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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Boucher"  ' -c year=2005 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Boucher2005.txt -ob lmd_Boucher2005.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/Publis_LMDEMC3.link.bib}}
@article{2005GeoRL..3221703D,
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Quaas}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Fairhead}, L.},
  title = {{Contrasts in the effects on climate of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols between the 20th and the 21st century}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Climate variability (1635, 3305, 3309, 4215, 4513), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Atmospheric Processes: Radiative processes},
  year = 2005,
  month = nov,
  volume = 32,
  eid = {L21703},
  pages = {21703},
  abstract = {{In this study, we examine the time evolution of the relative
contribution of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases to anthropogenic
climate change. We use the new IPSL-CM4 coupled climate model for which
the first indirect effect of sulfate aerosols has been calibrated using
POLDER satellite data. For the recent historical period the sulfate
aerosols play a key role on the temperature increase with a cooling
effect of 0.5 K, to be compared to the 1.4 K warming due to greenhouse
gas increase. In contrast, the projected temperature change for the 21st
century is remarkably independent of the effects of anthropogenic
sulfate aerosols for the SRES-A2 scenario. Those results are interpreted
comparing the different radiative forcings, and can be extended to other
scenarios. We also highlight that the first indirect effect of aerosol
strongly depends on the land surface model by changing the cloud cover.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2005GL023619},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3221703D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005JGRD..11010S16R,
  author = {{Reddy}, M.~S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Schulz}, M. and 
	{Balkanski}, Y. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Pham}, M.},
  title = {{Estimates of global multicomponent aerosol optical depth and direct radiative perturbation in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution: urban and regional (0305, 0478, 4251), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Radiation: transmission and scattering, aerosol absorption, model validation, sulfate, black carbon, organic matter},
  year = 2005,
  month = may,
  volume = 110,
  number = d9,
  eid = {D10S16},
  pages = {10},
  abstract = {{The global cycle of multicomponent aerosols including sulfate, black
carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), mineral dust, and sea salt is
simulated in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
general circulation model (LMDZT GCM). The seasonal open biomass burning
emissions for simulation years 2000-2001 are scaled from climatological
emissions in proportion to satellite detected fire counts. The emissions
of dust and sea salt are parameterized online in the model. The
comparison of model-predicted monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD)
at 500 nm with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) shows good agreement
with a correlation coefficient of 0.57(N = 1324) and 76\% of data points
falling within a factor of 2 deviation. The correlation coefficient for
daily mean values drops to 0.49 (N = 23,680). The absorption AOD
({$\tau$}$_{a}$ at 670 nm) estimated in the model is poorly
correlated with measurements (r = 0.27, N = 349). It is biased low by
24\% as compared to AERONET. The model reproduces the prominent features
in the monthly mean AOD retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The agreement between the model and MODIS is
better over source and outflow regions (i.e., within a factor of 2).
There is an underestimation of the model by up to a factor of 3 to 5
over some remote oceans. The largest contribution to global annual
average AOD (0.12 at 550 nm) is from sulfate (0.043 or 35\%), followed by
sea salt (0.027 or 23\%), dust (0.026 or 22\%), OM (0.021 or 17\%), and BC
(0.004 or 3\%). The atmospheric aerosol absorption is predominantly
contributed by BC and is about 3\% of the total AOD. The globally and
annually averaged shortwave (SW) direct aerosol radiative perturbation
(DARP) in clear-sky conditions is -2.17 Wm$^{-2}$ and is about a
factor of 2 larger than in all-sky conditions (-1.04 Wm$^{-2}$).
The net DARP (SW + LW) by all aerosols is -1.46 and -0.59
Wm$^{-2}$ in clear- and all-sky conditions, respectively. Use of
realistic, less absorbing in SW, optical properties for dust results in
negative forcing over the dust-dominated regions.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD004757},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..11010S16R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005Natur.438.1138B,
  author = {{Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Haywood}, J. and {Reddy}, M.~S.
	},
  title = {{Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2005,
  month = dec,
  volume = 438,
  pages = {1138-1141},
  abstract = {{Atmospheric aerosols cause scattering and absorption of incoming solar
radiation. Additional anthropogenic aerosols released into the
atmosphere thus exert a direct radiative forcing on the climate system.
The degree of present-day aerosol forcing is estimated from global
models that incorporate a representation of the aerosol cycles. Although
the models are compared and validated against observations, these
estimates remain uncertain. Previous satellite measurements of the
direct effect of aerosols contained limited information about aerosol
type, and were confined to oceans only. Here we use state-of-the-art
satellite-based measurements of aerosols and surface wind speed to
estimate the clear-sky direct radiative forcing for 2002, incorporating
measurements over land and ocean. We use a Monte Carlo approach to
account for uncertainties in aerosol measurements and in the algorithm
used. Probability density functions obtained for the direct radiative
forcing at the top of the atmosphere give a clear-sky, global, annual
average of -1.9Wm$^{-2}$ with standard deviation, +/-
0.3Wm$^{-2}$. These results suggest that present-day direct
radiative forcing is stronger than present model estimates, implying
future atmospheric warming greater than is presently predicted, as
aerosol emissions continue to decline.
