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2006 .

(14 publications)

G. Krinner, O. Boucher, and Y. Balkanski. Ice-free glacial northern Asia due to dust deposition on snow. Climate Dynamics, 27:613-625, November 2006. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 kyr BP), no large ice sheets were present in northern Asia, while northern Europe and North America (except Alaska) were heavily glaciated. We use a general circulation model with high regional resolution and a new parameterization of snow albedo to show that the ice-free conditions in northern Asia during the LGM are favoured by strong glacial dust deposition on the seasonal snow cover. Our climate model simulations indicate that mineral dust deposition on the snow surface leads to low snow albedo during the melt season. This, in turn, caused enhanced snow melt and therefore favoured snow-free peak summer conditions over almost the entire Asian continent during the LGM, whereas perennial snow cover is simulated over a large part of eastern Siberia when glacial dust deposition is not taken into account.

M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Kinne, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. Berglen, O. Boucher, F. Dentener, S. Guibert, I. S. A. Isaksen, T. Iversen, D. Koch, A. Kirkevåg, X. Liu, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. E. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, Ø. Seland, P. Stier, and T. Takemura. Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6:5225-5246, November 2006. [ bib | ADS link ]

Nine different global models with detailed aerosol modules have independently produced instantaneous direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. The anthropogenic impact is derived from the difference of two model simulations with prescribed aerosol emissions, one for present-day and one for pre-industrial conditions. The difference in the solar energy budget at the top of the atmosphere (ToA) yields a new harmonized estimate for the aerosol direct radiative forcing (RF) under all-sky conditions. On a global annual basis RF is -0.22 Wm-2, ranging from +0.04 to -0.41 Wm-2, with a standard deviation of 0.16 Wm-2. Anthropogenic nitrate and dust are not included in this estimate. No model shows a significant positive all-sky RF. The corresponding clear-sky RF is -0.68 Wm-2. The cloud-sky RF was derived based on all-sky and clear-sky RF and modelled cloud cover. It was significantly different from zero and ranged between -0.16 and +0.34 Wm-2. A sensitivity analysis shows that the total aerosol RF is influenced by considerable diversity in simulated residence times, mass extinction coefficients and most importantly forcing efficiencies (forcing per unit optical depth). The clear-sky forcing efficiency (forcing per unit optical depth) has diversity comparable to that for the all-sky/ clear-sky forcing ratio. While the diversity in clear-sky forcing efficiency is impacted by factors such as aerosol absorption, size, and surface albedo, we can show that the all-sky/clear-sky forcing ratio is important because all-sky forcing estimates require proper representation of cloud fields and the correct relative altitude placement between absorbing aerosol and clouds. The analysis of the sulphate RF shows that long sulphate residence times are compensated by low mass extinction coefficients and vice versa. This is explained by more sulphate particle humidity growth and thus higher extinction in those models where short-lived sulphate is present at lower altitude and vice versa. Solar atmospheric forcing within the atmospheric column is estimated at +0.820.17 Wm-2. The local annual average maxima of atmospheric forcing exceed +5 Wm-2 confirming the regional character of aerosol impacts on climate. The annual average surface forcing is -1.020.23 Wm-2. With the current uncertainties in the modelling of the radiative forcing due to the direct aerosol effect we show here that an estimate from one model is not sufficient but a combination of several model estimates is necessary to provide a mean and to explore the uncertainty.

P. Stier, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Kinne, J. Feichter, and O. Boucher. Impact of nonabsorbing anthropogenic aerosols on clear-sky atmospheric absorption. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 111:18201, September 2006. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosol has become recognized as important in regional and global climate. Nonabsorbing, hydrophilic aerosols, such as sulfate, potentially affect atmospheric absorption in opposing ways: first, decreasing absorption through aging initially hydrophobic black carbon (BC) to a hydrophilic state, enhancing its removal by wet scavenging, and consequently decreasing BC lifetime and abundance, and second, increasing absorption through enhancement of the BC absorption efficiency by internal mixing as well as through increasing the amount of diffuse solar radiation in the atmosphere. On the basis of General Circulation Model studies with an embedded microphysical aerosol module we systematically demonstrate the significance of these mechanisms both on the global and regional scales. In remote transport regions, the first mechanism prevails, reducing atmospheric absorption, whereas in the vicinity of source regions, despite enhanced wet scavenging, absorption is enhanced owing to the prevalence of the second mechanisms. Our findings imply that the sulfur to BC emission ratio plays a key role in aerosol absorption.

