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lmd_all2002.bib

@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.98}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=2002 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_all2002.txt -ob lmd_all2002.bib ./EMC3all.link.bib}}
@article{2002TellA..54..338C,
  author = {{Codron}, F. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{Saturation limiters for water vapour advection schemes: impact on orographic precipitation}},
  journal = {Tellus Series A},
  year = 2002,
  month = aug,
  volume = 54,
  pages = {338},
  doi = {10.1034/j.1600-0870.2002.01265.x},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002TellA..54..338C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRD..107.4690C,
  author = {{Cosme}, E. and {Genthon}, C. and {Martinerie}, P. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Pham}, M.},
  title = {{The sulfur cycle at high-southern latitudes in the LMD-ZT General Circulation Model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Air/sea constituent fluxes (3339, 4504), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere-constituent transport and chemistry, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Information Related to Geographic Region: Antarctica,, Antarctica, sulfur cycle, general circulation model, dimethylsulfide, ocean-atmosphere flux, tropospheric chemistry},
  year = 2002,
  month = dec,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {4690},
  pages = {4690},
  abstract = {{This modeling study was motivated by the recent publication of
year-round records of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
in Antarctica, completing the available series of sulfate and
methanesulfonic acid (MSA). Sulfur chemistry has been incorporated in
the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-Zoom Tracers
(LMD-ZT) Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), with
high-resolution and improved physics at high-southern latitudes. The
model predicts the concentration of six major sulfur species through
emissions, transport, wet and dry deposition, and chemistry in both gas
and aqueous phases. Model results are broadly realistic when compared
with measurements in air and snow or ice, as well as to results of other
modeling studies, at high- and middle-southern latitudes. Atmospheric
MSA concentrations are underestimated and DMSO concentrations are
overestimated in summer, reflecting the lack of a DMSO heterogeneous
sink leading to MSA. Experiments with various recently published
estimates of the rate of this sink are reported. Although not corrected
in this work, other defects are identified and discussed: DMS
concentrations are underestimated in winter, MSA and non-sea-salt (nss)
sulfate concentrations may be underestimated at the South Pole, the
deposition scheme used in the model may not be adapted to polar regions,
and the model does not adequately reproduces interannual variability.
Oceanic DMS sources have a major contribution to the variability of
sulfur in these regions. The model results suggest that in a large part
of central Antarctica ground-level atmospheric DMS concentrations are
larger in winter than in summer. At high-southern latitudes, high loads
of DMS and DMSO are found and the main chemical sink of sulfur dioxide
(SO$_{2}$) is aqueous oxidation by ozone (O$_{3}$), whereas
oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H$_{2}$O$_{2}$) dominates at
the global scale. A comprehensive modeled sulfur budget of Antarctica is
provided.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2002JD002149},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4690C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRD..107.4551F,
  author = {{Formenti}, P. and {Boucher}, O. and {Reiner}, T. and {Sprung}, D. and 
	{Andreae}, M.~O. and {Wendisch}, M. and {Wex}, H. and {Kindred}, D. and 
	{Tzortziou}, M. and {Vasaras}, A. and {Zerefos}, C.},
  title = {{STAAARTE-MED 1998 summer airborne measurements over the Aegean Sea 2. Aerosol scattering and absorption, and radiative calculations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere-composition and chemistry, Information Related to Geographic Region: Europe,},
  year = 2002,
  month = nov,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {4551},
  pages = {4551},
  abstract = {{Chemical, physical, and optical measurements of aerosol particle
properties within an aged biomass-burning plume were performed on board
a research aircraft during a profile descent over a ground-based site in
northeastern Greece (40{\deg}24'N, 23{\deg}57'E 170 m asl) where
continuous measurements of the spectral downwelling solar irradiance
(global, direct, and diffuse) are being made. The aerosol optical depth
measured at the ground during the time of overflight was significantly
enhanced (0.39 at a wavelength of 500 nm) due to a haze layer between 1
and 3.5 km altitude. The dry particle scattering coefficient within the
layer was around 80 Mm$^{-1}$, and the particle absorption
coefficient was around 15 Mm$^{-1}$, giving a single scattering
albedo of 0.89 at 500 nm (dry state). The black carbon fraction is
estimated to account for 6-9\% of the total accumulation mode particle
