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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=2007 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li2007.txt -ob lmd_Li2007.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Coindreau}, O. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Haeffelin}, M. and {Mathieu}, A. and 
	{Rio}, C.},
  title = {{Assessment of Physical Parameterizations Using a Global Climate Model with Stretchable Grid and Nudging}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2007,
  volume = 135,
  pages = {1474},
  doi = {10.1175/MWR3338.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Nevejans}, D. and {Korablev}, O. and {Villard}, E. and 
	{Quémerais}, E. and {Neefs}, E. and {Montmessin}, F. and 
	{Leblanc}, F. and {Dubois}, J.~P. and {Dimarellis}, E. and {Hauchecorne}, A. and 
	{Lefèvre}, F. and {Rannou}, P. and {Chaufray}, J.~Y. and 
	{Cabane}, M. and {Cernogora}, G. and {Souchon}, G. and {Semelin}, F. and 
	{Reberac}, A. and {Van Ransbeek}, E. and {Berkenbosch}, S. and 
	{Clairquin}, R. and {Muller}, C. and {Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Talagrand}, O. and {Rodin}, A. and {Fedorova}, A. and {Stepanov}, A. and 
	{Vinogradov}, I. and {Kiselev}, A. and {Kalinnikov}, Y. and 
	{Durry}, G. and {Sandel}, B. and {Stern}, A. and {Gérard}, J.~C.
  title = {{SPICAV on Venus Express: Three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere}},
  journal = {\planss},
  year = 2007,
  month = oct,
  volume = 55,
  pages = {1673-1700},
  abstract = {{Spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the
atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) is a suite of three spectrometers in the UV
and IR range with a total mass of 13.9 kg flying on the Venus Express
(VEX) orbiter, dedicated to the study of the atmosphere of Venus from
ground level to the outermost hydrogen corona at more than 40,000 km. It
is derived from the SPICAM instrument already flying on board Mars
Express (MEX) with great success, with the addition of a new IR
high-resolution spectrometer, solar occultation IR (SOIR), working in
the solar occultation mode. The instrument consists of three
spectrometers and a simple data processing unit providing the interface
of these channels with the spacecraft. A UV spectrometer (118-320 nm,
resolution 1.5 nm) is identical to the MEX version. It is dedicated to
nadir viewing, limb viewing and vertical profiling by stellar and solar
occultation. In nadir orientation, SPICAV UV will analyse the albedo
spectrum (solar light scattered back from the clouds) to retrieve SO
$_{2}$, and the distribution of the UV-blue absorber (of still
unknown origin) on the dayside with implications for cloud structure and
atmospheric dynamics. On the nightside, {$\gamma$} and {$\delta$} bands of NO
will be studied, as well as emissions produced by electron
precipitations. In the stellar occultation mode the UV sensor will
measure the vertical profiles of CO $_{2}$, temperature, SO
$_{2}$, SO, clouds and aerosols. The density/temperature profiles
obtained with SPICAV will constrain and aid in the development of
dynamical atmospheric models, from cloud top ({\tilde}60 km) to 160 km in
the atmosphere. This is essential for future missions that would rely on
aerocapture and aerobraking. UV observations of the upper atmosphere
will allow studies of the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO
$^{+}$, and CO $_{2}$$^{+}$, and its direct
interaction with the solar wind. It will study the H corona, with its
two different scale heights, and it will allow a better understanding of
escape mechanisms and estimates of their magnitude, crucial for insight
into the long-term evolution of the atmosphere. The SPICAV VIS-IR sensor
(0.7-1.7 {$\mu$}m, resolution 0.5-1.2 nm) employs a pioneering technology:
an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). On the nightside, it will
study the thermal emission peeping through the clouds, complementing the
observations of both VIRTIS and Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on
VEX. In solar occultation mode this channel will study the vertical
structure of H $_{2}$O, CO $_{2}$, and aerosols. The SOIR
spectrometer is a new solar occultation IR spectrometer in the range
{$\lambda$}=2.2-4.3 {$\mu$}m, with a spectral resolution {$\lambda$}/{$\Delta$}
{$\lambda$}{\gt}15,000, the highest on board VEX. This new concept includes
a combination of an echelle grating and an AOTF crystal to sort out one
order at a time. The main objective is to measure HDO and H
$_{2}$O in solar occultation, in order to characterize the escape
of D atoms from the upper atmosphere and give more insight about the
evolution of water on Venus. It will also study isotopes of CO
$_{2}$ and minor species, and provides a sensitive search for new
species in the upper atmosphere of Venus. It will attempt to measure
also the nightside emission, which would allow a sensitive measurement
of HDO in the lower atmosphere, to be compared to the ratio in the upper
atmosphere, and possibly discover new minor atmospheric constituents.
  doi = {10.1016/j.pss.2007.01.016},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Betts}, R.~A. and {Boucher}, O. and {Collins}, M. and {Cox}, P.~M. and 
	{Falloon}, P.~D. and {Gedney}, N. and {Hemming}, D.~L. and {Huntingford}, C. and 
	{Jones}, C.~D. and {Sexton}, D.~M.~H. and {Webb}, M.~J.},
  title = {{Projected increase in continental runoff due to plant responses to increasing carbon dioxide}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2007,
  month = aug,
  volume = 448,
  pages = {1037-1041},
  abstract = {{In addition to influencing climatic conditions directly through
radiative forcing, increasing carbon dioxide concentration influences
the climate system through its effects on plant physiology. Plant
stomata generally open less widely under increased carbon dioxide
concentration, which reduces transpiration and thus leaves more water at
the land surface. This driver of change in the climate system, which we
term `physiological forcing', has been detected in observational records
of increasing average continental runoff over the twentieth century.
