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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.98}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1999 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_all1999.txt -ob lmd_all1999.bib ./}}
  author = {{Scott}, N.~A. and {Chédin}, A. and {Armante}, R. and {Francis}, J. and 
	{Stubenrauch}, C. and {Chaboureau}, J.-P. and {Chevallier}, F. and 
	{Claud}, C. and {Cheruy}, F.},
  title = {{Characteristics of the TOVS Pathfinder Path-B Dataset.}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 1999,
  month = dec,
  volume = 80,
  pages = {2679-2702},
  abstract = {{From 1979 to present, sensors aboard the NOAA series of polar
meteorological satellites have provided continuous measurements of the
earth's surface and atmosphere. One of these sensors, the TIROS-N
Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), observes earth-emitted radiation in
27 wavelength bands within the infrared and microwave portions of the
spectrum, thereby creating a valuable resource for studying the climate
of our planet. The NOAA-NASA Pathfinder program was conceived to make
these data more readily accessible to the community in the form of
processed geophysical variables. The Atmospheric Radiation Analysis
group at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique of the
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France was selected to
process TOVS data into climate products (Path-B). The Improved
Initialization Inversion (3I) retrieval algorithm is used to compute
these products from the satellite-observed radiances. The processing
technique ensures internal coherence and minimizes both observational
and computational biases. Products are at a 1{\deg} {\times} 1{\deg}
latitude-longitude grid and include atmospheric temperature profiles (up
to 10 hPa); total precipitable water vapor and content above four levels
up to 300 hPa; surface skin temperature; and cloud properties (amount,
type, and cloud-top pressure and temperature). The information is
archived as 1-day, 5-day, and monthly means on the entire globe; a.m.
and p.m. products for each satellite are stored separately. Eight years
have been processed to date, and processing continues at the rate of
approximately two satellite-months per day of computer time. Quality
assessment studies are presented. They consist of comparisons to
conventional meteorological data and to other remote sensing datasets.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2679:COTTPP>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Li}, X.~H. and {Kinny}, P.~D. and {Wang}, J.
  title = {{The breakup of Rodinia: did it start with a mantle plume beneath South China?}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  year = 1999,
  month = nov,
  volume = 173,
  pages = {171-181},
  abstract = {{Mafic to ultramafic dykes and sills in South China, dated as
828{\plusmn}7 Ma old, are identical in age to the 827{\plusmn}6 Ma
Gairdner Dyke Swarm in Australia, thought to be of mantle plume origin.
These intrusive rocks, accompanied by widespread granite intrusions and
rapid unroofing at a lateral extent of ca. 1000 km, and followed by
continental rifting, are interpreted to indicate the arrival of a plume
head centred beneath South China. This interpretation supports the idea
that South China lay between Australia and Laurentia in the Rodinia
supercontinent, and suggests that Rodinia breakup may have started with
a mantle plume which initiated continental rifting at about 820 Ma ago.
  doi = {10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00240-X},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Issartel}, J.-P. and {Cabrit}, B. and {Idelkadi}, A.
  title = {{Reciprocity of atmospheric transport of trace species}},
  journal = {Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science},
  year = 1999,
  month = nov,
  volume = 329,
  pages = {623-628},
  abstract = {{We present a new approach for the inversion of atmospheric transport of
trace species based on the time symmetry of the transport equations.
Whereas the classical use of Lagrangian back-tracking only accounts for
large-scale transport, our approach can also be applied to other
transport processes such as turbulent mixing and linear sources and
sinks. It hence provides a simple and systematic way of quantifying the
source to detector connection with a wide field of potential
applications. We present both theoretical background and numerical
illustrations in the context of the European Transport Experiment
  doi = {10.1016/S1251-8050(00)87638-7},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lewis}, S.~R. and {Collins}, M. and {Read}, P.~L. and {Forget}, F. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and {Talagrand}, O. and 
	{Huot}, J.-P.},
  title = {{A climate database for Mars}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  year = 1999,
  month = oct,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {24177-24194},
  abstract = {{A database of statistics which describe the climate and surface
environment of Mars has been constructed directly on the basis of output
from multiannual integrations of two general circulation models
developed jointly at Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
du Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, France, and the
University of Oxford, United Kingdom, with support from the European
Space Agency. The models have been developed and validated to reproduce
the main features of the meteorology of Mars, as observed by past
spacecraft missions. As well as the more standard statistical measures
for mission design studies, the Mars Climate Database includes a novel
representation of large-scale variability, using empirical
eigenfunctions derived from an analysis of the full simulations, and
small-scale variability using parameterizations of processes such as
gravity wave propagation. The database may be used as a tool for mission
planning and also provides a valuable resource for scientific studies of
the Martian atmosphere. The database is described and critically
compared with a representative range of currently available
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001024},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and 
	{Talagrand}, O. and {Collins}, M. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and 
	{Huot}, J.-P.},
  title = {{Improved general circulation models of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  year = 1999,
  month = oct,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {24155-24176},
  abstract = {{We describe a set of two ``new generation'' general circulation models
of the Martian atmosphere derived from the models we originally
developed in the early 1990s. The two new models share the same physical
parameterizations but use two complementary numerical methods to solve
the atmospheric dynamic equations. The vertical resolution near the
surface has been refined, and the vertical domain has been extended to
above 80 km. These changes are accompanied by the inclusion of
state-of-the -art parameterizations to better simulate the dynamical and
physical processes near the surface (boundary layer scheme,
subgrid-scale topography parameterization, etc.) and at high altitude
(gravity wave drag). In addition, radiative transfer calculations and
the representation of polar processes have been significantly improved.
