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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Hourdin"  ' -c year=2013 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Hourdin2013.txt -ob lmd_Hourdin2013.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Caubel}, A. and {Marti}, O. and {Aumont}, O. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Bekki}, S. and {Bellenger}, H. and {Benshila}, R. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Bopp}, L. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Brockmann}, P. and {Cadule}, P. and 
	{Cheruy}, F. and {Codron}, F. and {Cozic}, A. and {Cugnet}, D. and 
	{de Noblet}, N. and {Duvel}, J.-P. and {Ethé}, C. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Fichefet}, T. and {Flavoni}, S. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Guez}, L. and {Guilyardi}, E. and {Hauglustaine}, D. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Idelkadi}, A. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Joussaume}, S. and 
	{Kageyama}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Labetoulle}, S. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Lefevre}, F. and {Levy}, C. and {Li}, Z.~X. and 
	{Lloyd}, J. and {Lott}, F. and {Madec}, G. and {Mancip}, M. and 
	{Marchand}, M. and {Masson}, S. and {Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Mignot}, J. and 
	{Musat}, I. and {Parouty}, S. and {Polcher}, J. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Schulz}, M. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Szopa}, S. and {Talandier}, C. and 
	{Terray}, P. and {Viovy}, N. and {Vuichard}, N.},
  title = {{Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate, Climate change, Climate projections, Earth System Model, CMIP5, CMIP3, Greenhouse gases, Aerosols, Carbon cycle, Allowable emissions, RCP scenarios, Land use changes},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2123-2165},
  abstract = {{We present the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to
study the long-term response of the climate system to natural and
anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This model includes an interactive
carbon cycle, a representation of tropospheric and stratospheric
chemistry, and a comprehensive representation of aerosols. As it
represents the principal dynamical, physical, and bio-geochemical
processes relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an
Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model may be used in a
multitude of configurations associated with different boundary
conditions and with a range of complexities in terms of processes and
interactions. This paper presents an overview of the different model
components and explains how they were coupled and used to simulate
historical climate changes over the past 150 years and different
scenarios of future climate change. A single version of the IPSL-CM5
model (IPSL-CM5A-LR) was used to provide climate projections associated
with different socio-economic scenarios, including the different
Representative Concentration Pathways considered by CMIP5 and several
scenarios from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios considered by
CMIP3. Results suggest that the magnitude of global warming projections
primarily depends on the socio-economic scenario considered, that there
is potential for an aggressive mitigation policy to limit global warming
to about two degrees, and that the behavior of some components of the
climate system such as the Arctic sea ice and the Atlantic Meridional
Overturning Circulation may change drastically by the end of the
twenty-first century in the case of a no climate policy scenario.
Although the magnitude of regional temperature and precipitation changes
depends fairly linearly on the magnitude of the projected global warming
(and thus on the scenario considered), the geographical pattern of these
changes is strikingly similar for the different scenarios. The
representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model is shown
to strongly influence the simulated climate variability and both the
magnitude and pattern of the projected climate changes.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1636-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Rio}, C. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Jam}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Idelkadi}, A. and {Musat}, I. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Roehrig}, R.},
  title = {{LMDZ5B: the atmospheric component of the IPSL climate model with revisited parameterizations for clouds and convection}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate modeling, Physical parameterizations, Shallow convection, Deep convection, Climate change projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2193-2222},
  abstract = {{Based on a decade of research on cloud processes, a new version of the
LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model has been developed that
corresponds to a complete recasting of the parameterization of
turbulence, convection and clouds. This LMDZ5B version includes a
mass-flux representation of the thermal plumes or rolls of the
convective boundary layer, coupled to a bi-Gaussian statistical cloud
scheme, as well as a parameterization of the cold pools generated below
cumulonimbus by re-evaporation of convective precipitation. The
triggering and closure of deep convection are now controlled by lifting
processes in the sub-cloud layer. An available lifting energy and
lifting power are provided both by the thermal plumes and by the spread
of cold pools. The individual parameterizations were carefully validated
against the results of explicit high resolution simulations. Here we
present the work done to go from those new concepts and developments to
a full 3D atmospheric model, used in particular for climate change
projections with the IPSL-CM5B coupled model. Based on a series of
sensitivity experiments, we document the differences with the previous
LMDZ5A version distinguishing the role of parameterization changes from
that of model tuning. Improvements found previously in single-column
simulations of case studies are confirmed in the 3D model: (1) the
convective boundary layer and cumulus clouds are better represented and
(2) the diurnal cycle of convective rainfall over continents is delayed
by several hours, solving a longstanding problem in climate modeling.
