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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=2015 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_EMC32015.txt -ob lmd_EMC32015.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Locatelli}, R. and {Bousquet}, P. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Saunois}, M. and 
	{Cozic}, A. and {Couvreux}, F. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and 
	{Rio}, C. and {Bergamaschi}, P. and {Chambers}, S.~D. and {Karstens}, U. and 
	{Kazan}, V. and {van der Laan}, S. and {Meijer}, H.~A.~J. and 
	{Moncrieff}, J. and {Ramonet}, M. and {Scheeren}, H.~A. and 
	{Schlosser}, C. and {Schmidt}, M. and {Vermeulen}, A. and {Williams}, A.~G.
  title = {{Atmospheric transport and chemistry of trace gases in LMDz5B: evaluation and implications for inverse modelling}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {129-150},
  abstract = {{Representation of atmospheric transport is a major source of error in
the estimation of greenhouse gas sources and sinks by inverse modelling.
Here we assess the impact on trace gas mole fractions of the new
physical parameterizations recently implemented in the atmospheric
global climate model LMDz to improve vertical diffusion, mesoscale
mixing by thermal plumes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and deep
convection in the troposphere. At the same time, the horizontal and
vertical resolution of the model used in the inverse system has been
increased. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of these
developments on the representation of trace gas transport and chemistry,
and to anticipate the implications for inversions of greenhouse gas
emissions using such an updated model. 

Comparison of a one-dimensional version of LMDz with large eddy simulations shows that the thermal scheme simulates shallow convective tracer transport in the PBL over land very efficiently, and much better than previous versions of the model. This result is confirmed in three-dimensional simulations, by a much improved reproduction of the radon-222 diurnal cycle. However, the enhanced dynamics of tracer concentrations induces a stronger sensitivity of the new LMDz configuration to external meteorological forcings. At larger scales, the inter-hemispheric exchange is slightly slower when using the new version of the model, bringing them closer to observations. The increase in the vertical resolution (from 19 to 39 layers) significantly improves the representation of stratosphere/troposphere exchange. Furthermore, changes in atmospheric thermodynamic variables, such as temperature, due to changes in the PBL mixing modify chemical reaction rates, which perturb chemical equilibriums of reactive trace gases.

One implication of LMDz model developments for future inversions of greenhouse gas emissions is the ability of the updated system to assimilate a larger amount of high-frequency data sampled at high-variability stations. Others implications are discussed at the end of the paper. }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-8-129-2015}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Benetti}, M. and {Aloisi}, G. and {Reverdin}, G. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Sèze}, G.},
  title = {{Importance of boundary layer mixing for the isotopic composition of surface vapor over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water isotopes, d-excess, kinetic effects, shallow convection, marine boundary layer, evaporation},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {2190-2209},
  abstract = {{During the summer 2012, we carried out continuous measurements of the
isotopic composition ({$\delta$}) of water vapor over the near-surface
subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (STRASSE cruise). In this region of
excess evaporation, we investigate the control of evaporation and mixing
with a lower troposphere-derived, isotopically depleted air mass on the
near-surface {$\delta$}. We use a simple model to simulate the near-surface
{$\delta$} as the result of a two end-member mixing of the evaporative flux
with free tropospheric air. The evaporative flux {$\delta$} was estimated
by the Craig and Gordon equation while the {$\delta$} of the lower
troposphere was taken from the LMDZ-iso global atmospheric circulation
model. This simulation considers instantaneous mixing of lower
tropospheric air with the evaporated flux and neglects lateral
advection. Despite these simplifications, the simulations allow to
identify the controls on the near-surface {$\delta$}. The d-excess
variability is largely a consequence of varying kinetic effects during
evaporation, even during a convection event when the input of
tropospheric vapor was strong. Kinetic effects and mixing processes
affect simultaneously the near-surface {$\delta$} and result in the vapor
occupying distinct domains in the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O-{$\delta$}D space.