mass ({\lt}1 {$\mu$}m diameter). The increase of the particle scattering
coefficient with increasing relative humidity at 500 nm is of the order
of 40\% for a change in relative humidity from 30 to 80\%. The dry,
altitude-dependent, particle number size distribution is used as input
parameter for radiative transfer calculations of the spectral
short-wave, downwelling irradiance at the surface. The agreement between
the calculated irradiances and the experimental results from the
ground-based radiometer is within 10\%, both for the direct and the
diffuse components (at 415, 501, and 615 nm). Calculations of the net
radiative forcing at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA)
show that due to particle absorption the effect of aerosols is much
stronger at the surface than at the TOA. Over sea the net short-wave
radiative forcing (daytime average) between 280 nm and 4 {$\mu$}m is up to
-64 W m$^{-2}$ at the surface and up to -22 W m$^{-2}$ at
the TOA.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2001JD001536},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4551F},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRD..107.4451F,
  author = {{Formenti}, P. and {Boucher}, O. and {Reiner}, T. and {Sprung}, D. and 
	{Andreae}, M.~O. and {Wendisch}, M. and {Wex}, H. and {Kindred}, D. and 
	{Tzortziou}, M. and {Vasaras}, A. and {Zerefos}, C.},
  title = {{STAAARTE-MED 1998 summer airborne measurements over the Aegean Sea 2. Aerosol scattering and absorption, and radiative calculations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {aerosols, Aegean Sea, optical properties, vertical profiles, direct radiative forcing},
  year = 2002,
  month = nov,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {4451},
  pages = {4451},
  abstract = {{Chemical, physical, and optical measurements of aerosol particle
properties within an aged biomass-burning plume were performed on board
a research aircraft during a profile descent over a ground-based site in
northeastern Greece (40{\deg}24'N, 23{\deg}57'E; 170 m asl) where
continuous measurements of the spectral downwelling solar irradiance
(global, direct, and diffuse) are being made. The aerosol optical depth
measured at the ground during the time of overflight was significantly
enhanced (0.39 at a wavelength of 500 nm) due to a haze layer between 1
and 3.5 km altitude. The dry particle scattering coefficient within the
layer was around 80 Mm$^{-1}$, and the particle absorption
coefficient was around 15 Mm$^{-1}$, giving a single scattering
albedo of 0.89 at 500 nm (dry state). The black carbon fraction is
estimated to account for 6-9\% of the total accumulation mode particle
mass ({\lt}1 {$\mu$}m diameter). The increase of the particle scattering
coefficient with increasing relative humidity at 500 nm is of the order
of 40\% for a change in relative humidity from 30 to 80\%. The dry,
altitude-dependent, particle number size distribution is used as input
parameter for radiative transfer calculations of the spectral
short-wave, downwelling irradiance at the surface. The agreement between
the calculated irradiances and the experimental results from the
ground-based radiometer is within 10\%, both for the direct and the
diffuse components (at 415, 501, and 615 nm). Calculations of the net
radiative forcing at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA)
show that due to particle absorption the effect of aerosols is much
stronger at the surface than at the TOA. Over sea the net short-wave
radiative forcing (daytime average) between 280 nm and 4 {$\mu$}m is up to
-64 W m$^{-2}$ at the surface and up to -22 W m$^{-2}$ at
the TOA.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2001JD001536},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4451F},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRD..107.8023E,
  author = {{Ethé}, C. and {Basdevant}, C. and {Sadourny}, R. and {Appu}, K.~S. and 
	{Harenduprakash}, L. and {Sarode}, P.~R. and {Viswanathan}, G.
	},
  title = {{Air mass motion, temperature, and humidity over the Arabian Sea and western Indian Ocean during the INDOEX intensive phase, as obtained from a set of superpressure drifting balloons}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Information Related to Geographic Region: Indian Ocean, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution-urban and regional (0305), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pressure, density, and temperature, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Synoptic-scale meteorology,, INDOEX, trajectory models, lagrangian dynamics, temporal regimes, climatology},
  year = 2002,
  month = oct,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {8023},
  pages = {8023},
  abstract = {{During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) Intensive Field Phase, 17
superpressure balloons drifting at lower tropospheric levels were
launched from Goa to sample the motion and meteorological
characteristics of polluted air masses originating from the Indian
subcontinent. The mass flow, as expected, is attracted to the
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which is reached in about 7 days.
