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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=2001 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_LEGACY2001.txt -ob lmd_LEGACY2001.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Ramanathan}, V. and {Crutzen}, P.~J. and {Lelieveld}, J. and 
	{Mitra}, A.~P. and {Althausen}, D. and {Anderson}, J. and {Andreae}, M.~O. and 
	{Cantrell}, W. and {Cass}, G.~R. and {Chung}, C.~E. and {Clarke}, A.~D. and 
	{Coakley}, J.~A. and {Collins}, W.~D. and {Conant}, W.~C. and 
	{Dulac}, F. and {Heintzenberg}, J. and {Heymsfield}, A.~J. and 
	{Holben}, B. and {Howell}, S. and {Hudson}, J. and {Jayaraman}, A. and 
	{Kiehl}, J.~T. and {Krishnamurti}, T.~N. and {Lubin}, D. and 
	{McFarquhar}, G. and {Novakov}, T. and {Ogren}, J.~A. and {Podgorny}, I.~A. and 
	{Prather}, K. and {Priestley}, K. and {Prospero}, J.~M. and 
	{Quinn}, P.~K. and {Rajeev}, K. and {Rasch}, P. and {Rupert}, S. and 
	{Sadourny}, R. and {Satheesh}, S.~K. and {Shaw}, G.~E. and {Sheridan}, P. and 
	{Valero}, F.~P.~J.},
  title = {{Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles, Global Change: Atmosphere, Global Change: Climate dynamics, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes},
  year = 2001,
  month = nov,
  volume = 106,
  pages = {28371},
  abstract = {{Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most
of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian
Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales
ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional
climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations
(satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one-
and four-dimensional models to derive the regional aerosol forcing
resulting from the direct, the semidirect and the two indirect effects.
The haze particles consisted of several inorganic and carbonaceous
species, including absorbing black carbon clusters, fly ash, and mineral
dust. The most striking result was the large loading of aerosols over
most of the South Asian region and the North Indian Ocean. The January
to March 1999 visible optical depths were about 0.5 over most of the
continent and reached values as large as 0.2 over the equatorial Indian
ocean due to long-range transport. The aerosol layer extended as high as
3 km. Black carbon contributed about 14\% to the fine particle mass and
11\% to the visible optical depth. The single-scattering albedo estimated
by several independent methods was consistently around 0.9 both inland
and over the open ocean. Anthropogenic sources contributed as much as
80\% ({\plusmn}10\%) to the aerosol loading and the optical depth. The in
situ data, which clearly support the existence of the first indirect
effect (increased aerosol concentration producing more cloud drops with
smaller effective radii), are used to develop a composite indirect
effect scheme. The Indo-Asian aerosols impact the radiative forcing
through a complex set of heating (positive forcing) and cooling
(negative forcing) processes. Clouds and black carbon emerge as the
major players. The dominant factor, however, is the large negative
forcing (-20{\plusmn}4 W m$^{-2}$) at the surface and the
comparably large atmospheric heating. Regionally, the absorbing haze
decreased the surface solar radiation by an amount comparable to 50\% of
the total ocean heat flux and nearly doubled the lower tropospheric
solar heating. We demonstrate with a general circulation model how this
additional heating significantly perturbs the tropical rainfall patterns
and the hydrological cycle with implications to global climate.
  doi = {10.1029/2001JD900133},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bonazzola}, M. and {Picon}, L. and {Laurent}, H. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{SèZe}, G. and {Pawlowska}, H. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{Retrieval of large-scale wind divergences from infrared Meteosat-5 brightness temperatures over the Indian Ocean}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Convective processes, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Numerical modeling and data assimilation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Tropical meteorology},
  year = 2001,
  month = nov,
  volume = 106,
  pages = {28113},
  abstract = {{Over the tropics the atmospheric general circulation models usually fail
in predicting horizontal wind divergence, which is closely related to
atmospheric heating and to the vertical exchanges associated with
convection. With the aim of forcing atmospheric models we present here a
reconstruction of wind divergences based on the links between infrared
brightness temperatures, convective activity, and large-scale
divergence. In practice, wind divergences are reconstructed from
brightness temperatures using correlations obtained from numerical
simulations performed with a general circulation model. When building
those correlations, a distinction must be made between the brightness
temperatures of opaque clouds and those of semitransparent clouds, only
the former being directly associated with convection. In order to filter
out semitransparent clouds we use radiative thresholds in the water
vapor channel in addition to the window channel. We apply our approach
to Meteosat-5 data over the Indian Ocean. Comparison with wind
divergences reconstructed independently from Meteosat water vapor winds
partially validates our retrieval. Comparison with European Center for
Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses indicates that much can be
gained by adding information on the wind divergence in the tropics to
force an atmospheric model.
  doi = {10.1029/2000JD900690},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Codron}, F. and {Vintzileos}, A. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{Influence of Mean State Changes on the Structure of ENSO in a Tropical Coupled GCM.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2001,
  month = mar,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {730-742},
  abstract = {{This study examines the response of the climate simulated by the
Institut Pierre Simon Laplace tropical Pacific coupled general
circulation model to two changes in parameterization: an improved
coupling scheme at the coast, and the introduction of a saturation
mixing ratio limiter in the water vapor advection scheme, which improves
the rainfall distribution over and around orography. The main effect of
these modifications is the suppression of spurious upwelling off the
South American coast in Northern Hemisphere summer. Coupled feedbacks
then extend this warming over the whole basin in an El Ni{\~n}o-like
structure, with a maximum at the equator and in the eastern part of the
basin. The mean precipitation pattern widens and moves equatorward as
the trade winds weaken.This warmer mean state leads to a doubling of the
standard deviation of interannual SST anomalies, and to a longer ENSO
period. The structure of the ENSO cycle also shifts from westward
propagation in the original simulation to a standing oscillation. The
simulation of El Ni{\~n}o thus improves when compared to recent
observed events. The study of ENSO spatial structure and lagged
correlations shows that these changes of El Ni{\~n}o characteristics
are caused by both the increase of amplitude and the modification of the
spatial structure of the wind stress response to SST anomalies.These
results show that both the mean state and variability of the tropical
ocean can be very sensitive to biases or forcings, even geographically
localized. They may also give some insight into the mechanisms
responsible for the changes in ENSO characteristics due to decadal
variability or climate change.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0730:IOMSCO>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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