, resolution 0.5-1.2 nm) is dedicated
primarily to nadir measurements of H$_{2}$O abundances
simultaneously with ozone measured in the UV, and to vertical profiling
during solar occultation of H$_{2}$O, CO$_{2}$, and
aerosols. The SPICAM Light near-IR sensor employs a pioneering
technology acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF), leading to a compact
and light design. Overall, SPICAM Light is an ideal candidate for future
orbiter studies of Mars, after Mars Express, in order to study the
interannual variability of martian atmospheric processes. The potential
contribution to a Mars International Reference Atmosphere is clear.
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2003.09.055},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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