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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=1997 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li1997.txt -ob lmd_Li1997.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Peylin}, P. and {Polcher}, J. and {Bonan}, G. and {Williamson}, D.~L. and 
	{Laval}, K.},
  title = {{Comparison of two complex land surface schemes coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research general circulation model}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Land/atmosphere interactions, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology},
  year = 1997,
  month = aug,
  volume = 102,
  pages = {19413},
  abstract = {{Two climate simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric
Research general circulation model (version CCM2) coupled either to the
Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) or to Sechiba land surface
scheme are compared. Both parameterizations of surface-atmosphere
exchanges may be considered as complex but represent the soil hydrology
and the role of vegetation in very different ways. The global impact of
the change in land surface scheme on the simulated climate appears to be
small. Changes are smaller than those obtained when comparing either one
of these schemes to the fixed hydrology used in the standard CCM2.
Nevertheless, at the regional scale, changing the land-surface scheme
can have a large impact on the local climate. As one example, wre detail
how circulation patterns are modified above the Tibetan plateau during
the monsoon season. Elsewhere, mainly over land, changes can also be
important. In the tropics, during the dry season, Sechiba produces
warmer surface temperatures than does BATS. This warming arises from
differences in the soil hydrology, both storage capacity and the
dynamics of soil water transport. Over the Tundra biotype, the
formulation of the transpiration induces significant differences in the
energy balance.
  doi = {10.1029/97JD00489},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Cess}, R.~D. and {Zhang}, M.~H. and {Potter}, G.~L. and {Alekseev}, V. and 
	{Barker}, H.~W. and {Bony}, S. and {Colman}, R.~A. and {Dazlich}, D.~A. and 
	{Del Genio}, A.~D. and {DéQué}, M. and {Dix}, M.~R. and 
	{Dymnikov}, V. and {Esch}, M. and {Fowler}, L.~D. and {Fraser}, J.~R. and 
	{Galin}, V. and {Gates}, W.~L. and {Hack}, J.~J. and {Ingram}, W.~J. and 
	{Kiehl}, J.~T. and {Kim}, Y. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Liang}, X.-Z. and 
	{McAvaney}, B.~J. and {Meleshko}, V.~P. and {Morcrette}, J.~J. and 
	{Randall}, D.~A. and {Roeckner}, E. and {Schlesinger}, M.~E. and 
	{Sporyshev}, P.~V. and {Taylor}, K.~E. and {Timbal}, B. and 
	{Volodin}, E.~M. and {Wang}, W. and {Wang}, W.~C. and {Wetherald}, R.~T.
  title = {{Comparison of the seasonal change in cloud-radiative forcing from atmospheric general circulation models and satellite observations}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Numerical modeling and data assimilation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes},
  year = 1997,
  month = jul,
  volume = 102,
  pages = {16593},
  abstract = {{We compare seasonal changes in cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) at the top
of the atmosphere from 18 atmospheric general circulation models, and
observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). To
enhance the CRF signal and suppress interannual variability, we consider
only zonal mean quantities for which the extreme months (January and
July), as well as the northern and southern hemispheres, have been
differenced. Since seasonal variations of the shortwave component of CRF
are caused by seasonal changes in both cloudiness and solar irradiance,
the latter was removed. In the ERBE data, seasonal changes in CRF are
driven primarily by changes in cloud amount. The same conclusion applies
to the models. The shortwave component of seasonal CRF is a measure of
changes in cloud amount at all altitudes, while the longwave component
is more a measure of upper level clouds. Thus important insights into
seasonal cloud amount variations of the models have been obtained by
comparing both components, as generated by the models, with the
satellite data. For example, in 10 of the 18 models the seasonal
oscillations of zonal cloud patterns extend too far poleward by one
latitudinal grid.
  doi = {10.1029/97JD00927},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Krinner}, G. and {Genthon}, C. and {Li}, Z.-X. and {Le van}, P.