Successive trajectories show evidence of shifts in the flow regime,
consistent with Meteosat-5 imagery and illustrative of the Madden-Julian
oscillation. Balloons also show evidence of coastal anticyclonic
circulations off the western coast of India, linked to both the
orography of the Gh{\^a}ts and the diurnal coastal wind mesoscale wind
systems. These mesoscale circulations may be important in the transport
of anthropogenic or mineral pollutants across the coast. The
meteorological data gathered on board the balloons were systematically
compared with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)
analyses interpolated in time and space at the balloons' successive
locations every half-hour. The agreement is generally good in terms of
wind velocities, temperature, and humidity. However, above the marine
boundary layer, balloon data seem to indicate a cold bias of analyzed
temperatures and a northeasterly bias of horizontal winds. The
underestimation of variability in the analyzed winds can be partly
explained by mesh size smoothing in the analysis system.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2001JD001120},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.8023E},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002Natur.419..215K,
  author = {{Kaufman}, Y.~J. and {Tanré}, D. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2002,
  month = sep,
  volume = 419,
  pages = {215-223},
  abstract = {{Anthropogenic aerosols are intricately linked to the climate system and
to the hydrologic cycle. The net effect of aerosols is to cool the
climate system by reflecting sunlight. Depending on their composition,
aerosols can also absorb sunlight in the atmosphere, further cooling the
surface but warming the atmosphere in the process. These effects of
aerosols on the temperature profile, along with the role of aerosols as
cloud condensation nuclei, impact the hydrologic cycle, through changes
in cloud cover, cloud properties and precipitation. Unravelling these
feedbacks is particularly difficult because aerosols take a multitude of
shapes and forms, ranging from desert dust to urban pollution, and
because aerosol concentrations vary strongly over time and space. To
accurately study aerosol distribution and composition therefore requires
continuous observations from satellites, networks of ground-based
instruments and dedicated field experiments. Increases in aerosol
concentration and changes in their composition, driven by
industrialization and an expanding population, may adversely affect the
Earth's climate and water supply.
}},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Natur.419..215K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002Natur.418..853R,
  author = {{Rannou}, P. and {Hourdin}, F. and {McKay}, C.~P.},
  title = {{A wind origin for Titan's haze structure}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2002,
  month = aug,
  volume = 418,
  pages = {853-856},
  abstract = {{Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is the only satellite in the Solar
System with a dense atmosphere. Titan's atmosphere is mainly nitrogen
with a surface pressure of 1.5atmospheres and a temperature of 95K (ref.
1). A seasonally varying haze, which appears to be the main source of
heating and cooling that drives atmospheric circulation, shrouds the
moon. The haze has numerous features that have remained unexplained.
There are several layers, including a `polar hood', and a pronounced
hemispheric asymmetry. The upper atmosphere rotates much faster than the
surface of the moon, and there is a significant latitudinal temperature
asymmetry at the equinoxes. Here we describe a numerical simulation of
Titan's atmosphere, which appears to explain the observed features of
the haze. The critical new factor in our model is the coupling of haze
formation with atmospheric dynamics, which includes a component of
strong positive feedback between the haze and the winds.
}},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Natur.418..853R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRD..107.8012R,
  author = {{Roca}, R. and {Viollier}, M. and {Picon}, L. and {Desbois}, M.