The relative humidity-d-excess relationship shows that the closure
assumption overestimates the d-excess variability at short time scales
(less than a day). We interpret this as due to an effect of the
residence time of the near-surface water vapor on the d-excess. Finally,
we highlight the importance of reproducing mixing processes in models
simulating isotopes over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean and
propose an extension of the closure assumption for use in initial
conditions of distillation calculations.
  doi = {10.1002/2014JD021947},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Stevens}, B. and {Frierson}, D.~M.~W. and {Jakob}, C. and 
	{Kageyama}, M. and {Pincus}, R. and {Shepherd}, T.~G. and {Sherwood}, S.~C. and 
	{Siebesma}, A.~P. and {Sobel}, A.~H. and {Watanabe}, M. and 
	{Webb}, M.~J.},
  title = {{Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {261-268},
  abstract = {{Fundamental puzzles of climate science remain unsolved because of our
limited understanding of how clouds, circulation and climate interact.
One example is our inability to provide robust assessments of future
global and regional climate changes. However, ongoing advances in our
capacity to observe, simulate and conceptualize the climate system now
make it possible to fill gaps in our knowledge. We argue that progress
can be accelerated by focusing research on a handful of important
scientific questions that have become tractable as a result of recent
advances. We propose four such questions below; they involve
understanding the role of cloud feedbacks and convective organization in
climate, and the factors that control the position, the strength and the
variability of the tropical rain belts and the extratropical storm
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2398},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bonne}, J.-L. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Werner}, M. and {Sodemann}, H. and {Lacour}, J.-L. and {Fettweis}, X. and 
	{Cesana}, G. and {Delmotte}, M. and {Cattani}, O. and {Vallelonga}, P. and 
	{Kj{\ae}r}, H.~A. and {Clerbaux}, C. and {Sveinbj{\"o}rnsd{\'o}ttir}, {\'A}.~E. and 
	{Masson-Delmotte}, V.},
  title = {{The summer 2012 Greenland heat wave: In situ and remote sensing observations of water vapor isotopic composition during an atmospheric river event}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water isotopes, Greenland, atmospheric river},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {2970-2989},
  abstract = {{During 7-12 July 2012, extreme moist and warm conditions occurred over
Greenland, leading to widespread surface melt. To investigate the
physical processes during the atmospheric moisture transport of this
event, we study the water vapor isotopic composition using surface in
situ observations in Bermuda Island, South Greenland coast (Ivittuut),
and northwest Greenland ice sheet (NEEM), as well as remote sensing
observations (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)
instrument on board MetOp-A), depicting propagation of similar surface
and midtropospheric humidity and {$\delta$}D signals. Simulations using
Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic and water tagging in a regional
model showed that Greenland was affected by an atmospheric river
transporting moisture from the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean,
which is coherent with observations of snow pit impurities deposited at
NEEM. At Ivittuut, surface air temperature, humidity, and {$\delta$}D
increases are observed. At NEEM, similar temperature increase is
associated with a large and long-lasting {\tilde}100{\permil}{$\delta$}D
enrichment and {\tilde}15{\permil} deuterium excess decrease, thereby
reaching Ivittuut level. We assess the simulation of this event in two
isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation models (LMDz-iso and
ECHAM5-wiso). LMDz-iso correctly captures the timing of propagation for
this event identified in IASI data but depict too gradual variations
when compared to surface data. Both models reproduce the surface
meteorological and isotopic values during the event but underestimate
the background deuterium excess at NEEM. Cloud liquid water content
parametrization in LMDz-iso poorly impacts the vapor isotopic
composition. Our data demonstrate that during this atmospheric river
event the deuterium excess signal is conserved from the moisture source
to northwest Greenland.