F. Dentener, S. Kinne, T. Bond, O. Boucher, J. Cofala, S. Generoso, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, J. J. Hoelzemann, A. Ito, L. Marelli, J. E. Penner, J.-P. Putaud, C. Textor, M. Schulz, G. R. van der Werf, and J. Wilson. Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750 prescribed data-sets for AeroCom. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6:4321-4344, September 2006. [ bib | ADS link ]

Inventories for global aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions have been collected (based on published inventories and published simulations), assessed and prepared for the year 2000 (present-day conditions) and for the year 1750 (pre-industrial conditions). These global datasets establish a comprehensive source for emission input to global modeling, when simulating the aerosol impact on climate with state-of-the-art aerosol component modules. As these modules stratify aerosol into dust, sea-salt, sulfate, organic matter and soot, for all these aerosol types global fields on emission strength and recommendations for injection altitude and particulate size are provided. Temporal resolution varies between daily (dust and sea-salt), monthly (wild-land fires) and annual (all other emissions). These datasets benchmark aerosol emissions according to the knowledge in the year 2004. They are intended to serve as systematic constraints in sensitivity studies of the AeroCom initiative, which seeks to quantify (actual) uncertainties in aerosol global modeling.

J. E. Penner, J. Quaas, T. Storelvmo, T. Takemura, O. Boucher, H. Guo, A. Kirkevåg, J. E. Kristjánsson, and Ø. Seland. Model intercomparison of indirect aerosol effects. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6:3391-3405, August 2006. [ bib | ADS link ]

Modeled differences in predicted effects are increasingly used to help quantify the uncertainty of these effects. Here, we examine modeled differences in the aerosol indirect effect in a series of experiments that help to quantify how and why model-predicted aerosol indirect forcing varies between models. The experiments start with an experiment in which aerosol concentrations, the parameterization of droplet concentrations and the autoconversion scheme are all specified and end with an experiment that examines the predicted aerosol indirect forcing when only aerosol sources are specified. Although there are large differences in the predicted liquid water path among the models, the predicted aerosol first indirect effect for the first experiment is rather similar, about -0.6 Wm-2 to -0.7 Wm-2. Changes to the autoconversion scheme can lead to large changes in the liquid water path of the models and to the response of the liquid water path to changes in aerosols. Adding an autoconversion scheme that depends on the droplet concentration caused a larger (negative) change in net outgoing shortwave radiation compared to the 1st indirect effect, and the increase varied from only 22% to more than a factor of three. The change in net shortwave forcing in the models due to varying the autoconversion scheme depends on the liquid water content of the clouds as well as their predicted droplet concentrations, and both increases and decreases in the net shortwave forcing can occur when autoconversion schemes are changed. The parameterization of cloud fraction within models is not sensitive to the aerosol concentration, and, therefore, the response of the modeled cloud fraction within the present models appears to be smaller than that which would be associated with model ”noise”. The prediction of aerosol concentrations, given a fixed set of sources, leads to some of the largest differences in the predicted aerosol indirect radiative forcing among the models, with values of cloud forcing ranging from -0.3 Wm-2 to -1.4 Wm-2. Thus, this aspect of modeling requires significant improvement in order to improve the prediction of aerosol indirect effects.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie. An AeroCom initial assessment - optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6:1815-1834, May 2006. [ bib | ADS link ]

The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment simulated global distributions for mass and mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among 20 different modules. Model diversity was also explored in the context of previous comparisons. For the component combined aot general agreement has improved for the annual global mean. At 0.11 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca. 0.135) and space (satellite composite ca. 0.15). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture remain. Of particular concern are large model diversities for contributions by dust and carbonaceous aerosol, because they lead to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since aot and aab, both, influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, the aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) or space (e.g. correlations between aerosol and clouds).

C. Textor, M. Schulz, S. Guibert, S. Kinne, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, H. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, L. Horowitz, P. Huang, I. Isaksen, I. Iversen, S. Kloster, D. Koch, A. Kirkevåg, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, X. Liu, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, Ø. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie. Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6:1777-1813, May 2006. [ bib | ADS link ]

