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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Grandpeix"  ' -c year=2013 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Grandpeix2013.txt -ob lmd_Grandpeix2013.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Caubel}, A. and {Marti}, O. and {Aumont}, O. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Bekki}, S. and {Bellenger}, H. and {Benshila}, R. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Bopp}, L. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Brockmann}, P. and {Cadule}, P. and 
	{Cheruy}, F. and {Codron}, F. and {Cozic}, A. and {Cugnet}, D. and 
	{de Noblet}, N. and {Duvel}, J.-P. and {Ethé}, C. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Fichefet}, T. and {Flavoni}, S. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Guez}, L. and {Guilyardi}, E. and {Hauglustaine}, D. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Idelkadi}, A. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Joussaume}, S. and 
	{Kageyama}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Labetoulle}, S. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Lefevre}, F. and {Levy}, C. and {Li}, Z.~X. and 
	{Lloyd}, J. and {Lott}, F. and {Madec}, G. and {Mancip}, M. and 
	{Marchand}, M. and {Masson}, S. and {Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Mignot}, J. and 
	{Musat}, I. and {Parouty}, S. and {Polcher}, J. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Schulz}, M. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Szopa}, S. and {Talandier}, C. and 
	{Terray}, P. and {Viovy}, N. and {Vuichard}, N.},
  title = {{Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate, Climate change, Climate projections, Earth System Model, CMIP5, CMIP3, Greenhouse gases, Aerosols, Carbon cycle, Allowable emissions, RCP scenarios, Land use changes},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2123-2165},
  abstract = {{We present the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to
study the long-term response of the climate system to natural and
anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This model includes an interactive
carbon cycle, a representation of tropospheric and stratospheric
chemistry, and a comprehensive representation of aerosols. As it
represents the principal dynamical, physical, and bio-geochemical
processes relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an
Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model may be used in a
multitude of configurations associated with different boundary
conditions and with a range of complexities in terms of processes and
interactions. This paper presents an overview of the different model
components and explains how they were coupled and used to simulate
historical climate changes over the past 150 years and different
scenarios of future climate change. A single version of the IPSL-CM5
model (IPSL-CM5A-LR) was used to provide climate projections associated
with different socio-economic scenarios, including the different
Representative Concentration Pathways considered by CMIP5 and several
scenarios from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios considered by
CMIP3. Results suggest that the magnitude of global warming projections
primarily depends on the socio-economic scenario considered, that there
is potential for an aggressive mitigation policy to limit global warming
to about two degrees, and that the behavior of some components of the
climate system such as the Arctic sea ice and the Atlantic Meridional
Overturning Circulation may change drastically by the end of the
twenty-first century in the case of a no climate policy scenario.
Although the magnitude of regional temperature and precipitation changes
depends fairly linearly on the magnitude of the projected global warming
(and thus on the scenario considered), the geographical pattern of these
changes is strikingly similar for the different scenarios. The
representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model is shown
to strongly influence the simulated climate variability and both the
magnitude and pattern of the projected climate changes.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1636-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Rio}, C. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Jam}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Idelkadi}, A. and {Musat}, I. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Roehrig}, R.},
  title = {{LMDZ5B: the atmospheric component of the IPSL climate model with revisited parameterizations for clouds and convection}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate modeling, Physical parameterizations, Shallow convection, Deep convection, Climate change projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2193-2222},
  abstract = {{Based on a decade of research on cloud processes, a new version of the
LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model has been developed that
corresponds to a complete recasting of the parameterization of
turbulence, convection and clouds. This LMDZ5B version includes a
mass-flux representation of the thermal plumes or rolls of the
convective boundary layer, coupled to a bi-Gaussian statistical cloud
scheme, as well as a parameterization of the cold pools generated below
cumulonimbus by re-evaporation of convective precipitation. The
triggering and closure of deep convection are now controlled by lifting
processes in the sub-cloud layer. An available lifting energy and
lifting power are provided both by the thermal plumes and by the spread
of cold pools. The individual parameterizations were carefully validated
against the results of explicit high resolution simulations. Here we
present the work done to go from those new concepts and developments to
a full 3D atmospheric model, used in particular for climate change
projections with the IPSL-CM5B coupled model. Based on a series of
sensitivity experiments, we document the differences with the previous
LMDZ5A version distinguishing the role of parameterization changes from
that of model tuning. Improvements found previously in single-column
simulations of case studies are confirmed in the 3D model: (1) the
convective boundary layer and cumulus clouds are better represented and
(2) the diurnal cycle of convective rainfall over continents is delayed
by several hours, solving a longstanding problem in climate modeling.