  doi = {10.1002/2014JD022602},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{L'Hévéder}, B. and {Codron}, F. and {Ghil}, M.},
  title = {{Impact of Anomalous Northward Oceanic Heat Transport on Global Climate in a Slab Ocean Setting}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {2650-2664},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00377.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gao}, J. and {Risi}, C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {He}, Y. and 
	{Xu}, B.},
  title = {{Southern Tibetan Plateau ice core {$\delta$}$^{18}$O reflects abrupt shifts in atmospheric circulation in the late 1970s}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  abstract = {{Ice cores from the Tibetan Plateau provide high-resolution records of
changes in the snow and ice isotopic composition. In the monsoon sector
of southern Tibetan Plateau, their climatic interpretation has been
controversial. Here, we present a new high-resolution
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O record obtained from 2206 measurements performed
at 2-3 cm depth resolution along a 55.1 m depth ice core retrieved from
the Noijinkansang glacier (NK, 5950 m a.s.l.) that spans the period from
1864 to 2006 AD. The data are characterized by high
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O values in the nineteenth century, 1910s and 1960s,
followed by a drop in the late 1970s and a recent increasing trend. The
comparison with regional meteorological data and with a simulation
performed with the LMDZiso general circulation model leads to the
attribution of the abrupt shift in the late 1970s predominantly to
changes in regional atmospheric circulation, together with the impact of
atmospheric temperature change. Correlation analyses suggest that the
large-scale modes of variability (PDO and ENSO, i.e. Pacific Decadal
Oscillation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation) play important roles in
modulating NK {$\delta$}$^{18}$O changes. The NK
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O minimum at the end of the 1970s coincides with a
PDO phase shift, an inflexion point of the zonal index (representing the
overall intensity of the surface westerly anomalies over middle
latitudes) as well as ENSO, implying interdecadal modulation of the
influence of the PDO/ENSO on the Indian monsoon on southern TP
precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O. While convective activity above
North India controls the intra-seasonal variability of precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O in southern TP, other processes associated with
changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation act at the inter-annual
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-015-2584-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Medeiros}, B. and {Stevens}, B. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Using aquaplanets to understand the robust responses of comprehensive climate models to forcing}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate change, Climate models, Cloud radiative effect, Aquaplanet, Tropospheric adjustment, Climate feedbacks},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {1957-1977},
  abstract = {{Idealized climate change experiments using fixed sea-surface temperature
are investigated to determine whether zonally symmetric aquaplanet
configurations are useful for understanding climate feedbacks in more
realistic configurations. The aquaplanets capture many of the robust
responses of the large-scale circulation and hydrologic cycle to both
warming the sea-surface temperature and quadrupling atmospheric
CO$_{2}$. The cloud response to both perturbations varies across
models in both Earth-like and aquaplanet configurations, and this spread
arises primarily from regions of large-scale subsidence. Most models
produce a consistent cloud change across the subsidence regimes, and the
feedback in trade-wind cumulus regions dominates the tropical response.
It is shown that these trade-wind regions have similar cloud feedback in
Earth-like and aquaplanet warming experiments. The tropical average
cloud feedback of the Earth-like experiment is captured by five of eight
aquaplanets, and the three outliers are investigated to understand the
discrepancy. In two models, the discrepancy is due to warming induced
dissipation of stratocumulus decks in the Earth-like configuration which
are not represented in the aquaplanet. One model shows a circulation
response in the aquaplanet experiment accompanied by a cloud response
that differs from the Earth-like configuration. Quadrupling atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ in aquaplanets produces slightly greater adjusted forcing
than in Earth-like configurations, showing that land-surface effects
dampen the adjusted forcing. The analysis demonstrates how aquaplanets,
as part of a model hierarchy, help elucidate robust aspects of climate
change and develop understanding of the processes underlying them.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2138-0},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Myhre}, G. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bréon}, F.-M. and {Forster}, P. and 
	{Shindell}, D.},
  title = {{Declining uncertainty in transient climate response as CO$_{2}$ forcing dominates future climate change}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {181-185},
  abstract = {{Carbon dioxide has exerted the largest portion of radiative forcing and
surface temperature change over the industrial era, but other
anthropogenic influences have also contributed. However, large
uncertainties in total forcing make it difficult to derive climate
sensitivity from historical observations. Anthropogenic forcing has
increased between the Fourth and Fifth Assessment Reports of the
Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC; refs , ), although its
relative uncertainty has decreased. Here we show, based on data from the
two reports, that this evolution towards lower uncertainty can be
expected to continue into the future. Because it is easier to reduce air
pollution than carbon dioxide emissions and because of the long lifetime
of carbon dioxide, the less uncertain carbon dioxide forcing is expected
to become increasingly dominant. Using a statistical model, we estimate
that the relative uncertainty in anthropogenic forcing of more than 40\%
quoted in the latest IPCC report for 2011 will be almost halved by 2030,
even without better scientific understanding. Absolute forcing
uncertainty will also decline for the first time, provided projected
decreases in aerosols occur. Other factors being equal, this stronger
constraint on forcing will bring a significant reduction in the
uncertainty of observation-based estimates of the transient climate
response, with a 50\% reduction in its uncertainty range expected by
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2371},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Good}, P. and {Lowe}, J.~A. and {Andrews}, T. and {Wiltshire}, A. and 
	{Chadwick}, R. and {Ridley}, J.-K. and {Menary}, M.~B. and {Bouttes}, N. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.~L. and {Gregory}, J.~M. and {Schaller}, N. and 
	{Shiogama}, H.},
  title = {{Corrigendum: Nonlinear regional warming with increasing CO$_{2}$ concentrations}},
  journal = {Nature Climate Change},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {280},
  doi = {10.1038/nclimate2546},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Jiang}, J.~H. and {Su}, H. and {Zhai}, C. and {Janice Shen}, T. and 
	{Wu}, T. and {Zhang}, J. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {von Salzen}, K. and 
	{Donner}, L.~J. and {Seman}, C. and {Del Genio}, A. and {Nazarenko}, L.~S. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Watanabe}, M. and {Morcrette}, C. and 
	{Koshiro}, T. and {Kawai}, H. and {Gettelman}, A. and {Mill{\'a}n}, L. and 
	{Read}, W.~G. and {Livesey}, N.~J. and {Kasai}, Y. and {Shiotani}, M.
