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2011 .

(13 publications)

M. Kulmala, A. Asmi, H. K. Lappalainen, U. Baltensperger, J.-L. Brenguier, M. C. Facchini, H.-C. Hansson, Ø. Hov, C. D. O'Dowd, U. Pöschl, A. Wiedensohler, R. Boers, O. Boucher, G. de Leeuw, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, J. Feichter, R. Krejci, P. Laj, H. Lihavainen, U. Lohmann, G. McFiggans, T. Mentel, C. Pilinis, I. Riipinen, M. Schulz, A. Stohl, E. Swietlicki, E. Vignati, C. Alves, M. Amann, M. Ammann, S. Arabas, P. Artaxo, H. Baars, D. C. S. Beddows, R. Bergström, J. P. Beukes, M. Bilde, J. F. Burkhart, F. Canonaco, S. L. Clegg, H. Coe, S. Crumeyrolle, B. D'Anna, S. Decesari, S. Gilardoni, M. Fischer, A. M. Fjaeraa, C. Fountoukis, C. George, L. Gomes, P. Halloran, T. Hamburger, R. M. Harrison, H. Herrmann, T. Hoffmann, C. Hoose, M. Hu, A. Hyvärinen, U. Hõrrak, Y. Iinuma, T. Iversen, M. Josipovic, M. Kanakidou, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Kirkevåg, G. Kiss, Z. Klimont, P. Kolmonen, M. Komppula, J.-E. Kristjánsson, L. Laakso, A. Laaksonen, L. Labonnote, V. A. Lanz, K. E. J. Lehtinen, L. V. Rizzo, R. Makkonen, H. E. Manninen, G. McMeeking, J. Merikanto, A. Minikin, S. Mirme, W. T. Morgan, E. Nemitz, D. O'Donnell, T. S. Panwar, H. Pawlowska, A. Petzold, J. J. Pienaar, C. Pio, C. Plass-Duelmer, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Pryor, C. L. Reddington, G. Roberts, D. Rosenfeld, J. Schwarz, Ø. Seland, K. Sellegri, X. J. Shen, M. Shiraiwa, H. Siebert, B. Sierau, D. Simpson, J. Y. Sun, D. Topping, P. Tunved, P. Vaattovaara, V. Vakkari, J. P. Veefkind, A. Visschedijk, H. Vuollekoski, R. Vuolo, B. Wehner, J. Wildt, S. Woodward, D. R. Worsnop, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, A. A. Zardini, K. Zhang, P. G. van Zyl, V.-M. Kerminen, K. S. Carslaw, and S. N. Pandis. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 11:13061-13143, December 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

T. C. Johns, J.-F. Royer, I. Höschel, H. Huebener, E. Roeckner, E. Manzini, W. May, J.-L. Dufresne, O. H. Otterå, D. P. van Vuuren, D. Salas Y Melia, M. A. Giorgetta, S. Denvil, S. Yang, P. G. Fogli, J. Körper, J. F. Tjiputra, E. Stehfest, and C. D. Hewitt. Climate change under aggressive mitigation: the ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment. Climate Dynamics, 37:1975-2003, November 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We present results from multiple comprehensive models used to simulate an aggressive mitigation scenario based on detailed results of an Integrated Assessment Model. The experiment employs ten global climate and Earth System models (GCMs and ESMs) and pioneers elements of the long-term experimental design for the forthcoming 5th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentrations pathways rather than carbon emissions are specified in all models, including five ESMs that contain interactive carbon cycles. Specified forcings also include minor greenhouse gas concentration pathways, ozone concentration, aerosols (via concentrations or precursor emissions) and land use change (in five models). The new aggressive mitigation scenario (E1), constructed using an integrated assessment model (IMAGE 2.4) with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2 K, is studied alongside the medium-high non-mitigation scenario SRES A1B. Resulting twenty-first century global mean warming and precipitation changes for A1B are broadly consistent with previous studies. In E1 twenty-first century global warming remains below 2 K in most models, but global mean precipitation changes are higher than in A1B up to 2065 and consistently higher per degree of warming. The spread in global temperature and precipitation responses is partly attributable to inter-model variations in aerosol loading and representations of aerosol-related radiative forcing effects. Our study illustrates that the benefits of mitigation will not be realised in temperature terms until several decades after emissions reductions begin, and may vary considerably between regions. A subset of the models containing integrated carbon cycles agree that land and ocean sinks remove roughly half of present day anthropogenic carbon emissions from the atmosphere, and that anthropogenic carbon emissions must decrease by at least 50% by 2050 relative to 1990, with further large reductions needed beyond that to achieve the E1 concentrations pathway. Negative allowable anthropogenic carbon emissions at and beyond 2100 cannot be ruled out for the E1 scenario. There is self-consistency between the multi-model ensemble of allowable anthropogenic carbon emissions and the E1 scenario emissions from IMAGE 2.4.