The variability of tropical rainfall is also larger in LMDZ5B at
intraseasonal time-scales. Significant biases of the LMDZ5A model
however remain, or are even sometimes amplified. The paper emphasizes
the importance of parameterization improvements and model tuning in the
frame of climate change studies as well as the new paradigm that
represents the improvement of 3D climate models under the control of
single-column case studies simulations.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1343-y},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Codron}, F. and {Guemas}, V. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Bony}, S. and {Denvil}, S. and {Guez}, L. and 
	{Lott}, F. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Marti}, O. and 
	{Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Bopp}, L.},
  title = {{Impact of the LMDZ atmospheric grid configuration on the climate and sensitivity of the IPSL-CM5A coupled model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate modeling, Grid resolution, Climate change projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2167-2192},
  abstract = {{The IPSL-CM5A climate model was used to perform a large number of
control, historical and climate change simulations in the frame of
CMIP5. The refined horizontal and vertical grid of the atmospheric
component, LMDZ, constitutes a major difference compared to the previous
IPSL-CM4 version used for CMIP3. From imposed-SST (Sea Surface
Temperature) and coupled numerical experiments, we systematically
analyze the impact of the horizontal and vertical grid resolution on the
simulated climate. The refinement of the horizontal grid results in a
systematic reduction of major biases in the mean tropospheric structures
and SST. The mid-latitude jets, located too close to the equator with
the coarsest grids, move poleward. This robust feature, is accompanied
by a drying at mid-latitudes and a reduction of cold biases in
mid-latitudes relative to the equator. The model was also extended to
the stratosphere by increasing the number of layers on the vertical from
19 to 39 (15 in the stratosphere) and adding relevant parameterizations.
The 39-layer version captures the dominant modes of the stratospheric
variability and exhibits stratospheric sudden warmings. Changing either
the vertical or horizontal resolution modifies the global energy balance
in imposed-SST simulations by typically several W/m$^{2}$ which
translates in the coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations into a different
global-mean SST. The sensitivity is of about 1.2 K per 1 W/m$^{2}$
when varying the horizontal grid. A re-tuning of model parameters was
thus required to restore this energy balance in the imposed-SST
simulations and reduce the biases in the simulated mean surface
temperature and, to some extent, latitudinal SST variations in the
coupled experiments for the modern climate. The tuning hardly
compensates, however, for robust biases of the coupled model. Despite
the wide range of grid configurations explored and their significant
impact on the present-day climate, the climate sensitivity remains
essentially unchanged.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1411-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rio}, C. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Guichard}, F. and 
	{Couvreux}, F. and {Lafore}, J.-P. and {Fridlind}, A. and {Mrowiec}, A. and 
	{Roehrig}, R. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Idelkadi}, A.
  title = {{Control of deep convection by sub-cloud lifting processes: the ALP closure in the LMDZ5B general circulation model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Deep convection parameterization, Triggering and closure, Oceanic versus continental convection, Diurnal cycle of precipitation, High resolution simulations to evaluate parameterizations assumptions},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2271-2292},
  abstract = {{Recently, a new conceptual framework for deep convection scheme
triggering and closure has been developed and implemented in the LMDZ5B
general circulation model, based on the idea that deep convection is
controlled by sub-cloud lifting processes. Such processes include
boundary-layer thermals and evaporatively-driven cold pools (wakes),
which provide an available lifting energy that is compared to the
convective inhibition to trigger deep convection, and an available
lifting power (ALP) at cloud base, which is used to compute the
convective mass flux assuming the updraft vertical velocity at the level
of free convection. While the ALP closure was shown to delay the local
hour of maximum precipitation over land in better agreement with
observations, it results in an underestimation of the convection
intensity over the tropical ocean both in the 1D and 3D configurations
of the model. The specification of the updraft vertical velocity at the
level of free convection appears to be a key aspect of the closure
formulation, as it is weaker over tropical ocean than over land and
weaker in moist mid-latitudes than semi-arid regions. We propose a
formulation making this velocity increase with the level of free
convection, so that the ALP closure is adapted to various environments.