  title = {{Evaluating the Diurnal Cycle of Upper-Tropospheric Ice Clouds in Climate Models Using SMILES Observations}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 72,
  pages = {1022-1044},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-14-0124.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pang}, H. and {Hou}, S. and {Landais}, A. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Prie}, F. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Risi}, C. and {Li}, Y. and 
	{Jouzel}, J. and {Wang}, Y. and {He}, J. and {Minster}, B. and 
	{Falourd}, S.},
  title = {{Spatial distribution of $^{17}$O-excess in surface snow along a traverse from Zhongshan station to Dome A, East Antarctica}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  keywords = {water isotopologues, $^{17}$O-excess, Dome A, ice sheet, Antarctica},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 414,
  pages = {126-133},
  abstract = {{The influence of temperature on the triple isotopic composition of
oxygen in water is still an open question and limits the interpretation
of water isotopic profiles in Antarctic ice cores. The main limitation
arises from the lack of $^{17}$O-excess measurements in surface
snow and especially for remote regions characterized by low temperature
and accumulation rate. In this study, we present new
$^{17}$O-excess measurements of surface snow along an East
Antarctic traverse, from the coastal Zhongshan station to the highest
point of the Antarctic ice sheet at Dome A. The $^{17}$O-excess
data significantly decrease inland, with a latitudinal gradient of -
1.33 {\plusmn} 0.41 per meg/degree, an altitudinal gradient of - 0.48
{\plusmn} 0.17 permeg / 100 m, and a temperature gradient of 0.35
{\plusmn} 0.11 permeg /{\deg}C. Theoretical calculations performed using a
Rayleigh model attribute this inland decrease to kinetic isotopic
fractionation occurring during condensation from vapor to ice under
supersaturation conditions at low temperatures. However, large
heterogeneity of $^{17}$O-excess in Antarctic precipitation cannot
only be explained by temperature at condensation and/or influences of
relative humidity in the moisture source region.
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2015.01.014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{May}, W. and {Meier}, A. and {Rummukainen}, M. and {Berg}, A. and 
	{Chéruy}, F. and {Hagemann}, S.},
  title = {{Contributions of soil moisture interactions to climate change in the tropics in the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Tropics, Climate change, Soil moisture, Soil moisture-temperature coupling, Soil moisture-precipitation coupling},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  abstract = {{Contributions of changes in soil moisture to the projected climate
change in the tropics at the end of the twenty first century are
quantified using the simulations from five different global climate
models, which contributed to the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. ''GLACE'' refers
to the Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment and ''CMIP5'' to the
fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. This is done
by relating the overall projected changes in climate to those changes in
climate that are related to the projected changes in soil moisture. The
study focusses on two particular aspects of the interactions of the soil
moisture with climate, the soil moisture-temperature coupling and the
soil moisture-precipitation coupling. The simulations show distinct
future changes in soil moisture content in the tropics, with a general
tendency of increases in the central parts of the tropics and decreases
in the subtropics. These changes are associated with corresponding
changes in precipitation, with an overall tendency of an approximate 5 \%
change in soil moisture in response to a precipitation change of 1
mm/day. All five individual models are characterized by the same
qualitative behaviour, despite differences in the strength and in the
robustness of the coupling between soil moisture and precipitation. The
changes in soil moisture content are found to give important
contributions to the overall climate change in the tropics. This is in
particularly the case for latent and sensible heat flux, for which about
80 \% of the overall changes are related to soil moisture changes.