We present some examples of zonal-mean fields from simulations using the
model at several seasons. One relatively novel aspect, previously
introduced by Wilson [1997], is that around northern winter solstice the
strong pole to pole diabatic forcing creates a quasi-global,
angular-momentum conserving Hadley cell which has no terrestrial
equivalent. Within such a cell the Coriolis forces accelerate the winter
meridional flow toward the pole and induce a strong warming of the
middle polar atmosphere down to 25 km. This winter polar warming had
been observed but not properly modeled until recently. In fact, thermal
inversions are generally predicted above one, and often both, poles
around 60-70 km. However, the Mars middle atmosphere above 40 km is
found to be very model-sensitive and thus difficult to simulate
accurately in the absence of observations.
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001025},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Martineu}, C. and {Caneill}, J.-Y. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{Potential Predictability of European Winters from the Analysis of Seasonal Simulations with an AGCM.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1999,
  month = oct,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {3033-3061},
  abstract = {{The potential predictability of European winters on the seasonal scale
is investigated with the cycle 5.3 version of the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model by
analyzing the link between atmospheric low-frequency variability and
oceanic temperature prescribed as boundary conditions. The
word`potential' refers to the assumption that the SST is a priori known
in the experiments, and to the use of a model to evaluate the real
climate predictability. Eleven simulations of the 1971-92 winters have
been performed with the model in SST-forced mode. The methodology used
identifies atmospheric clusters by Ward clustering scheme, and
atmospheric variability modes over Europe by matrix analysis of
relationships between variables. Tropical Pacific surface temperature
fluctuations play a prevailing role in the modulation of European
variability:the model preferentially simulates negative phases of the
North Atlantic Oscillation during El Ni{\~n}o episodes, and a high
pressure pattern in western Europe during La Ni{\~n}a ones. These two
situations are associated with modulations in the structure of the North
Atlantic jet and of the North Atlantic storm track, in agreement with
data analyses synthesized in the literature. They confirm the prevailing
role of interactions between different scales of the flow in the
maintenance of persistent anomalies in the North Atlantic/European area.
The strong link simulated by the model between the Pacific-North
American oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation plays an
important role in the propagation of the impact of the forcing from the
tropical Pacific to the North Atlantic.For some winters (1971, 1984,
1989, and 1992), the number of simulations has been increased to 30. The
normality of the simulated 1984 winter suggests a weak role of the
tropical Atlantic in specifying climate anomalies in Europe. The
differences in strength of the European response between the 1971 and
1989 La Ni{\~n}a events are linked to differences in the
Pacific/North American area. A stronger spread is found in the El
Ni{\~n}o case (1992 winter) than in the two La Ni{\~n}a cases. The
sensitivity of the response to the number of realizations demonstrates
that one has to reach about 15 simulations to obtain a significant
response over Europe.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<3033:PPOEWF>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Mathieu}, A. and {Seze}, G. and {Guerin}, C. and {Dupuis}, H. and 
	{Weill}, A.},
  title = {{Mesoscale boundary layer clouds structures as observed during the semaphore campaign}},
  journal = {Physics and Chemistry of the Earth B},
  year = 1999,
  month = sep,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {933-938},
  doi = {10.1016/S1464-1909(99)00106-9},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Seze}, G. and {Vanbauce}, C. and {Buriez}, J.~C. and {Parol}, F. and 
	{Couvert}, P.},
  title = {{Cloud cover observed simultaneously from POLDER and METEOSAT}},
  journal = {Physics and Chemistry of the Earth B},
  year = 1999,
  month = sep,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {921-926},
  doi = {10.1016/S1464-1909(99)00104-5},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stubenrauch}, C.~J. and {Rossow}, W.~B. and {Chéruy}, F. and 
	{Chédin}, A. and {Scott}, N.~A.},
  title = {{Clouds as Seen by Satellite Sounders (3I) and Imagers (ISCCP). Part I: Evaluation of Cloud Parameters.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1999,
  month = aug,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {2189-2213},
  abstract = {{The improved initialization inversion (3I) algorithms convert TIROS-N
Operational Vertical Sounder observations from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting environmental
satellites into atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles,
together with cloud and surface properties. Their relatively good