Here we use an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model that
includes a vegetation component to assess the contribution of
physiological forcing to future changes in continental runoff, in the
context of uncertainties in future precipitation. We find that the
physiological effect of doubled carbon dioxide concentrations on plant
transpiration increases simulated global mean runoff by 6 per cent
relative to pre-industrial levels; an increase that is comparable to
that simulated in response to radiatively forced climate change (11+/-6
per cent). Assessments of the effect of increasing carbon dioxide
concentrations on the hydrological cycle that only consider radiative
forcing will therefore tend to underestimate future increases in runoff
and overestimate decreases. This suggests that freshwater resources may
be less limited than previously assumed under scenarios of future global
warming, although there is still an increased risk of drought. Moreover,
our results highlight that the practice of assessing the climate-forcing
potential of all greenhouse gases in terms of their radiative forcing
potential relative to carbon dioxide does not accurately reflect the
relative effects of different greenhouse gases on freshwater resources.
  doi = {10.1038/nature06045},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Textor}, C. and {Schulz}, M. and {Guibert}, S. and {Kinne}, S. and 
	{Balkanski}, Y. and {Bauer}, S. and {Berntsen}, T. and {Berglen}, T. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Chin}, M. and {Dentener}, F. and {Diehl}, T. and 
	{Feichter}, J. and {Fillmore}, D. and {Ginoux}, P. and {Gong}, S. and 
	{Grini}, A. and {Hendricks}, J. and {Horowitz}, L. and {Huang}, P. and 
	{Isaksen}, I.~S.~A. and {Iversen}, T. and {Kloster}, S. and 
	{Koch}, D. and {Kirkev{\^a}g}, A. and {Kristjansson}, J.~E. and 
	{Krol}, M. and {Lauer}, A. and {Lamarque}, J.~F. and {Liu}, X. and 
	{Montanaro}, V. and {Myhre}, G. and {Penner}, J.~E. and {Pitari}, G. and 
	{Reddy}, M.~S. and {Seland}, {\O}. and {Stier}, P. and {Takemura}, T. and 
	{Tie}, X.},
  title = {{The effect of harmonized emissions on aerosol properties in global models   an AeroCom experiment}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2007,
  month = aug,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {4489-4501},
  abstract = {{The effects of unified aerosol sources on global aerosol fields
simulated by different models are examined in this paper. We compare
results from two AeroCom experiments, one with different (ExpA) and one
with unified emissions, injection heights, and particle sizes at the
source (ExpB). Surprisingly, harmonization of aerosol sources has only a
small impact on the simulated inter-model diversity of the global
aerosol burden, and consequently global optical properties, as the
results are largely controlled by model-specific transport, removal,
chemistry (leading to the formation of secondary aerosols) and
parameterizations of aerosol microphysics (e.g., the split between
deposition pathways) and to a lesser extent by the spatial and temporal
distributions of the (precursor) emissions.    The burdens of black
carbon and especially sea salt become more coherent in ExpB only,
because the large ExpA diversities for these two species were caused by
a few outliers. The experiment also showed that despite prescribing
emission fluxes and size distributions, ambiguities in the
implementation in individual models can lead to substantial differences.
These results indicate the need for a better understanding of aerosol
life cycles at process level (including spatial dispersal and
interaction with meteorological parameters) in order to obtain more
reliable results from global aerosol simulations. This is particularly
important as such model results are used to assess the consequences of
specific air pollution abatement strategies.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ngo-Duc}, T. and {Laval}, K. and {Ramillien}, G. and {Polcher}, J. and 
	{Cazenave}, A.},
  title = {{Validation of the land water storage simulated by Organising Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data}},
  journal = {Water Resources Research},
  keywords = {Hydrology: Water budgets, History of Geophysics: Hydrology, Hydrology: Groundwater hydrology, Hydrology: Modeling, land water storage, transfer scheme, land surface model, GRACE, ORCHIDEE},
  year = 2007,
  month = apr,
  volume = 43,
  eid = {W04427},
  pages = {4427},
  abstract = {{The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission provides
measurements of spatiotemporal change in land water storage that may
improve simulation results of land surface models (LSMs). We show that a
transfer scheme recently developed within the Organising Carbon and
Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) LSM significantly improves
the simulated land water storage. Over large tropical rivers basins,
model results without the transfer scheme provide significantly smaller
amplitudes of water storage than observed by GRACE. Including the
transfer scheme that accounts for water stored in the river systems and
aquifers during its transfer to the oceans leads to predicted land water
storage that are comparable to GRACE observations. Water stored in
aquifers contributes about half the seasonal variation of water storage
over large basins such as the Amazon, Congo, Yangtze, Ganges,
Brahmaputra, and Mekong.
  doi = {10.1029/2006WR004941},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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