  title = {{Studies of the Antarctic climate with a stretched-grid general circulation model}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Polar meteorology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Hydrology: Glaciology, Hydrology: Snow and ice},
  year = 1997,
  month = jun,
  volume = 102,
  pages = {13731},
  abstract = {{A stretched-grid general circulation model (GCM), derived from the
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) GCM is used
for a multiyear high-resolution simulation of the Antarctic climate. The
resolution in the Antarctic region reaches 100 km. In order to correctly
represent the polar climate, it is necessary to implement several
modifications in the model physics. These modifications mostly concern
the parameterizations of the atmospheric boundary layer. The simulated
Antarctic climate is significantly better in the stretched-grid
simulation than in the regular-grid control run. The katabatic wind
regime is well captured, although the winds may be somewhat too weak.
The annual snow accumulation is generally close to the observed values,
although local discrepancies between the simulated annual accumulation
and observations remain. The simulated continental mean annual
accumulation is 16.2 cm y$^{-1}$. Features like the surface
temperature and the temperature inversion over large parts of the
continent are correctly represented. The model correctly simulates the
atmospheric dynamics of the rest of the globe.
  doi = {10.1029/96JD03356},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chen}, T.~H. and {Henderson-Sellers}, A. and {Milly}, P.~C.~D. and 
	{Pitman}, A.~J. and {Beljaars}, A.~C.~M. and {Polcher}, J. and 
	{Abramopoulos}, F. and {Boone}, A. and {Chang}, S. and {Chen}, F. and 
	{Dai}, Y. and {Desborough}, C.~E. and {Dickinson}, R.~E. and 
	{D{\"u}menil}, L. and {Ek}, M. and {Garratt}, J.~R. and {Gedney}, N. and 
	{Gusev}, Y.~M. and {{\nbsp}Kim}, J. and {{\nbsp}Koster}, R. and 
	{{\nbsp}Kowalczyk}, E.~A. and {{\nbsp}Laval}, K. and {{\nbsp}Lean}, J. and 
	{{\nbsp}Lettenmaier}, D. and {{\nbsp}Liang}, X. and {{\nbsp}Mahfouf}, J.-F. and 
	{{\nbsp}Mengelkamp}, H.-T. and {{\nbsp}Mitchell}, K. and {{\nbsp}Nasonova}, O.~N. and 
	{{\nbsp}Noilhan}, J. and {{\nbsp}Robock}, A. and {{\nbsp}Rosenzweig}, C. and 
	{{\nbsp}Schaake}, J. and {{\nbsp}Schlosser}, C.~A. and {{\nbsp}Schulz}, J.-P. and 
	{{\nbsp}Shao}, Y. and {{\nbsp}Shmakin}, A.~B. and {{\nbsp}Verseghy}, D.~L. and 
	{{\nbsp}Wetzel}, P. and {{\nbsp}Wood}, E.~F. and {{\nbsp}Xue}, Y. and 
	{{\nbsp}Yang}, Z.-L. and {{\nbsp}Zeng}, Q.},
  title = {{Cabauw Experimental Results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1997,
  month = jun,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {1194-1215},
  abstract = {{In the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization
Schemes phase 2a experiment, meteorological data for the year 1987 from
Cabauw, the Netherlands, were used as inputs to 23 land-surface flux
schemes designed for use in climate and weather models. Schemes were
evaluated by comparing their outputs with long-term measurements of
surface sensible heat fluxes into the atmosphere and the ground, and of
upward longwave radiation and total net radiative fluxes, and also
comparing them with latent heat fluxes derived from a surface energy
balance. Tuning of schemes by use of the observed flux data was not
permitted. On an annual basis, the predicted surface radiative
temperature exhibits a range of 2 K across schemes, consistent with the
range of about 10 W m$^{2}$ in predicted surface net radiation.
