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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=2000 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li2000.txt -ob lmd_Li2000.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Cruette}, D. and {Marillier}, A. and {Dufresne}, J.~L. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.~Y. and {Nacass}, P. and {Bellec}, H.},
  title = {{Fast Temperature and True Airspeed Measurements with the Airborne Ultrasonic Anemometer Thermometer (AUSAT)}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology},
  year = 2000,
  volume = 17,
  pages = {1020},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0426(2000)017<1020:FTATAM>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X.},
  title = {{Influence of tropical Pacific El Ni{\~n}o on the SST of the Southern Ocean Through Atmospheric Bridge}},
  journal = {\grl},
  year = 2000,
  month = nov,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {3505-3508},
  abstract = {{El Ni{\~n}o is a major interannual climate signal resulting from
complex ocean-atmosphere interactions in the Tropical Pacific. Its
impact on the SST (Sea Surface Temperature) of the Southern Ocean
through an atmospheric bridge are investigated with an atmospheric
general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed-layer ocean. Simulated
results suggest that SST changes in the mid- and high-latitude oceans
and the Tropical Indian Ocean can be explained by modifications of
heat-flux exchange at the air-sea interface. For the Tropical Atlantic,
however, the discrepancy is large, indicating that the oceans dynamics
are not negligible.
  doi = {10.1029/1999GL011182},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Fonteyn}, D. and {Korablev}, O. and {Chassefière}, E. and 
	{Dimarellis}, E. and {Dubois}, J.~P. and {Hauchecorne}, A. and 
	{Cabane}, M. and {Rannou}, P. and {Levasseur-Regourd}, A.~C. and 
	{Cernogora}, G. and {Quemerais}, E. and {Hermans}, C. and {Kockarts}, G. and 
	{Lippens}, C. and {Maziere}, M.~D. and {Moreau}, D. and {Muller}, C. and 
	{Neefs}, B. and {Simon}, P.~C. and {Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Talagrand}, O. and {Moroz}, V.~I. and {Rodin}, A. and {Sandel}, B. and 
	{Stern}, A.},
  title = {{The study of the martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on mars express}},
  journal = {\planss},
  year = 2000,
  month = oct,
  volume = 48,
  pages = {1303-1320},
  abstract = {{SPICAM Light is a small UV-IR instrument selected for Mars Express to
recover most of the science that was lost with the demise of Mars 96,
where the SPICAM set of sensors was dedicated to the study of the
atmosphere of Mars (Spectroscopy for the investigation of the
characteristics of the atmosphere of mars). The new configuration of
SPICAM Light includes optical sensors and an electronics block. A UV
spectrometer (118-320 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) is dedicated to Nadir
viewing, limb viewing and vertical profiling by stellar occultation (3.8
kg). It addresses key issues about ozone, its coupling with H
$_{2}$O, aerosols, atmospheric vertical temperature structure and
ionospheric studies. An IR spectrometer (1.2- 4.8 {$\mu$}m, resolution
0.4-1 nm) is dedicated to vertical profiling during solar occultation of
H $_{2}$O, CO $_{2}$, CO, aerosols and exploration of carbon
compounds (3.5 kg). A nadir looking sensor for H $_{2}$O
abundances (1.0- 1.7 {$\mu$}m, resolution 0.8 nm) is recently included in
the package (0.8 kg). A simple data processing unit (DPU, 0.9 kg)
provides the interface of these sensors with the spacecraft. In nadir
orientation, SPICAM UV is essentially an ozone detector, measuring the
strongest O $_{3}$ absorption band at 250 nm in the spectrum of
the solar light scattered back from the ground. In the stellar
occultation mode the UV Sensor will measure the vertical profiles of CO
$_{2}$, temperature, O $_{3}$, clouds and aerosols. The
density/temperature profiles obtained with SPICAM Light will constrain
and aid in the development of the meteorological and dynamical
atmospheric models, from the surface to 160 km in the atmosphere. This
is essential for future missions that will rely on aerocapture and
aerobraking. UV observations of the upper atmosphere will allow study of
the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO $^{+}$, and CO
$_{2}$$^{+}$, and its direct interaction with the solar
wind. Also, it will allow a better understanding of escape mechanisms
and estimates of their magnitude, crucial for insight into the long-term
evolution of the atmosphere. The SPICAM Light IR sensor is inherited
from the IR solar part of the SPICAM solar occultation instrument of
Mars 96. Its main scientific objective is the global mapping of the
vertical structure of H $_{2}$O, CO $_{2}$, CO, HDO,
aerosols, atmospheric density, and temperature by the solar occultation.
