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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Bonazzola"  ' -c year=2005 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Bonazzola2005.txt -ob lmd_Bonazzola2005.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Fueglistaler}, S. and {Bonazzola}, M. and {Haynes}, P.~H. and 
	{Peter}, T.},
  title = {{Stratospheric water vapor predicted from the Lagrangian temperature history of air entering the stratosphere in the tropics}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Stratosphere/troposphere interactions, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Middle atmosphere: constituent transport and chemistry (3334), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), tropics, stratosphere, water},
  year = 2005,
  month = apr,
  volume = 110,
  eid = {D08107},
  pages = {8107},
  abstract = {{We present results of Lagrangian troposphere-to-stratosphere transport
(TST) in the tropics based on trajectory calculations for the period
1979-2001. The trajectories and corresponding temperature histories are
calculated from wind and temperature fields provided by the reanalysis
data ERA-40 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
(ECMWF). The water vapor mixing ratio of air entering the tropical
stratosphere is calculated from the minimum saturation mixing ratio over
ice encountered by each trajectory. We show that this Lagrangian
approach, which considers the global-scale to synoptic-scale dynamics of
tropical TST but neglects mesoscale dynamics and details of cloud
microphysics, substantially improves estimates of stratospheric humidity
compared to calculations based on Eulerian mean tropical tropopause
temperatures. For the period 1979-2001 we estimate from the Lagrangian
calculation that the mean water mixing ratio of air entering the
stratosphere is 3.5 ppmv, which is in good agreement with measurements
during the same period, ranging from 3.3 ppmv to 4 ppmv, whereas an
estimate based on an Eulerian mean calculation is about 6 ppmv. The
amplitude of the annual cycle in water vapor mixing ratio at a potential
temperature of 400 K in the tropics estimated from the Lagrangian
calculation is compared with measurements of water vapor from the
Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). For the period 1992-2001, when
HALOE measurements and ERA-40 data overlap, we calculate a peak-to-peak
amplitude of {\tilde}1.7 ppmv, in good agreement with {\tilde}1.6 ppmv
seen in HALOE data. On average, the Lagrangian calculations have a moist
bias of {\tilde}0.2 ppmv, equivalent to a warm bias of the Lagrangian
cold point of about 0.5 K. We conclude that the Lagrangian calculation
based on synoptic-scale velocity and temperature fields yields estimates
for stratospheric water vapor in good agreement with observations and
that mesoscale and cloud microphysical processes need not be invoked, at
first order, to explain annual mean and seasonal variation of water
vapor mixing ratios in the tropical lower stratosphere.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD005516},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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