Simulation results of global aerosol models have been assembled in the framework of the AeroCom intercomparison exercise. In this paper, we analyze the life cycles of dust, sea salt, sulfate, black carbon and particulate organic matter as simulated by sixteen global aerosol models. The differences among the results (model diversities) for sources and sinks, burdens, particle sizes, water uptakes, and spatial dispersals have been established. These diversities have large consequences for the calculated radiative forcing and the aerosol concentrations at the surface. Processes and parameters are identified which deserve further research. P style=”line-height: 20px;” The AeroCom all-models-average emissions are dominated by the mass of sea salt (SS), followed by dust (DU), sulfate (SO4), particulate organic matter (POM), and finally black carbon (BC). Interactive parameterizations of the emissions and contrasting particles sizes of SS and DU lead generally to higher diversities of these species, and for total aerosol. The lower diversity of the emissions of the fine aerosols, BC, POM, and SO4, is due to the use of similar emission inventories, and does therefore not necessarily indicate a better understanding of their sources. The diversity of SO4-sources is mainly caused by the disagreement on depositional loss of precursor gases and on chemical production. The diversities of the emissions are passed on to the burdens, but the latter are also strongly affected by the model-specific treatments of transport and aerosol processes. The burdens of dry masses decrease from largest to smallest: DU, SS, SO4, POM, and BC. P style=”line-height: 20px;” The all-models-average residence time is shortest for SS with about half a day, followed by SO4 and DU with four days, and POM and BC with six and seven days, respectively. The wet deposition rate is controlled by the solubility and increases from DU, BC, POM to SO4 and SS. It is the dominant sink for SO4, BC, and POM, and contributes about one third to the total removal of SS and DU species. For SS and DU we find high diversities for the removal rate coefficients and deposition pathways. Models do neither agree on the split between wet and dry deposition, nor on that between sedimentation and other dry deposition processes. We diagnose an extremely high diversity for the uptake of ambient water vapor that influences the particle size and thus the sink rate coefficients. Furthermore, we find little agreement among the model results for the partitioning of wet removal into scavenging by convective and stratiform rain. P style=”line-height: 20px;” Large differences exist for aerosol dispersal both in the vertical and in the horizontal direction. In some models, a minimum of total aerosol concentration is simulated at the surface. Aerosol dispersal is most pronounced for SO4 and BC and lowest for SS. Diversities are higher for meridional than for vertical dispersal, they are similar for the individual species and highest for SS and DU. For these two components we do not find a correlation between vertical and meridional aerosol dispersal. In addition the degree of dispersals of SS and DU is not related to their residence times. SO4, BC, and POM, however, show increased meridional dispersal in models with larger vertical dispersal, and dispersal is larger for longer simulated residence times.

T. S. Bates, T. L. Anderson, T. Baynard, T. Bond, O. Boucher, G. Carmichael, A. Clarke, C. Erlick, H. Guo, L. Horowitz, S. Howell, S. Kulkarni, H. Maring, A. McComiskey, A. Middlebrook, K. Noone, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ogren, J. Penner, P. K. Quinn, A. R. Ravishankara, D. L. Savoie, S. E. Schwartz, Y. Shinozuka, Y. Tang, R. J. Weber, and Y. Wu. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6:1657-1732, May 2006. [ bib | ADS link ]

The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001). Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO) during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA) during ICARTT), incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART). Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD), and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE - change in radiative flux due to total aerosols) are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity) are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan) to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative transfer calculations by observational inputs increases the clear-sky, 24-h averaged AOD (348%), top of atmosphere (TOA) DRE (3212%), and TOA direct climate forcing of aerosols (DCF - change in radiative flux due to anthropogenic aerosols) (377%) relative to values obtained with ”a priori” parameterizations of aerosol loadings and properties (GFDL RTM). The resulting constrained clear-sky TOA DCF is -3.30.47, -142.6, -6.42.1 Wm-2 for the NIO, NWP, and NWA, respectively. With the use of constrained quantities (extensive and intensive parameters) the calculated uncertainty in DCF was 25% less than the ”structural uncertainties” used in the IPCC-2001 global estimates of direct aerosol climate forcing. Such comparisons with observations and resultant reductions in uncertainties are essential for improving and developing confidence in climate model calculations incorporating aerosol forcing.