Cloud-resolving model simulations of observed oceanic and continental
case studies are used to evaluate the representation of lifting
processes and test the assumptions at the basis of the ALP closure
formulation. Results favor closures based on the lifting power of
sub-grid sub-cloud processes rather than those involving
quasi-equilibrium with the large-scale environment. The new version of
the model including boundary-layer thermals and cold pools coupled
together with the deep convection scheme via the ALP closure
significantly improves the representation of various observed case
studies in 1D mode. It also substantially modifies precipitation
patterns in the full 3D version of the model, including seasonal means,
diurnal cycle and intraseasonal variability.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1506-x},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Campoy}, A. and {Ducharne}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Polcher}, J. and {Dupont}, J.~C.},
  title = {{Response of land surface fluxes and precipitation to different soil bottom hydrological conditions in a general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {land surface model, climate model, groundwater, soil-precipitation feedback Europe},
  year = 2013,
  month = oct,
  volume = 118,
  number = d17,
  pages = {10725},
  abstract = {{Very different approaches exist in land surface models (LSMs) to
describe the water fluxes at the soil bottom, from free drainage to zero
flux, and even upward fluxes if the soil is coupled to a water table. To
explore the influence of these conditions on the water cycle in a
unified framework, we introduce new boundary conditions in the ORCHIDEE
LSM, which is coupled to the atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ.
We use a zoomed and nudged configuration centered over France to
reproduce the observed regional weather. Soil moisture and
evapotranspiration increase ranging from free drainage to impermeable
bottom, then by prescribing saturation closer and closer to the surface.
The corresponding response patterns can be related to both climate
regimes and soil texture. When confronted to observations from the SIRTA
observatory 25 km south of Paris, which exhibits a shallow water table,
the best simulations are the ones with prescribed saturation. The local
precipitation, however, is only increased if the new bottom boundary
conditions are applied globally. The magnitude of this increase depends
on the evaporation and on the relative weight of local versus remote
sources of moisture for precipitation between Western and Eastern
Europe. This suggests that the summer warm/dry bias of many climate
models in this region might be alleviated by including a sufficiently
realistic ground water description.
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50627},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Cola{\"i}tis}, A. and {Spiga}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Millour}, E.},
  title = {{A thermal plume model for the Martian convective boundary layer}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1306.6215},
  primaryclass = {},
  keywords = {Mars, atmosphere, convection, boundary layer, large-eddy simulations, PBL parameterization},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {1468-1487},
  abstract = {{The Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) is a crucial component of the
Martian climate system. Global climate models (GCMs) and mesoscale
models (MMs) lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is
therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the ''thermal plume''
model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs,
MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically based
parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent
structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it
is resolved in large-eddy simulations (LESs). We find that the
terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly
account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL.
Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively
reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars:
superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at
PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking
into account stability and turbulent gustiness to calculate
surface-atmosphere fluxes. Those new parameterizations for the surface
and mixed layers are validated against near-surface lander measurements.
Using a thermal plume model moreover enables a first-order estimation of
key turbulent quantities (e.g., PBL height and convective plume
velocity) in Martian GCMs and MMs without having to run costly LESs.
  doi = {10.1002/jgre.20104},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{P Sabin}, T. and {Krishnan}, R. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Pascal}, T.},
  title = {{High resolution simulation of the South Asian monsoon using a variable resolution global climate model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {High-resolution variable-grid LMDZ model, South Asian monsoon, Moist-convective processes, Scale interactions},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {173-194},
  abstract = {{This study examines the feasibility of using a variable resolution
global general circulation model (GCM), with telescopic zooming and
enhanced resolution (\~{}35 km) over South Asia, to better understand
regional aspects of the South Asian monsoon rainfall distribution and
the interactions between monsoon circulation and precipitation. For this
purpose, two sets of ten member realizations are produced with and
without zooming using the LMDZ (Laboratoire Meteorologie Dynamique and Z
stands for zoom) GCM. The simulations without zoom correspond to a
uniform 1{\deg} {\times} 1{\deg} grid with the same total number of grid
points as in the zoom version. So the grid of the zoomed simulations is
finer inside the region of interest but coarser outside. The use of
these finer and coarser resolution ensemble members allows us to examine
the impact of resolution on the overall quality of the simulated
regional monsoon fields. It is found that the monsoon simulation with
high-resolution zooming greatly improves the representation of the
southwesterly monsoon flow and the heavy precipitation along the narrow
orography of the Western Ghats, the northeastern mountain slopes and
northern Bay of Bengal (BOB). A realistic Monsoon Trough (MT) is also
noticed in the zoomed simulation, together with remarkable improvements
in representing the associated precipitation and circulation features,
as well as the large-scale organization of meso-scale convective systems
over the MT region. Additionally, a more reasonable simulation of the
monsoon synoptic disturbances (lows and disturbances) along the MT is
noted in the high-resolution zoomed simulation. On the other hand, the
no-zoom version has limitations in capturing the depressions and their
movement, so that the MT zone is relatively dry in this case. Overall,
the results from this work demonstrate the usefulness of the
high-resolution variable resolution LMDZ model in realistically
capturing the interactions among the monsoon large-scale dynamics, the
synoptic systems and the meso-scale convective systems, which are
essential elements of the South Asian monsoon system.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1658-8},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Jam}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rio}, C. and {Couvreux}, F.