J. Teixeira, S. Cardoso, M. Bonazzola, J. Cole, A. Delgenio, C. Demott, C. Franklin, C. Hannay, C. Jakob, Y. Jiao, J. Karlsson, H. Kitagawa, M. Köhler, A. Kuwano-Yoshida, C. Ledrian, J. Li, A. Lock, M. J. Miller, P. Marquet, J. Martins, C. R. Mechoso, E. V. Meijgaard, I. Meinke, P. M. A. Miranda, D. Mironov, R. Neggers, H. L. Pan, D. A. Randall, P. J. Rasch, B. Rockel, W. B. Rossow, B. Ritter, A. P. Siebesma, P. M. M. Soares, F. J. Turk, P. A. Vaillancourt, A. von Engeln, and M. Zhao. Tropical and Subtropical Cloud Transitions in Weather and Climate Prediction Models: The GCSS/WGNE Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI). Journal of Climate, 24:5223-5256, October 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

W. Chen, Z. Jiang, and L. Li. Probabilistic Projections of Climate Change over China under the SRES A1B Scenario Using 28 AOGCMs. Journal of Climate, 24:4741-4756, September 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

T. C. Johns, J.-F. Royer, I. Höschel, H. Huebener, E. Roeckner, E. Manzini, W. May, J.-L. Dufresne, O. H. Otterå, D. P. van Vuuren, D. Salas Y Melia, M. A. Giorgetta, S. Denvil, S. Yang, P. G. Fogli, J. Körper, J. F. Tjiputra, E. Stehfest, and C. D. Hewitt. Erratum to: Climate change under aggressive mitigation: the ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment. Climate Dynamics, 37:1269-1270, September 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

N. Huneeus, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, J. Griesfeller, J. Prospero, S. Kinne, S. Bauer, O. Boucher, M. Chin, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, A. Grini, L. Horowitz, D. Koch, M. C. Krol, W. Landing, X. Liu, N. Mahowald, R. Miller, J.-J. Morcrette, G. Myhre, J. Penner, J. Perlwitz, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and C. S. Zender. Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 11:7781-7816, August 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