Similarly, about 80 \% of the overall near-surface temperature changes
(with the mean temperature changes in the tropics removed) are
associated with soil moisture changes. For precipitation, on the other
hand, about 30-40 \% of the overall change can be attributed to soil
moisture changes. The robustness of the contributions of the soil
moisture changes to the overall climate change varies between the
different meteorological variables, with a high degree of robustness for
the surface energy fluxes, a fair degree for near-surface temperature
and a low degree for precipitation. Similar to the coupling between soil
moisture and precipitation, the five individual models are characterized
by the same qualitative behaviour, albeit differences in the strength
and the robustness of the contributions of the soil moisture change.
This suggests that despite the regional differences in the projected
climate changes between the individual models, the basic physical
mechanisms governing the soil moisture-temperature coupling and the soil
moisture-precipitation coupling work similarly in these models. The
experiment confirms the conceptual models of the soil
moisture-temperature coupling and the soil moisture-precipitation
coupling described Seneviratne et al. (Earth-Sci Rev 99:125-161, 2010).
For the soil moisture-temperature coupling, decreases (increases) in
soil moisture lead to increasing (decreasing) sensible heat fluxes and
near-surface temperatures. The soil moisture-precipitation coupling is
part of a positive feedback loop, where increases (decreases) in
precipitation cause increases (decreases) in soil moisture content,
which, in turn, lead to increasing (decreasing) latent heat fluxes and
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-015-2538-9},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Webb}, M.~J. and {Lock}, A.~P. and {Bodas-Salcedo}, A. and 
	{Bony}, S. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Koshiro}, T. and {Kawai}, H. and 
	{Lacagnina}, C. and {Selten}, F.~M. and {Roehrig}, R. and {Stevens}, B.
  title = {{The diurnal cycle of marine cloud feedback in climate models}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Diurnal cycle, Cloud feedback, Climate change},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {1419-1436},
  abstract = {{We examine the diurnal cycle of marine cloud feedback using high
frequency outputs in CFMIP-2 idealised uniform +4 K SST perturbation
experiments from seven CMIP5 models. Most of the inter-model spread in
the diurnal mean marine shortwave cloud feedback can be explained by low
cloud responses, although these do not explain the model responses at
the neutral/weakly negative end of the feedback range, where changes in
mid and high level cloud properties are more important. All of the
models show reductions in marine low cloud fraction in the warmer
climate, and these are in almost all cases largest in the mornings when
more cloud is present in the control simulations. This results in
shortwave cloud feedbacks being slightly stronger and having the largest
inter-model spread at this time of day. The diurnal amplitudes of the
responses of marine cloud properties to the warming climate are however
small compared to the inter-model differences in their diurnally meaned
responses. This indicates that the diurnal cycle of cloud feedback is
not strongly relevant to understanding inter-model spread in overall
cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. A number of unusual behaviours
in individual models are highlighted for future investigation.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2234-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lacour}, J.-L. and {Clarisse}, L. and {Worden}, J. and {Schneider}, M. and 
	{Barthlott}, S. and {Hase}, F. and {Risi}, C. and {Clerbaux}, C. and 
	{Hurtmans}, D. and {Coheur}, P.-F.},
  title = {{Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric {$\delta$}D with TES and ground-based FTIR observations}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {1447-1466},
  abstract = {{The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying onboard
MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO
to H$_{2}$O ratio ({$\delta$}D) in the troposphere. Such observations
at the high spatio-temporal resolution of the sounder are of great
interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling
humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess
the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically.
To achieve this, we compare IASI {$\delta$}D retrieved profiles with other
available profiles of {$\delta$}D, from the TES infrared sounder onboard
AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the
MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric
Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Iza{\~n}a, and the TCCON site
Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records
mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement
between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors
are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are
made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea
and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to
{$\delta$}D in the free troposphere which allows one to compare their
measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is
lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking
into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the
comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because the
sensitivity profiles of the two observing systems do not allow to take
into account their differences of sensitivity. We identify a quasi
negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3{\permil}) between IASI
retrieved {$\delta$}D with the TES, which are bias corrected, but important
with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47{\permil}. We also suggest that
model-satellite observation comparisons could be optimized with IASI
thanks to its high spatial and temporal sampling.