spectral resolution and coverage make IR sounders a very useful tool for
the determination of cloud properties both day and night. The iterative
process of detailed comparisons between cloud parameters obtained from
this global dataset, which is available in the framework of the
NOAA-National Aeronautics and Space Administration Pathfinder Program,
with time-space-collocated observations of clouds from the recently
reprocessed International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP)
dataset has led to an improved 3I cloud analysis scheme based on a
weighted-$^{2}$ method described in the second article of this
series. This process also provides a first evaluation of the ISCCP
reanalysis. The new 3I cloud scheme obtains cloud properties very
similar to those from ISCCP for homogeneous cloud scenes. Improvement is
especially notable in the stratocumulus regimes where the new 3I scheme
detects much more of the low-level cloudiness. Remaining discrepancies
in cloud classification can now be explained by differences in cloud
detection sensitivity, differences in temperature profiles used, and
inhomogeneous or partly cloudy fields. Cirrus cloud identification
during the daytime in the recent ISCCP dataset is improved relative to
the first version of ISCCP, but is still an underestimate. At night only
multispectral IR analyses like 3I can provide cirrus information. The
reprocessed ISCCP dataset also shows considerable improvement in cloud
cover at higher latitudes. Differences in 3I and ISCCP summertime cloud
cover over deserts may be caused by different sensitivities to dust
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<2189:CASBSS>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Teitelbaum}, H. and {Moustaoui}, M. and {Sadourny}, R. and 
	{Lott}, F.},
  title = {{Critical levels and mixing layers induced by convectively generated gravity waves during CEPEX}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 1999,
  month = jul,
  volume = 125,
  pages = {1715-1734},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.49712555712},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Parol}, F. and {Buriez}, J.-C. and {Vanbauce}, C. and {Couvert}, P. and 
	{Seze}, G. and {Goloub}, P. and {Cheinet}, S.},
  title = {{First results of the POLDER ''Earth Radiation Budget and Clouds'' operational algorithm}},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
  year = 1999,
  month = may,
  volume = 37,
  pages = {1597-1612},
  doi = {10.1109/36.763273},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Le Treut}, H.},
  title = {{Transient behavior of the meridional moisture transport across South America and its relation to atmospheric circulation patterns}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Synoptic-scale meteorology, Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309)},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 26,
  pages = {1409-1412},
  abstract = {{ The transient behavior of meridional moisture transport across the
South American continent is examined with the reanalysis data provided
by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The
results show clearly the effects of the valley between the Andes and the
Brazilian Plateau in canalizing the southward moisture transport: an
intense jet is episodically formed in this valley. The synoptic
variability of this low-level jet and its relation to the large-scale
atmospheric circulation are studied.
  doi = {10.1029/1999GL900274},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.-X.},
  title = {{Ensemble Atmospheric GCM Simulation of Climate Interannual Variability from 1979 to 1994.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1999,
  month = apr,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {986-1001},
  abstract = {{The climate interannual variability is examined using the general
circulation model (GCM) developed at the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique. The model is forced by the
observed sea surface temperature for the period 1979-94. An ensemble of
eight simulations is realized with different initial conditions. The
variability of the Southern Oscillation is studied. The simulated sea
level pressure anomalies at both Tahiti and Darwin are realistic
compared to observations. It is revealed, however, that the simulated
convection activity response to the warm episode of El Ni{\~n}o is
too weak over the eastern part of the tropical Pacific. This explains
why the simulated Pacific-North American pattern is shifted westward. A
global El Ni{\~n}o pattern index is defined and calculated for both
the simulation and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction
(NCEP) reanalysis data. This serves as a quantitative measure of El
Ni{\~n}o's global impact. A singular value decomposition analysis
performed with the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature and the
Northern Hemisphere 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the model's
teleconnection between the Tropics and high latitudes is similar to that
of the NCEP reanalysis data.In an exploratory manner, the model's
internal variability versus the external forced variability is studied.