The wide spectral range of the IR spectrometer and its high spectral
resolution allow an exploratory investigation addressing fundamental
question of the possible presence of carbon compounds in the Martian
atmosphere. Because of severe mass constraints this channel is still
optional. An additional nadir near IR channel that employs a pioneering
technology acousto-optical tuneable filter (AOTF) is dedicated to the
measurement of water vapour column abundance in the IR simultaneously
with ozone measured in the UV. It will be done at much lower telemetry
budget compared to the other instrument of the mission, planetary
fourier spectrometer (PFS).
  doi = {10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00111-2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chevallier}, F. and {Chéruy}, F. and {Armante}, R. and 
	{Stubenrauch}, C.~J. and {Scott}, N.~A.},
  title = {{Retrieving the Clear-Sky Vertical Longwave Radiative Budget from TOVS: Comparison of a Neural Network-Based Retrieval and a Method UsingGeophysical Parameters.}},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Meteorology},
  year = 2000,
  month = sep,
  volume = 39,
  pages = {1527-1543},
  abstract = {{At a time when a new generation of satellite vertical sounders is going
to be launched (including the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder
Interferometer and Advanced Infrared Radiometric Sounder instruments),
this paper assesses the possibilities of retrieving the vertical
profiles of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates from the
Television and Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational
Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiometers aboard the polar-orbiting National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites since 1979. It focuses
on two different methodologies that have been developed at Laboratoire
de Météorologie Dynamique (France). The first one uses a
neural network approach for the parameterization of the links between
the TOVS radiances and the longwave fluxes. The second one combines the
geophysical variables retrieved by the Improved Initialization Inversion
method and a forward radiative transfer model used in atmospheric
general circulation models. The accuracy of these two methods is
evaluated using both theoretical studies and comparisons with global
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1527:RTCSVL>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chéruy}, F. and {Chevallier}, F.},
  title = {{Regional and Seasonal Variations of the Clear Sky Atmospheric Longwave Cooling over Tropical Oceans.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2000,
  month = aug,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {2863-2875},
  abstract = {{The vertical distribution of the clear sky longwave cooling of the
atmosphere over tropical oceans is inferred from three different
datasets. Two of the datasets refer to the TIROS-N Operational Vertical
Sounder (TOVS) NOAA/NASA Pathfinder project, PathA and PathB, and the
last one refers to the ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-15). Differences are
identified originating from the temperature and water vapor fields. They
affect the geographical distribution of the longwave fields to various
degrees. However, the three datasets lead to similar conclusions
concerning the sensitivity of the clear sky total longwave cooling to
SST variations. For the highest values of the SST (greater than
27{\deg}C), positively correlated to the increased efficiency of the
longwave trapping (super-greenhouse effect), the atmosphere shows a
lesser efficiency to cool radiatively. The atmosphere does reradiate the
longwave radiation toward the surface as efficiently as it traps it.
This is verified on regional as well as on seasonal scales. Such
longwave cooling behavior is due to an increased mid- and
upper-tropospheric humidity resulting from convective transports. The
three datasets agree with the vertical distribution of the radiative
cooling variations from normal to favorable to super-greenhouse effect
conditions, except in the boundary layer, where the coarse resolution of
the TOVS-retrieved data makes them not reliable in it. In `normal'
conditions the cooling uniformly increases over the vertical with the
SST. Over 27{\deg}C, the cooling is intensified above 400 hPa and reduced
between 900 and 400 hPa.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2863:RASVOT>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Collins}, W.~D. and {Fillmore}, D.~W.},
  title = {{Indian Ocean Low Clouds during the Winter Monsoon.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2000,
  month = jun,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {2028-2043},
  abstract = {{While low-level clouds over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans have been
investigated extensively, low clouds over the Indian Ocean are not as
well characterized. This study examines the occurrence of nonoverlapped
low clouds over the Indian Ocean during the northeast monsoon using
several sources of data. Climatologies derived from surface observations
and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project are
reviewed. Another cloud climatology is developed using infrared and
visible imagery from the Indian geostationary satellite. The new
climatology has better spatial and temporal resolution than in situ
observations. The three datasets are generally consistent and show
several persistent features in the cloud distribution. During
January-April, maxima in the occurrence of low clouds occur at
subtropical latitudes over the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the China
Sea, and the southern Indian Ocean. The predominant types of low clouds
differ in the northern and southern areas of the Indian Ocean region and
China Sea. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are covered mostly by
cumulus clouds, while the southern Indian Ocean and the China Sea are
covered mostly by large-scale stratiform clouds such as stratocumulus.
These observations are consistent with atmospheric analyses of
temperature, humidity, and stability over the Indian Ocean.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2028:IOLCDT>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chevallier}, F. and {Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Chédin}, A. and 
	{Cheruy}, F.},
  title = {{TIGR-like atmospheric-profile databases for accurate radiative-flux computation}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2000,
  month = jan,
  volume = 126,
  pages = {777-785},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.49712656319},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chevallier}, F. and {Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Chéruy}, F. and 
	{Scott}, N.~A.},
  title = {{Use of a neural-network-based long-wave radiative-transfer scheme in the ECMWF atmospheric model}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2000,
  month = jan,
  volume = 126,
  pages = {761-776},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.49712656318},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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