  title = {{Resolved Versus Parametrized Boundary-Layer Plumes. Part III: Derivation of a Statistical Scheme for Cumulus Clouds}},
  journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorology},
  keywords = {Boundary-layer thermals, Cloud scheme, Conditional sampling, Large-eddy simulations, Probability distribution function},
  year = 2013,
  month = jun,
  volume = 147,
  pages = {421-441},
  abstract = {{We present a statistical cloud scheme based on the subgrid-scale
distribution of the saturation deficit. When analyzed in large-eddy
simulations (LES) of a typical cloudy convective boundary layer, this
distribution is shown to be bimodal and reasonably well-fitted by a
bi-Gaussian distribution. Thanks to a tracer-based conditional sampling
of coherent structures of the convective boundary layer in LES, we
demonstrate that one mode corresponds to plumes of buoyant air arising
from the surface, and the second to their environment, both within the
cloud and sub-cloud layers. According to this analysis, we propose a
cloud scheme based on a bi-Gaussian distribution of the saturation
deficit, which can be easily coupled with any mass-flux scheme that
discriminates buoyant plumes from their environment. For that, the
standard deviations of the two Gaussian modes are parametrized starting
from the top-hat distribution of the subgrid-scale thermodynamic
variables given by the mass-flux scheme. Single-column model simulations
of continental and maritime case studies show that this approach allows
us to capture the vertical and temporal variations of the cloud cover
and liquid water.
  doi = {10.1007/s10546-012-9789-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Cheruy}, F. and {Campoy}, A. and {Dupont}, J.-C. and {Ducharne}, A. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Haeffelin}, M. and {Chiriaco}, M. and {Idelkadi}, A.
  title = {{Combined influence of atmospheric physics and soil hydrology on the simulated meteorology at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate model, Boundary layer parametrization, Evaluation, Land surface, Instrumented site, Land-atmosphere interactions},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2251-2269},
  abstract = {{The identification of the land-atmosphere interactions as one of the key
source of uncertainty in climate models calls for process-level
assessment of the coupled atmosphere/land continental surface system in
numerical climate models. To this end, we propose a novel approach and
apply it to evaluate the standard and new parametrizations of boundary
layer/convection/clouds in the Earth System Model (ESM) of Institut
Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), which differentiate the IPSL-CM5A and
IPSL-CM5B climate change simulations produced for the Coupled Model
Inter-comparison Project phase 5 exercise. Two different land surface
hydrology parametrizations are also considered to analyze different
land-atmosphere interactions. Ten-year simulations of the coupled land
surface/atmospheric ESM modules are confronted to observations collected
at the SIRTA (Site Instrumental de Recherche par
Télédection Atmosphérique), located near Paris
(France). For sounder evaluation of the physical parametrizations, the
grid of the model is stretched and refined in the vicinity of the SIRTA,
and the large scale component of the modeled circulation is adjusted
toward ERA-Interim reanalysis outside of the zoomed area. This allows us
to detect situations where the parametrizations do not perform
satisfactorily and can affect climate simulations at the
regional/continental scale, including in full 3D coupled runs. In
particular, we show how the biases in near surface state variables
simulated by the ESM are explained by (1) the sensible/latent heat
partitionning at the surface, (2) the low level cloudiness and its
radiative impact at the surface, (3) the parametrization of turbulent
transport in the surface layer, (4) the complex interplay between these
processes. We also show how the new set of parametrizations can improve
these biases.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1469-y},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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