S. Verma, O. Boucher, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, D. Müller, P. Chazette, and B. Crouzille. Aerosol lofting from sea breeze during the Indian Ocean Experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 111:7208, April 2006. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

This work was carried out to understand the mechanisms leading to lofting and large-scale advection of aerosols over the Indian Ocean region due to interaction of the sea breeze with the northeast monsoon winds along the west coast of India. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) wind fields for the months of February and March 1999 were analyzed at various times of day. Intense sea breeze activity was observed at 1200 UT (1730 local time) along the west coast of India with average intensity larger in March than in February. The sea breeze was seen to extend inland deeper in March than in February. Lofting of air observed as high as 800 hPa (approximately 2 km above sea level) could lead to entrainment of aerosols into the free troposphere and long-range transport. Upward motion of air was observed everywhere along the west coast of India (from 8deg to 20degN), on average higher in March than in February, because of convergence between the sea breeze and the synoptic-scale flow. A region of intense lofting of air and well-defined convergence was observed along the coast of the Karnataka region (12deg-16degN). A simulation with a general circulation model nudged with ECMWF data indicated that the intrusion of marine air masses with low concentrations of organic matter is seen as deep as 64 km inland in the evening (1500 UT). Intrusion of the sea-salt plume is seen to a maximum distance of around 200 km from 1500 until 2300 UT. A well-developed lofted layer of aerosols as high as 3 km was also simulated during sea breeze activity along the west coast of India. The general circulation model simulation shows a clear diurnal evolution of the vertical profile of the aerosol extinction coefficient at Goa but fails to reproduce several features of the lidar observations, for example, the marked diurnal variability of the upper layers between 1 and 3 km. However, the model simulates a diurnal cycle at the surface (0-0.7 km) that is not apparent in lidar measurements. The model simulates long-range transport and captures the lofted plume downwind of the west coast of India. However, there was a 1-2 day delay in the model transport of lofted aerosols at higher layers to Hulule, 700 km downwind of India, when compared to lidar observations.

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, and U. Lohmann. Constraining the total aerosol indirect effect in the LMDZ and ECHAM4 GCMs using MODIS satellite data. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6:947-955, March 2006. [ bib | ADS link ]

Aerosol indirect effects are considered to be the most uncertain yet important anthropogenic forcing of climate change. The goal of the present study is to reduce this uncertainty by constraining two different general circulation models (LMDZ and ECHAM4) with satellite data. We build a statistical relationship between cloud droplet number concentration and the optical depth of the fine aerosol mode as a measure of the aerosol indirect effect using MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, and constrain the model parameterizations to match this relationship. We include here ”empirical” formulations for the cloud albedo effect as well as parameterizations of the cloud lifetime effect. When fitting the model parameterizations to the satellite data, consistently in both models, the radiative forcing by the combined aerosol indirect effect is reduced considerably, down to -0.5 and -0.3 Wm-2, for LMDZ and ECHAM4, respectively.

N. Gedney, P. M. Cox, R. A. Betts, O. Boucher, C. Huntingford, and P. A. Stott. Detection of a direct carbon dioxide effect in continental river runoff records. Nature, 439:835-838, February 2006. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Continental runoff has increased through the twentieth century despite more intensive human water consumption. Possible reasons for the increase include: climate change and variability, deforestation, solar dimming, and direct atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) effects on plant transpiration. All of these mechanisms have the potential to affect precipitation and/or evaporation and thereby modify runoff. Here we use a mechanistic land-surface model and optimal fingerprinting statistical techniques to attribute observational runoff changes into contributions due to these factors. The model successfully captures the climate-driven inter-annual runoff variability, but twentieth-century climate alone is insufficient to explain the runoff trends. Instead we find that the trends are consistent with a suppression of plant transpiration due to CO2-induced stomatal closure. This result will affect projections of freshwater availability, and also represents the detection of a direct CO2 effect on the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere.

H. Yu, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. Decola, R. Kahn, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takemura, and M. Zhou. A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6:613-666, February 2006. [ bib | ADS link ]

