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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Hourdin"  ' -c year=2006 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Hourdin2006.txt -ob lmd_Hourdin2006.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Musat}, I. and {Bony}, S. and {Braconnot}, P. and 
	{Codron}, F. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Filiberti}, M.-A. and 
	{Friedlingstein}, P. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Krinner}, G. and 
	{Levan}, P. and {Li}, Z.-X. and {Lott}, F.},
  title = {{The LMDZ4 general circulation model: climate performance and sensitivity to parametrized physics with emphasis on tropical convection}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2006,
  month = dec,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {787-813},
  abstract = {{The LMDZ4 general circulation model is the atmospheric component of the
IPSL CM4 coupled model which has been used to perform climate change
simulations for the 4th IPCC assessment report. The main aspects of the
model climatology (forced by observed sea surface temperature) are
documented here, as well as the major improvements with respect to the
previous versions, which mainly come form the parametrization of
tropical convection. A methodology is proposed to help analyse the
sensitivity of the tropical Hadley Walker circulation to the
parametrization of cumulus convection and clouds. The tropical
circulation is characterized using scalar potentials associated with the
horizontal wind and horizontal transport of geopotential (the Laplacian
of which is proportional to the total vertical momentum in the
atmospheric column). The effect of parametrized physics is analysed in a
regime sorted framework using the vertical velocity at 500 hPa as a
proxy for large scale vertical motion. Compared to Tiedtke{\rsquo}s
convection scheme, used in previous versions, the Emanuel{\rsquo}s scheme
improves the representation of the Hadley Walker circulation, with a
relatively stronger and deeper large scale vertical ascent over tropical
continents, and suppresses the marked patterns of concentrated rainfall
over oceans. Thanks to the regime sorted analyses, these differences are
attributed to intrinsic differences in the vertical distribution of
convective heating, and to the lack of self-inhibition by precipitating
downdraughts in Tiedtke{\rsquo}s parametrization. Both the convection and
cloud schemes are shown to control the relative importance of large
scale convection over land and ocean, an important point for the
behaviour of the coupled model.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-006-0158-0},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rannou}, P. and {Montmessin}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Lebonnois}, S.
  title = {{The Latitudinal Distribution of Clouds on Titan}},
  journal = {Science},
  year = 2006,
  month = jan,
  volume = 311,
  pages = {201-205},
  abstract = {{Clouds have been observed recently on Titan, through the thick haze,
using near-infrared spectroscopy and images near the south pole and in
temperate regions near 40{\deg}S. Recent telescope and Cassini orbiter
observations are now providing an insight into cloud climatology. To
study clouds, we have developed a general circulation model of Titan
that includes cloud microphysics. We identify and explain the formation
of several types of ethane and methane clouds, including south polar
clouds and sporadic clouds in temperate regions and especially at
40{\deg} in the summer hemisphere. The locations, frequencies, and
composition of these cloud types are essentially explained by the
large-scale circulation.
  doi = {10.1126/science.1118424},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Idelkadi}, A.},
  title = {{Eulerian backtracking of atmospheric tracers. II: Numerical aspects}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2006,
  month = jan,
  volume = 132,
  pages = {585-603},
  abstract = {{In Part I of this paper, a mathematical equivalence was established
between Eulerian backtracking or retro-transport, on the one hand, and
adjoint transport with respect to an air-mass-weighted scalar product,
on the other. The time symmetry which lies at the basis of this
mathematical equivalence can however be lost through discretization.
That question is studied, and conditions are explicitly identified under
which discretization schemes possess the property of time symmetry.
Particular consideration is given to the case of the LMDZ model. The
linear schemes used for turbulent diffusion and subgrid-scale convection
are symmetric. For the Van Leer advection scheme used in LMDZ, which is
nonlinear, the question of time symmetry does not even make sense. Those
facts are illustrated by numerical simulations performed in the
conditions of the European Transport EXperiment (ETEX). For a model that
is not time-symmetric, the question arises as to whether it is
preferable, in practical applications, to use the exact numerical
adjoint, or the retro-transport model. Numerical results obtained in the
context of one-dimensional advection show that the presence of slope
limiters in the Van Leer advection scheme can produce in some
circumstances unrealistic (in particular, negative) adjoint
sensitivities. The retro-transport equation, on the other hand,
generally produces robust and realistic results, and always preserves
the positivity of sensitivities. Retro-transport may therefore be
preferable in sensitivity computations, even in the context of
variational assimilation.
  doi = {10.1256/qj.03.198.B},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Talagrand}, O.},
  title = {{Eulerian backtracking of atmospheric tracers. I: Adjoint derivation and parametrization of subgrid-scale transport}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2006,
  month = jan,
  volume = 132,
  pages = {567-583},
  abstract = {{The problem of identification of sources of atmospheric tracers is most
classically addressed through either Lagrangian backtracking or adjoint
integration. On the basis of physical considerations, the
retro-transport equation, which is at the basis of Lagrangian
backtracking, can be derived in a Eulerian framework as well. Because of
a fundamental time symmetry of fluid transport, Lagrangian or Eulerian
backtracking can be used for inverting measurements of the concentration
of an atmospheric tracer. The retro-transport equation turns out to be
the adjoint of the direct transport equation, with respect to the scalar
product defined by integration with respect to air mass. In the present
paper, the exact equivalence between the physically-derived
retro-transport and adjoint equations is proved. The transformation from
the direct to the retro-transport equation requires only simple
transformations. The sign of terms describing explicit advection is
changed. Terms describing linear sources or sinks of tracers are kept
unchanged. Terms representing diffusion by unresolved time-symmetric
motions of the transporting air are also unchanged. This is rigorously
shown for turbulent eddy-diffusion or mixing length theory. The case of
subgrid-scale vertical transport by non-time-symmetric motions of air is
studied using the example of the Tiedtke mass-flux scheme for cumulus
convection. The retro-transport equation is then obtained by simply
inverting the roles of updraughts and downdraughts, as well as of
entrainment and detrainment. Conservation of mass of the transporting
air is critical for all those properties to hold.
  doi = {10.1256/qj.03.198.A},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lin}, J.-L. and {Kiladis}, G.~N. and {Mapes}, B.~E. and {Weickmann}, K.~M. and 
	{Sperber}, K.~R. and {Lin}, W. and {Wheeler}, M.~C. and {Schubert}, S.~D. and 
	{Del Genio}, A. and {Donner}, L.~J. and {Emori}, S. and {Gueremy}, J.-F. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Rasch}, P.~J. and {Roeckner}, E. and {Scinocca}, J.~F.
  title = {{Tropical Intraseasonal Variability in 14 IPCC AR4 Climate Models. Part I: Convective Signals}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2006,
  volume = 19,
  pages = {2665},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI3735.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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