It is shown that, except for the equatorial strip, the internal model
variability is larger than the external variability. An ensemble mean is
thus necessary in order to focus on the model's response to external sea
surface temperature anomalies. An attempt is also made to evaluate
statistically the influence of the ensemble's size on the model's
reproducibility. It is shown that, with this particular GCM, at least
five realizations are necessary to correctly assess the teleconnection
between the Tropics and the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. This
dependency on the number of realizations is less for the tropical
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0986:EAGSOC>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Air traffic may increase cirrus cloudiness}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 1999,
  month = jan,
  volume = 397,
  pages = {30-31},
  abstract = {{High-level cirrus clouds can evolve,  from the condensation trails of
aircraft, which form as the mixture of warm, humid exhaust gases and
colder, drier air exceeds water saturation. In addition, the particles
in exhaust plumes from aircraft may allow ice nucleation at lower
supersaturations than those required under natural conditions. This
mechanism is sensitive to environmental conditions, but may occur
downstream of the exhaust aerosol source regions. Here I show that
cirrus clouds increased in occurrence and coverage in the main
air-traffic flight corridors between 1982 and 1991.
  doi = {10.1038/16169},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Armengaud}, A.},
  title = {{The Use of Finite-Volume Methods for Atmospheric Advection of Trace Species. Part I: Test of Various Formulations in a General Circulation Model}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 127,
  pages = {822},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<0822:TUOFVM>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Vintzileos}, A. and {Delecluse}, P. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{On the mechanisms in a tropical ocean-global atmosphere coupled general circulation model. Part II: interannual variability and its relation to the seasonal cycle}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {63-80},
  abstract = {{The thirty year simulation of the coupled global atmosphere-tropical
Pacific Ocean general circulation model of the Laboratoire de
Métérologie Dynamique and the Laboratoire
d'Océanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie presented in Part I
is further investigated in order to understand the mechanisms of
interannual variability. The model does simulate interannual events with
ENSO characteristics; the dominant periodicity is quasi-biennial, though
strong events are separated by four year intervals. The mechanism that
is responsible for seasonal oscillations, identified in Part I, is also
active in interannual variability with the difference that now the
Western Pacific is dynamically involved. A warm interannual phase is
associated with an equatorward shift of the ITCZ in the Western and
Central Pacific. The coupling between the ITCZ and the ocean circulation
is then responsible for the cooling of the equatorial subsurface by the
draining mechanism. Cold subsurface temperature anomalies then propagate
eastward along the mean equatorial thermocline. Upon reaching the
Eastern Pacific where the mean thermocline is shallow, cold subsurface
anomalies affect surface temperatures and reverse the phase of the
oscillation. The preferred season for efficient eastward propagation of
thermocline depth temperature anomalies is boreal autumn, when draining
of equatorial waters towards higher latitudes is weaker than in spring
by a factor of six. In that way, the annual cycle acts as a dam that
synchronizes lower frequency oscillations.
  doi = {10.1007/s003820050268},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Vintzileos}, A. and {Delecluse}, P. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{On the mechanisms in a tropical ocean-global atmosphere coupled general circulation model. Part I: mean state and the seasonal cycle}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {43-62},
  abstract = {{The mechanisms responsible for the mean state and the seasonal and
interannual variations of the coupled tropical Pacific-global atmosphere
system are investigated by analyzing a thirty year simulation, where the
LMD global atmospheric model and the LODYC tropical Pacific model are
coupled using the delocalized physics method. No flux correction is
needed over the tropical region. The coupled model reaches its regime
state roughly after one year of integration in spite of the fact that
the ocean is initialized from rest. Departures from the mean state are
characterized by oscillations with dominant periodicites at annual,
biennial and quadriennial time scales. In our model, equatorial sea
surface temperature and wind stress fluctuations evolved in phase. In
the Central Pacific during boreal autumn, the sea surface temperature is
cold, the wind stress is strong, and the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
(ITCZ) is shifted northwards. The northward shift of the ITCZ enhances
atmospheric and oceanic subsidence between the equator and the latitude
of organized convention. In turn, the stronger oceanic subsidence
reinforces equatorward convergence of water masses at the thermocline
depth which, being not balanced by equatorial upwelling, deepens the
equatorial thermocline. An equivalent view is that the deepening of the
thermocline proceeds from the weakening of the meridional draining of
near-surface equatorial waters. The inverse picture prevails during
spring, when the equatorial sea surface temperatures are warm. Thus
temperature anomalies tend to appear at the thermocline level, in phase
opposition to the surface conditions. These subsurface temperature
fluctuations propagate from the Central Pacific eastwards along the
thermocline; when reaching the surface in the Eastern Pacific, they
trigger the reversal of sea surface temperature anomalies. The whole
oscillation is synchronized by the apparent meridional motion of the
sun, through the seasonal oscillation of the ITCZ. This possible
mechanism is partly supported by the observed seasonal reversal of
vorticity between the equator and the ITCZ, and by observational
evidence of eastward propagating subsurface temperature anomalies at the
thermocline level.
  doi = {10.1007/s003820050267},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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