Aerosols affect the Earth's energy budget directly by scattering and absorbing radiation and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and, thereby, affecting cloud properties. However, large uncertainties exist in current estimates of aerosol forcing because of incomplete knowledge concerning the distribution and the physical and chemical properties of aerosols as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. In recent years, a great deal of effort has gone into improving measurements and datasets. It is thus feasible to shift the estimates of aerosol forcing from largely model-based to increasingly measurement-based. Our goal is to assess current observational capabilities and identify uncertainties in the aerosol direct forcing through comparisons of different methods with independent sources of uncertainties. Here we assess the aerosol optical depth (τ), direct radiative effect (DRE) by natural and anthropogenic aerosols, and direct climate forcing (DCF) by anthropogenic aerosols, focusing on satellite and ground-based measurements supplemented by global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations. The multi-spectral MODIS measures global distributions of aerosol optical depth (τ) on a daily scale, with a high accuracy of 0.030.05τ over ocean. The annual average τ is about 0.14 over global ocean, of which about 21%7% is contributed by human activities, as estimated by MODIS fine-mode fraction. The multi-angle MISR derives an annual average AOD of 0.23 over global land with an uncertainty of ˜20% or 0.05. These high-accuracy aerosol products and broadband flux measurements from CERES make it feasible to obtain observational constraints for the aerosol direct effect, especially over global the ocean. A number of measurement-based approaches estimate the clear-sky DRE (on solar radiation) at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) to be about -5.50.2 Wm-2 (median standard error from various methods) over the global ocean. Accounting for thin cirrus contamination of the satellite derived aerosol field will reduce the TOA DRE to -5.0 Wm-2. Because of a lack of measurements of aerosol absorption and difficulty in characterizing land surface reflection, estimates of DRE over land and at the ocean surface are currently realized through a combination of satellite retrievals, surface measurements, and model simulations, and are less constrained. Over the oceans the surface DRE is estimated to be -8.80.7 Wm-2. Over land, an integration of satellite retrievals and model simulations derives a DRE of -4.90.7 Wm-2 and -11.81.9 Wm-2 at the TOA and surface, respectively. CTM simulations derive a wide range of DRE estimates that on average are smaller than the measurement-based DRE by about 30-40%, even after accounting for thin cirrus and cloud contamination. P style=”line-height: 20px;” A number of issues remain. Current estimates of the aerosol direct effect over land are poorly constrained. Uncertainties of DRE estimates are also larger on regional scales than on a global scale and large discrepancies exist between different approaches. The characterization of aerosol absorption and vertical distribution remains challenging. The aerosol direct effect in the thermal infrared range and in cloudy conditions remains relatively unexplored and quite uncertain, because of a lack of global systematic aerosol vertical profile measurements. A coordinated research strategy needs to be developed for integration and assimilation of satellite measurements into models to constrain model simulations. Enhanced measurement capabilities in the next few years and high-level scientific cooperation will further advance our knowledge.

S. Verma, O. Boucher, H. C. Upadhyaya, and O. P. Sharma. Sulfate aerosols forcing: An estimate using a three-dimensional interactive chemistry scheme. Atmospheric Environment, 40:7953-7962, 2006. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The tropospheric sulfate radiative forcing has been calculated using an interactive chemistry scheme in LMD-GCM. To estimate the radiative forcing of sulfate aerosol on climate, a consistent interaction between atmospheric circulation and radiation computation has been allowed in LMD-GCM. The model results indicate that the change in the sulfate aerosols number concentration is negatively correlated to the indirect radiative forcing. The model simulated annual mean direct radiative forcing ranges from -0.1 to -1.2 W m -2, and indirect forcing ranges from -0.4 to -1.6 W m -2. The global annual mean direct effect estimated by the model is -0.48 W m -2, and that of indirect is -0.68 W m -2.

G. Habib, C. Venkataraman, I. Chiapello, S. Ramachandran, O. Boucher, and M. Shekar Reddy. Seasonal and interannual variability in absorbing aerosols over India derived from TOMS: Relationship to regional meteorology and emissions. Atmospheric Environment, 40:1909-1921, 2006. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The objective of this study is an analysis of the spatial, seasonal and interannual variability of regional-scale aerosol load over India, detected by TOMS during 1981-2000, with an evaluation of potential contributing factors, including estimated anthropogenic aerosol emission trends and regional meteorology (rainfall and circulation patterns). Spatial distributions in TOMS Ai were related to the emission densities of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols in April-May, but varied seasonally and were modified significantly by higher atmospheric dispersion in January-March and rainfall in June-September, both of which lead to low TOMS Ai, even in regions of high aerosol emissions. Dust emissions explain the high TOMS Ai over northwest region during April-May and June-September when rainfall is scanty and significant air-mass decent occurs in this region. The magnitude of TOMS Ai correlated with the anthropogenic absorbing aerosol (black carbon and inorganic matter) emission flux in five selected regions, dominated by biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion, but not in a region with significant mineral dust emissions. The seasonal cycle in TOMS Ai was related to the seasonal variability in dust, biomass burning emissions and rainfall. Interannual variability in TOMS Ai was linked to that in forest burning emissions in the northeast, as evidenced by a correlation with ATSR fire-counts, both significantly enhanced in 1999. Trends in anthropogenic emissions during 1981-2000 potentially contribute to increases in the aerosol load detected by TOMS. This would need further investigation using analysis incorporating both trends in anthropogenic emissions and the interannual variability in natural sources of aerosols.

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