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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Bony"  ' -c year=1992 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Bony1992.txt -ob lmd_Bony1992.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Duvel}, J.-P. and {Kandel}, R.~S.
  title = {{Satellite validation of GCM-simulated annual cycle of the Earth Radiation Budget and cloud forcing}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes},
  year = 1992,
  month = nov,
  volume = 97,
  pages = {18061-18081},
  abstract = {{Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data are used to validate
radiative fluxes and cloud radiative forcing (CRF) simulated by the
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) general
circulation model (GCM). The emphasis of the work is on the development
of new tests to obtain more significant elements of comparison between
model simulations and satellite observations. These tests are applied to
the clear-sky fluxes and the cloud radiative forcing. The validation of
the CRF described by a model requires to test the consistency between
the solar or shortwave (SW: 0.2 to 5 {$\mu$}m) and longwave (LW: 5 to 50
{$\mu$}m) cloud forcing. For this purpose, we compute the mean cloud
perturbation of the planetary albedo as a function of the LW cloud
forcing for both model results and ERBE observations. In the SW spectral
domain, the consideration of total fluxes does not provide very
constraining elements of validation because most of the observed
variations are prescribed (incoming solar radiation, solar zenith
angle). We therefore distinguish the part of the SW seasonal variations
related only to the variation of external parameters (mainly the
insolation) from the part which arises from the combined variation of
internal climate parameters (mainly cloud albedo and snow/ice cover)
with the insolation. Fourier analysis is used to study the seasonal
amplitude and phase of the CRF. The seasonal variation of the cloudiness
is, respectively, out of phase (in phase) with the insolation in
mid-latitudes (in low and high latitudes). We show that this acts to
enhance (to reduce) the seasonal amplitude of the absorbed SW flux in
mid-latitudes (in low and high latitudes). Finally, we show that the
impact of the seasonal variation of the cloudiness on the variation of
the net CRF is less than 10 W m$^{-2}$.
  doi = {10.1029/92JD01631},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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