This study presents the results of a broad intercomparison of a total of 15 global aerosol models within the AeroCom project. Each model is compared to observations related to desert dust aerosols, their direct radiative effect, and their impact on the biogeochemical cycle, i.e., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and dust deposition. Additional comparisons to Angström exponent (AE), coarse mode AOD and dust surface concentrations are included to extend the assessment of model performance and to identify common biases present in models. These data comprise a benchmark dataset that is proposed for model inspection and future dust model development. There are large differences among the global models that simulate the dust cycle and its impact on climate. In general, models simulate the climatology of vertically integrated parameters (AOD and AE) within a factor of two whereas the total deposition and surface concentration are reproduced within a factor of 10. In addition, smaller mean normalized bias and root mean square errors are obtained for the climatology of AOD and AE than for total deposition and surface concentration. Characteristics of the datasets used and their uncertainties may influence these differences. Large uncertainties still exist with respect to the deposition fluxes in the southern oceans. Further measurements and model studies are necessary to assess the general model performance to reproduce dust deposition in ocean regions sensible to iron contributions. Models overestimate the wet deposition in regions dominated by dry deposition. They generally simulate more realistic surface concentration at stations downwind of the main sources than at remote ones. Most models simulate the gradient in AOD and AE between the different dusty regions. However the seasonality and magnitude of both variables is better simulated at African stations than Middle East ones. The models simulate the offshore transport of West Africa throughout the year but they overestimate the AOD and they transport too fine particles. The models also reproduce the dust transport across the Atlantic in the summer in terms of both AOD and AE but not so well in winter-spring nor the southward displacement of the dust cloud that is responsible of the dust transport into South America. Based on the dependency of AOD on aerosol burden and size distribution we use model bias with respect to AOD and AE to infer the bias of the dust emissions in Africa and the Middle East. According to this analysis we suggest that a range of possible emissions for North Africa is 400 to 2200 Tg yr-1 and in the Middle East 26 to 526 Tg yr-1.

M. Lothon, B. Campistron, M. Chong, F. Couvreux, F. Guichard, C. Rio, and E. Williams. Life Cycle of a Mesoscale Circular Gust Front Observed by a C-Band Doppler Radar in West Africa. Monthly Weather Review, 139:1370-1388, May 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

A. Léger, O. Grasset, B. Fegley, F. Codron, A. F. Albarede, P. Barge, R. Barnes, P. Cance, S. Carpy, F. Catalano, C. Cavarroc, O. Demangeon, S. Ferraz-Mello, P. Gabor, J.-M. Grießmeier, J. Leibacher, G. Libourel, A.-S. Maurin, S. N. Raymond, D. Rouan, B. Samuel, L. Schaefer, J. Schneider, P. A. Schuller, F. Selsis, and C. Sotin. The extreme physical properties of the CoRoT-7b super-Earth. Icarus, 213:1-11, May 2011. [ bib | DOI | arXiv | ADS link ]

The search for rocky exoplanets plays an important role in our quest for extra-terrestrial life. Here, we discuss the extreme physical properties possible for the first characterised rocky super-Earth, CoRoT-7b ( R pl = 1.58 0.10 R Earth, M pl = 6.9 1.2 M Earth). It is extremely close to its star ( a = 0.0171 AU = 4.48 R st), with its spin and orbital rotation likely synchronised. The comparison of its location in the ( M pl, R pl) plane with the predictions of planetary models for different compositions points to an Earth-like composition, even if the error bars of the measured quantities and the partial degeneracy of the models prevent a definitive conclusion. The proximity to its star provides an additional constraint on the model. It implies a high extreme-UV flux and particle wind, and the corresponding efficient erosion of the planetary atmosphere especially for volatile species including water. Consequently, we make the working hypothesis that the planet is rocky with no volatiles in its atmosphere, and derive the physical properties that result. As a consequence, the atmosphere is made of rocky vapours with a very low pressure ( P 1.5 Pa), no cloud can be sustained, and no thermalisation of the planet is expected. The dayside is very hot (2474 71 K at the sub-stellar point) while the nightside is very cold (50-75 K). The sub-stellar point is as hot as the tungsten filament of an incandescent bulb, resulting in the melting and distillation of silicate rocks and the formation of a lava ocean. These possible features of CoRoT-7b could be common to many small and hot planets, including the recently discovered Kepler-10b. They define a new class of objects that we propose to name ” Lava-ocean planets”.