	},
  title = {{A multisatellite analysis of deep convection and its moist environment over the Indian Ocean during the winter monsoon}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309), Global Change: Remote sensing, Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Convective processes,},
  year = 2002,
  month = aug,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {8012},
  pages = {8012},
  abstract = {{The aim of this paper is to characterize the deep convective systems
over the Indian Ocean during Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) and their
relationship to cloudiness and to the Upper Tropospheric Humidity (UTH)
of their environment together with the relevant longwave radiation
fields. Multisatellite analyses are performed (Meteosat, Scanner for
Radiation Budget (ScaRaB), and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I))
to measure these environmental parameters. The use of Meteosat water
vapor (WV) channel appears very efficient not only for estimating UTH
but also for separating high level cloudiness, including thin cirrus,
from clear sky and low clouds. The Meteosat infrared (IR) and WV
channels are also used for correlating Meteosat and ScaRaB measurements,
allowing to retrieve continuously the longwave radiative flux. The
longwave flux is used to compute the cloud radiative forcing as well as
the clear-sky greenhouse effect. Spatial relationships between upper
level cloudiness and UTH are established. A strong positive linear
relationship is found suggesting a local moistening of the upper
troposphere by convection. The temporal analysis reveals that during the
active phase of the intraseasonal oscillation, the longwave cloud
radiative forcing reaches a mean value up to 40 W m$^{-2}$ over a
large region in the open ocean, while the average clear-sky greenhouse
effect is in excess of 180 W m$^{-2}$. These radiative parameters
are strongly correlated with the upper level cloudiness and upper level
moisture, respectively. The temporal variability of UTH explains up to
80\% of the greenhouse effect variability. The structure of the
convective cloud systems is then studied. The observed population of
systems spans a wide spectrum of area from 100 to 1,000,000
km$^{2}$. The contribution to the high level cloudiness of the
systems with a strong vertical development is dominant. These systems,
with at least one convective cell reaching the highest levels (below 210
K), present indices of overshooting tops and are the most horizontally
extended. The largest system exhibits an average longwave radiative
forcing of around 100 W m$^{-2}$. Their contribution to the cloud
forcing over the Indian Ocean is overwhelming. The spatial and temporal
variability of the systems is finally related to the UTH and to the
clear-sky greenhouse effect. Strong correlations are found indicating
that these organized convective systems at mesoscale play a leading role
in the Indian Ocean climate. The analysis suggests that deeper
convection is associated with larger cloud desks with larger cloud
radiative forcing. It is also associated with a moister upper
troposphere and a larger clear-sky greenhouse effect. These two effects
would provide a positive feedback on the surface conditions.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2000JD000040},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.8012R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRE..107.5055V,
  author = {{Van den Acker}, E. and {Van Hoolst}, T. and {de Viron}, O. and 
	{Defraigne}, P. and {Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Dehant}, V.
	},
  title = {{Influence of the seasonal winds and the CO$_{2}$ mass exchange between atmosphere and polar caps on Mars' rotation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Orbital and rotational dynamics, Planetary Sciences: Interiors (8147), Planetary Sciences: Atmospheres-structure and dynamics, Planetary Sciences: Polar regions,},
  year = 2002,
  month = jul,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {5055},
  pages = {5055},
  abstract = {{The Martian atmosphere and the CO$_{2}$ polar ice caps exchange
mass. This exchange, together with the atmospheric response to solar
heating, induces variations of the rotation of Mars. Using the angular
momentum budget equation of the system solid-Mars-atmosphere-polar ice
caps, the variations of Mars' rotation can be deduced from the
variations of the angular momentum of the superficial layer; this later
is associated with the winds, that is, the motion term, and with the
mass redistribution, that is, the matter term. For the ``mean'' Martian
atmosphere, without global dust storms, total amplitudes of 10 cm on the
surface are obtained for both the annual and semiannual polar motion
excited by the atmosphere and ice caps. The atmospheric pressure
variations are the dominant contribution to these amplitudes.
Length-of-day (lod) variations have amplitudes of 0.253 ms for the
annual signal and of 0.246 ms for the semiannual signal. The lod
variations are mainly associated with changes in the atmospheric
contribution to the mass term, partly compensated by the polar ice cap
contribution. We computed lod variations and polar motion for three
scenarios having different atmospheric dust contents. The differences
between the three sets of results for lod variations are about one order
of magnitude larger than the expected accuracy of the NEtlander
Ionosphere and Geodesy Experiment (NEIGE) for lod. It will thus be
possible to constrain the global atmospheric circulation models from the
NEIGE measurements.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2000JE001539},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRE..107.5055V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRD..107.4118D,
  author = {{de Rosnay}, P. and {Polcher}, J. and {Bruen}, M. and {Laval}, K.
	},
  title = {{Impact of a physically based soil water flow and soil-plant interaction representation for modeling large-scale land surface processes}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Land/atmosphere interactions, Hydrology: Hydroclimatology, Hydrology: Hydrologic budget (1655),},
  year = 2002,
  month = jun,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {4118},
  pages = {4118},
  abstract = {{The aim of this paper is to improve our understanding and the
representation of hydrological and energetic exchanges between the soil,
the vegetation, and the atmosphere at the continental scale. The soil
hydrology of the land surface scheme Schématisation des Echanges
Hydriques l'Interface entre la Biosphère et l'Atmosphère
(SECHIBA) is improved. It is derived from the physically based
hydrological model of the Centre for Water Resources Research and is
adapted to the representation of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions at
large scale and to the coupling with an atmospheric model. In the new
model, soil-plant interactions result from root-soil moisture profile
interactions, represented on a fine vertical resolution. This allows a
better control of land evapotranspiration by soil-vegetation systems.