  doi = {10.5194/amt-8-1447-2015},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Good}, P. and {Lowe}, J.~A. and {Andrews}, T. and {Wiltshire}, A. and 
	{Chadwick}, R. and {Ridley}, J.~K. and {Menary}, M.~B. and {Bouttes}, N. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.~L. and {Gregory}, J.~M. and {Schaller}, N. and 
	{Shiogama}, H.},
  title = {{Nonlinear regional warming with increasing CO$_{2}$ concentrations}},
  journal = {Nature Climate Change},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {138-142},
  abstract = {{When considering adaptation measures and global climate mitigation
goals, stakeholders need regional-scale climate projections, including
the range of plausible warming rates. To assist these stakeholders, it
is important to understand whether some locations may see
disproportionately high or low warming from additional forcing above
targets such as 2 K (ref. ). There is a need to narrow uncertainty in
this nonlinear warming, which requires understanding how climate changes
as forcings increase from medium to high levels. However, quantifying
and understanding regional nonlinear processes is challenging. Here we
show that regional-scale warming can be strongly superlinear to
successive CO$_{2}$ doublings, using five different climate
models. Ensemble-mean warming is superlinear over most land locations.
Further, the inter-model spread tends to be amplified at higher forcing
levels, as nonlinearities grow--especially when considering changes per
kelvin of global warming. Regional nonlinearities in surface warming
arise from nonlinearities in global-mean radiative balance, the Atlantic
meridional overturning circulation, surface snow/ice cover and
evapotranspiration. For robust adaptation and mitigation advice,
therefore, potentially avoidable climate change (the difference between
business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios) and unavoidable climate
change (change under strong mitigation scenarios) may need different
analysis methods.
  doi = {10.1038/nclimate2498},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Oerder}, V. and {Colas}, F. and {Echevin}, V. and {Codron}, F. and 
	{Tam}, J. and {Belmadani}, A.},
  title = {{Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)},
  keywords = {regional climate change, Peru-Chile current system, dynamical downscaling, upwelling dynamics},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {1152-1172},
  abstract = {{The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System
(PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution,
eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical
downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General
Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of
CO$_{2}$ concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution
atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the
IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal
resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to
preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile
coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased
stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal
poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet
shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in
alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round
reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic
circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The
depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer
conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological
  doi = {10.1002/2014JC010299},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Berg}, A. and {Lintner}, B.~R. and {Findell}, K. and {Seneviratne}, S.~I. and 
	{van den Hurk}, B. and {Ducharne}, A. and {Chéruy}, F. and 
	{Hagemann}, S. and {Lawrence}, D.~M. and {Malyshev}, S. and 
	{Meier}, A. and {Gentine}, P.},
  title = {{Interannual Coupling between Summertime Surface Temperature and Precipitation over Land: Processes and Implications for Climate Change*}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {1308-1328},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00324.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Wang}, R. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Boucher}, O. and {Ciais}, P. and 
	{Pe{\~n}uelas}, J. and {Tao}, S.},
  title = {{Significant contribution of combustion-related emissions to the atmospheric phosphorus budget}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2015,
  month = jan,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {48-54},
  abstract = {{Atmospheric phosphorus fertilizes plants and contributes to Earth's
biogeochemical phosphorus cycle. However, calculations of the global
budget of atmospheric phosphorus have been unbalanced, with global
deposition exceeding estimated emissions from dust and sea-salt
transport, volcanic eruptions, biogenic sources and combustion of fossil
fuels, biofuels and biomass, the latter of which thought to contribute
about 5\% of total emissions. Here we use measurements of the phosphorus
content of various fuels and estimates of the partitioning of phosphorus
during combustion to calculate phosphorus emissions to the atmosphere
from all combustion sources. We estimate combustion-related emissions of
1.8 Tg P yr$^{-1}$, which represent over 50\% of global atmospheric
sources of phosphorus. Using these estimates in atmospheric transport
model simulations, we find that the total global emissions of
atmospheric phosphorus (3.5 Tg P yr$^{-1}$) translate to a
depositional sink of 2.7 Tg P yr$^{-1}$ over land and 0.8 Tg P
yr$^{-1}$ over the oceans. The modelled spatial patterns of
phosphorus deposition agree with observations from globally distributed
measurement stations, and indicate a near balance of the phosphorus
budget. Our finding suggests that the perturbation of the global
phosphorus cycle by anthropogenic emissions is larger thanpreviously
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2324},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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