Most modeled values of monthly net radiation differ from the
observations by less than the estimated maximum monthly observational
error ({\plusmn}10 W m$^{2}$). However, modeled radiative surface
temperature appears to have a systematic positive bias in most schemes;
this might be explained by an error in assumed emissivity and by models'
neglect of canopy thermal heterogeneity. Annual means of sensible and
latent heat fluxes, into which net radiation is partitioned, have ranges
across schemes of30 W m$^{2}$ and 25 W m$^{2}$,
respectively. Annual totals of evapotranspiration and runoff, into which
the precipitation is partitioned, both have ranges of 315 mm. These
ranges in annual heat and water fluxes were approximately halved upon
exclusion of the three schemes that have no stomatal resistance under
non-water-stressed conditions. Many schemes tend to underestimate latent
heat flux and overestimate sensible heat flux in summer, with a reverse
tendency in winter. For six schemes, root-mean-square deviations of
predictions from monthly observations are less than the estimated upper
bounds on observation errors (5 W m$^{2}$ for sensible heat flux
and 10 W m$^{2}$ for latent heat flux). Actual runoff at the site
is believed to be dominated by vertical drainage to groundwater, but
several schemes produced significant amounts of runoff as overland flow
or interflow. There is a range across schemes of 184 mm (40\% of total
pore volume) in the simulated annual mean root-zone soil moisture.
Unfortunately, no measurements of soil moisture were available for model
evaluation. A theoretical analysis suggested that differences in
boundary conditions used in various schemes are not sufficient to
explain the large variance in soil moisture. However, many of the
extreme values of soil moisture could be explained in terms of the
particulars of experimental setup or excessive evapotranspiration.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1194:CERFTP>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Read}, P.~L. and {Collins}, M. and {Forget}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Taylor}, F.~W. and 
	{Thomas}, N.~P.~J.},
  title = {{A GCM climate database for mars: for mission planning and for scientific studies}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 1997,
  month = may,
  volume = 19,
  pages = {1213-1222},
  abstract = {{The construction of a new database of statistics on the climate and
environment of the Martian atmosphere is currently under way, with the
support of the European Space Agency. The primary objectives of this
database are to provide information for mission design specialists on
the mean state and variability of the Martian environment in
unprecedented detail, through the execution of a set of carefully
validated simulations of the Martian atmospheric circulation using
comprehensive numerical general circulation models. The formulation of
the models used are outlined herein, noting especially new improvements
in various schemes to parametrize important physical processes, and the
scope of the database to be constructed is described. A novel approach
towards the representation of large-scale variability in the output of
the database using empirical eigenfunctions derived from statistical
analyses of the numerical simulations, is also discussed. It is hoped
that the resulting database will be of value for both scientific and
engineering studies of Mars' atmosphere and near-surface environment.
  doi = {10.1016/S0273-1177(97)00272-X},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.-X. and {Ide}, K. and {Treut}, H.~L. and {Ghil}, M.},
  title = {{Atmospheric radiative equilibria in a simple column model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1997,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {429-440},
  abstract = {{An analytic radiative-equilibrium model is formulated where both short-
and longwave radiation are treated as two-stream (down- and upward)
fluxes. An equilibrium state is defined in the model by the vertical
temperature profile. The sensitivity of any such state to the model
atmosphere's optical properties is formulated analytically. As an
example, this general formulation is applied to a single-column 11-layer
model, and the model's optical parameters are obtained from a detailed
radiative parametrization of a general circulation model. The resulting
simple column model is then used to study changes in the
Earth-atmosphere system's radiative equilibrium and, in particular, to
infer the role of greenhouse trace gases, water vapor and aerosols in
modifying the vertical temperature profile. Multiple equilibria appear
when a positive surface-albedo feedback is introduced, and their
stability is studied. The vertical structure of the radiative fluxes
(both short- and longwave) is substantially modified as the temperature
profile changes from one equilibrium to another. These equilibria and
their stability are compared to those that appear in energy-balance
models, which heretofore have ignored the details of the vertical
temperature and radiation profiles.
  doi = {10.1007/s003820050175},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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