SECHIBA in this new version takes into account a subgrid-scale
variability of soil texture. Different possibilities of interactions
between soil and vegetation variabilities allow the representation of
various soil-plant-atmosphere systems. It is shown that the distribution
of vegetation on the soil and the soil texture influence the way in
which soil, plants, and atmosphere interact.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2001JD000634},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4118D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JAtS...59.1959D,
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Gautier}, C. and {Ricchiazzi}, P. and 
	{Fouquart}, Y.},
  title = {{Longwave Scattering Effects of Mineral Aerosols.}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2002,
  month = jun,
  volume = 59,
  pages = {1959-1966},
  abstract = {{Scattering in the longwave domain has been neglected in the first
generation of radiative codes and is still neglected in most current
GCMs. Scattering in the longwave domain does not play any significant
role for clear-sky conditions but recent works have shown that it is not
negligible for cloudy conditions. This paper highlights the importance
of scattering by mineral aerosols in the longwave domain for a wide
range of conditions commonly encountered during dust events. The authors
show that neglecting scattering may lead to an underestimate of longwave
aerosol forcing. This underestimate may reach 50\% of the longwave
forcing at the top of atmosphere and 15\% at the surface for aerosol
effective radius greater than a few tenths of a micron. For an aerosol
optical thickness of one and for typical atmospheric conditions, the
longwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere increases to 8 W
m$^{2}$ when scattering effects are included. In contrast, the
heating rate inside the atmosphere is only slightly affected by aerosol
scattering: neglecting it leads to an underestimate by no more than 10\%
of the cooling caused by aerosols.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<1959:LSEOMA>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JAtS...59.1959D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002GeoRL..29.1405D,
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Le Treut}, H. and 
	{Berthelot}, M. and {Bopp}, L. and {Ciais}, P. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Monfray}, P.},
  title = {{On the magnitude of positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805), Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Biosphere/atmosphere interactions, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere,},
  year = 2002,
  month = may,
  volume = 29,
  eid = {1405},
  pages = {1405},
  abstract = {{We use an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model coupled to land and
ocean carbon models to simulate the evolution of climate and atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ from 1860 to 2100. Our model reproduces the observed
global mean temperature changes and the growth rate of atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ for the period 1860-2000. For the future, we simulate
that the climate change due to CO$_{2}$ increase will reduce the
land carbon uptake, leaving a larger fraction of anthropogenic
CO$_{2}$ in the atmosphere. By 2100, we estimate that atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ will be 18\% higher due to the climate change impact on
the carbon cycle. Such a positive feedback has also been found by Cox et
al. [2000]. However, the amplitude of our feedback is three times
smaller than the one they simulated. We show that the partitioning
between carbon stored in the living biomass or in the soil, and their
respective sensitivity to increased CO$_{2}$ and climate change
largely explain this discrepancy.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2001GL013777},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.1405D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002GeoRL..29.1308B,
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Pham}, M.},
  title = {{History of sulfate aerosol radiative forcings}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere, Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes,},
  year = 2002,
  month = may,
  volume = 29,
  eid = {1308},
  pages = {1308},
  abstract = {{The history of the global sulfur cycle has been simulated using an
emission inventory of SO$_{2}$ for 1990 and previously published
historical trends in emission on a per country basis. The global-
annual-mean radiative forcings due to sulfate aerosols increase (in
absolute values) from near-zero and -0.17 Wm$^{-2}$ up to -0.4 and
-1 Wm$^{-2}$ between 1850 and 1990, for the direct and indirect
effects, respectively. The forcing efficiency (defined as the ratio of
the radiative forcing to the anthropogenic sulfate burden) is fairly
constant for the direct effect at -150 W(g sulfate)$^{-1}$ but
decreases significantly for the indirect effect with increasing sulfate
burden. The model results are compared with long-term observations for
the period 1980 to 1998 in the U.S. and Europe.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2001GL014048},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.1308B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JAtS...59.1105H,