G. Gastineau, L. Li, and H. Le Treut. Some Atmospheric Processes Governing the Large-Scale Tropical Circulation in Idealized Aquaplanet Simulations. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 68:553-575, March 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

W. Chen, Z. Jiang, L. Li, and P. Yiou. Simulation of regional climate change under the IPCC A2 scenario in southeast China. Climate Dynamics, 36:491-507, February 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

A variable-grid atmospheric general circulation model, LMDZ, with a local zoom over southeast China is used to investigate regional climate changes in terms of both means and extremes. Two time slices of 30 years are chosen to represent, respectively, the end of the 20th century and the middle of the 21st century. The lower-boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature and sea-ice extension) are taken from the outputs of three global coupled climate models: Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Results from a two-way nesting system between LMDZ-global and LMDZ-regional are also presented. The evaluation of simulated temperature and precipitation for the current climate shows that LMDZ reproduces generally well the spatial distribution of mean climate and extreme climate events in southeast China, but the model has systematic cold biases in temperature and tends to overestimate the extreme precipitation. The two-way nesting model can reduce the ”cold bias” to some extent compared to the one-way nesting model. Results with greenhouse gas forcing from the SRES-A2 emission scenario show that there is a significant increase for mean, daily-maximum and minimum temperature in the entire region, associated with a decrease in the number of frost days and an increase in the heat wave duration. The annual frost days are projected to significantly decrease by 12-19 days while the heat wave duration to increase by about 7 days. A warming environment gives rise to changes in extreme precipitation events. Except two simulations (LMDZ/GFDL and LMDZ/IPSL2) that project a decrease in maximum 5-day precipitation (R5d) for winter, other precipitation extremes are projected to increase over most of southeast China in all seasons, and among the three global scenarios. The domain-averaged values for annual simple daily intensity index (SDII), R5d and fraction of total rainfall from extreme events (R95t) are projected to increase by 6-7, 10-13 and 11-14%, respectively, relative to their present-day values. However, it is clear that more research will be needed to assess the uncertainties on the projection in future of climate extremes at local scale.

C. Shi, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, T. Eglin, M. Stievenard, M. Pierre, X. Wang, J. Gao, F.-M. Bréon, Q.-B. Zhang, and V. Daux. Sampling strategy and climatic implications of tree-ring stable isotopes on the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 301:307-316, January 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We explore the potential of tree-ring cellulose δ18O and δ13C records for reconstructing climate variability in the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Our sampling strategy was designed to investigate intra and inter-tree variability, and the effects of the age of tree on δ18O variation. We show that intra-tree δ13C and δ18O variability is negligible, and inter-tree coherence is sufficient to build robust tree-ring δ18O or δ13C chronologies based on only four trees. There is no evidence of an age effect regarding δ18O, in contrast with tree-ring width. In our warm and moist sampling site, young tree δ13C is not clearly correlated with monthly mean meteorological data. Tree-ring δ18O appears significantly anti-correlated with summer precipitation amount, regional cloud cover, and relative humidity. Simulations conducted with the ORCHIDEE land surface model confirm the observed contribution of relative humidity to tree cellulose δ18O, and explain the weak correlation of δ13C with climate by the non-linear integration linked with photosynthesis. Altogether, the tree-ring cellulose δ18O is shown to be a promising proxy to reconstruct regional summer moisture variability prior to the instrumental period.

P. M. Ruti, J. E. Williams, F. Hourdin, F. Guichard, A. Boone, P. van Velthoven, F. Favot, I. Musat, M. Rummukainen, M. Domínguez, M. Á. Gaertner, J. P. Lafore, T. Losada, M. B. Rodriguez de Fonseca, J. Polcher, F. Giorgi, Y. Xue, I. Bouarar, K. Law, B. Josse, B. Barret, X. Yang, C. Mari, and A. K. Traore. The West African climate system: a review of the AMMA model inter-comparison initiatives. Atmospheric Science Letters, 12:116-122, January 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

C. M. Taylor, D. J. Parker, N. Kalthoff, M. A. Gaertner, N. Philippon, S. Bastin, P. P. Harris, A. Boone, F. Guichard, A. Agusti-Panareda, M. Baldi, P. Cerlini, L. Descroix, H. Douville, C. Flamant, J.-Y. Grandpeix, and J. Polcher. New perspectives on land-atmosphere feedbacks from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis. Atmospheric Science Letters, 12:38-44, January 2011. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

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