The variability of tropical rainfall is also larger in LMDZ5B at
intraseasonal time-scales. Significant biases of the LMDZ5A model
however remain, or are even sometimes amplified. The paper emphasizes
the importance of parameterization improvements and model tuning in the
frame of climate change studies as well as the new paradigm that
represents the improvement of 3D climate models under the control of
single-column case studies simulations.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1343-y},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Tobin}, I. and {Bony}, S. and {Holloway}, C.~E. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and 
	{Sèze}, G. and {Coppin}, D. and {Woolnough}, S.~J. and {Roca}, R.
  title = {{Does convective aggregation need to be represented in cumulus parameterizations?}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {tropical deep convection, convective aggregation, satellite observations cloud-system resolving model, cumulus parameterization, large-scale circulation},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {692-703},
  abstract = {{Tropical deep convection exhibits a variety of levels of aggregation
over a wide range of scales. Based on a multisatellite analysis, the
present study shows at mesoscale that different levels of aggregation
are statistically associated with differing large-scale atmospheric
states, despite similar convective intensity and large-scale forcings.
The more aggregated the convection, the dryer and less cloudy the
atmosphere, the stronger the outgoing longwave radiation, and the lower
the planetary albedo. This suggests that mesoscale convective
aggregation has the potential to affect couplings between moisture and
convection and between convection, radiation, and large-scale ascent. In
so doing, aggregation may play a role in phenomena such as ''hot spots''
or the Madden-Julian Oscillation. These findings support the need for
the representation of mesoscale organization in cumulus
parameterizations; most parameterizations used in current climate models
lack any such representation. The ability of a cloud system-resolving
model to reproduce observed relationships suggests that such models may
be useful to guide attempts at parameterizations of convective
  doi = {10.1002/jame.20047},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rio}, C. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Guichard}, F. and 
	{Couvreux}, F. and {Lafore}, J.-P. and {Fridlind}, A. and {Mrowiec}, A. and 
	{Roehrig}, R. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Idelkadi}, A.
  title = {{Control of deep convection by sub-cloud lifting processes: the ALP closure in the LMDZ5B general circulation model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Deep convection parameterization, Triggering and closure, Oceanic versus continental convection, Diurnal cycle of precipitation, High resolution simulations to evaluate parameterizations assumptions},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2271-2292},
  abstract = {{Recently, a new conceptual framework for deep convection scheme
triggering and closure has been developed and implemented in the LMDZ5B
general circulation model, based on the idea that deep convection is
controlled by sub-cloud lifting processes. Such processes include
boundary-layer thermals and evaporatively-driven cold pools (wakes),
which provide an available lifting energy that is compared to the
convective inhibition to trigger deep convection, and an available
lifting power (ALP) at cloud base, which is used to compute the
convective mass flux assuming the updraft vertical velocity at the level
of free convection. While the ALP closure was shown to delay the local
hour of maximum precipitation over land in better agreement with
observations, it results in an underestimation of the convection
intensity over the tropical ocean both in the 1D and 3D configurations
of the model. The specification of the updraft vertical velocity at the
level of free convection appears to be a key aspect of the closure
formulation, as it is weaker over tropical ocean than over land and
weaker in moist mid-latitudes than semi-arid regions. We propose a
formulation making this velocity increase with the level of free
convection, so that the ALP closure is adapted to various environments.
Cloud-resolving model simulations of observed oceanic and continental
case studies are used to evaluate the representation of lifting
processes and test the assumptions at the basis of the ALP closure
formulation. Results favor closures based on the lifting power of
sub-grid sub-cloud processes rather than those involving
quasi-equilibrium with the large-scale environment. The new version of
the model including boundary-layer thermals and cold pools coupled
together with the deep convection scheme via the ALP closure
significantly improves the representation of various observed case
studies in 1D mode. It also substantially modifies precipitation
patterns in the full 3D version of the model, including seasonal means,
diurnal cycle and intraseasonal variability.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1506-x},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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