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Couvreux}, F. and {Menut}, L.},
  title = {{Parameterization of the Dry Convective Boundary Layer Based on a Mass Flux Representation of Thermals.}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2002,
  month = mar,
  volume = 59,
  pages = {1105-1123},
  abstract = {{Presented is a mass flux parameterization of vertical transport in the
convective boundary layer. The formulation of the new parameterization
is based on an idealization of thermal cells or rolls. The
parameterization is validated by comparison to large eddy simulations
(LES). It is also compared to classical boundary layer schemes on a
documented case of a well-developed convective boundary layer observed
in the Paris area during the {\'E}tude et Simulation de la
Qualité de l'air en Ile de France (ESQUIF) campaign. For both LES
and observations, the new scheme performs better at simulating
entrainment fluxes at the top of the convective boundary layer and at
near-surface conditions. The explicit representation of mass fluxes
allows a direct comparison with campaign observations and opens
interesting possibilities for coupling with clouds and deep convection
schemes.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<1105:POTDCB>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JAtS...59.1105H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002ClDy...19..167Z,
  author = {{Zhou}, T.-J. and {Li}, Z.-X.},
  title = {{Simulation of the east asian summer monsoon using a variable resolution atmospheric GCM}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2002,
  month = feb,
  volume = 19,
  pages = {167-180},
  abstract = {{The East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) is simulated with a variable
resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) developed
at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, France. The
version used has a local zoom centered on China. This study validates
the model's capability in reproducing the fundamental features of the
EASM. The monsoon behaviors over East Asia revealed by the ECMWF
reanalysis data are also addressed systematically, providing as
observational evidence. The mean state of the EASM is generally
portrayed well in the model, including the large-scale monsoon airflows,
the monsoonal meridional circulation, the cross-equatorial low-level
jets, the monsoon trough in the South China Sea, the surface cold high
in Australia, and the upper-level northeasterly return flow. While the
performance of simulating large-scale monsoonal climate is encouraging,
the model's main deficiency lies in the rainfall. The marked rainbelt
observed along the Yangtze River Valley is missed in the simulation.
This is due to the weakly reproduced monsoonal components in essence and
is directly related to the weak western Pacific subtropical high, which
leads to a fragile subtropical southwest monsoon on its western flank
and results in a weaker convergence of the southwest monsoon flow with
the midlatitude westerlies. The excessively westward extension of the
high, together with the distorted Indian low, also makes the
contribution of the tropical southwest monsoon to the moisture
convergence over the Yangtze River Valley too weak in the model. The
insufficient plateau heating and the resulting weak land-sea thermal
contrast are responsible for the weakly reproduced monsoon. It is the
deficiency of the model in handling the low-level cloud cover over the
plateau rather than the horizontal resolution and the associated
depiction of plateau topography that results in the insufficient plateau
heating. Comparison with the simulation employing regular coarser mesh
model reveals that the local zoom technique improves, in a general
manner, the EASM simulation.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-001-0214-8},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ClDy...19..167Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002AdSpR..30.2383B,
  author = {{Bréon}, F.~M. and {Buriez}, J.~C. and {Couvert}, P. and 
	{Deschamps}, P.~Y. and {Deuzé}, J.~L. and {Herman}, M. and 
	{Goloub}, P. and {Leroy}, M. and {Lifermann}, A. and {Moulin}, C. and 
	{Parol}, F. and {Sèze}, G. and {Tanré}, D. and {Vanbauce}, C. and 
	{Vesperini}, M.},
  title = {{Scientific results from the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER)}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 30,
  pages = {2383-2386},
  abstract = {{The POLDER (POlarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances)
instrument, developed by the French Space Agency (CNES) has flown on
board the ADEOS-1/NASDA platform from November 1996 until June 1997. The
sensor has a wide field of view (2400km swath) for collecting global
daily data and has multi-angle viewing capability. It measures the solar
radiation reflected by the Earth in eight spectral bands. For three of
these bands (0.443, 0.670 and 0.865 {$\mu$}m), measurements include the
polarization ratio by the use of 3 polarizers. This measurement strategy
provides unique information on aerosols, clouds and surfaces.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/S0273-1177(02)80282-4},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AdSpR..30.2383B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
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