}},
  doi = {10.1038/nature04348},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.438.1138B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005BAMS...86.1795A,
  author = {{Anderson}, T.~L. and {Charlson}, R.~J. and {Bellouin}, N. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Chin}, M. and {Christopher}, S.~A. and {Haywood}, J. and 
	{Kaufman}, Y.~J. and {Kinne}, S. and {Ogren}, J.~A. and {Remer}, L.~A. and 
	{Takemura}, T. and {Tanré}, D. and {Torres}, O. and {Trepte}, C.~R. and 
	{Wielicki}, B.~A. and {Winker}, D.~M. and {Yu}, H.},
  title = {{An ''A-Train'' Strategy for Quantifying Direct Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols.}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2005,
  month = dec,
  volume = 86,
  pages = {1795-1809},
  abstract = {{This document outlines a practical strategy for achieving an
observationally based quantification of direct climate forcing by
anthropogenic aerosols. The strategy involves a four-step program for
shifting the current assumption-laden estimates to an increasingly
empirical basis using satellite observations coordinated with suborbital
remote and in situ measurements and with chemical transport models.
Conceptually, the problem is framed as a need for complete global
mapping of four parameters: clear-sky aerosol optical depth {$\delta$},
radiative efficiency per unit optical depth E, fine-mode fraction of
optical depth f$_{f}$, and the anthropogenic fraction of the fine
mode f$_{af}$. The first three parameters can be retrieved from
satellites, but correlative, suborbital measurements are required for
quantifying the aerosol properties that control E, for validating the
retrieval of f$_{f}$, and for partitioning fine-mode {$\delta$}
between natural and anthropogenic components. The satellite focus is on
the ''A-Train,'' a constellation of six spacecraft that will fly in
formation from about 2005 to 2008. Key satellite instruments for this
report are the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and
Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiometers on
Aqua, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiometer on Aura, the
Polarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances (POLDER)
polarimeter on the Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for
Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL),
and the Cloud and Aerosol Lider with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP)
lidar on the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite
Observations (CALIPSO). This strategy is offered as an initial
framework{\mdash}subject to improvement over time{\mdash}for scientists
around the world to participate in the A-Train opportunity. It is a
specific implementation of the Progressive Aerosol Retrieval and
Assimilation Global Observing Network (PARAGON) program, presented
earlier in this journal, which identified the integration of diverse
data as the central challenge to progress in quantifying global-scale
aerosol effects. By designing a strategy around this need for
integration, we develop recommendations for both satellite data
interpretation and correlative suborbital activities that represent, in
many respects, departures from current practice.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-86-12-1795},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005BAMS...86.1795A},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005GeoRL..3217814Q,
  author = {{Quaas}, J. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Constraining the first aerosol indirect radiative forcing in the LMDZ GCM using POLDER and MODIS satellite data}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Climate change and variability (1616, 1635, 3309, 4215, 4513), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Atmospheric Processes: Global climate models (1626, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Remote sensing},
  year = 2005,
  month = sep,
  volume = 32,
  eid = {L17814},
  pages = {17814},
  abstract = {{The indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are expected to cause a
significant radiative forcing of the Earth's climate whose magnitude,
however, is still uncertain. Most climate models use parameterizations
for the aerosol indirect effects based on so-called ``empirical
relationships'' which link the cloud droplet number concentration to the
aerosol concentration. New satellite datasets such as those from the
POLDER and MODIS instruments are well suited to evaluate and improve
such parameterizations at a global scale. We derive statistical
relationships of cloud-top droplet radius and aerosol index (or aerosol
optical depth) from satellite retrievals and fit an empirical
parameterization in a general circulation model to match the
relationships. When applying the fitted parameterizations in the model,
the simulated radiative forcing by the first aerosol indirect effect is
reduced by 50\% as compared to our baseline simulation (down to -0.3 and
-0.4 Wm$^{-2}$ when using MODIS and POLDER satellite data,
respectively).
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2005GL023850},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3217814Q},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005GeoRL..3217804K,
  author = {{Kaufman}, Y.~J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Tanré}, D. and {Chin}, M. and 
	{Remer}, L.~A. and {Takemura}, T.},
  title = {{Aerosol anthropogenic component estimated from satellite data}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution: urban and regional (0305, 0478, 4251), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325)},
  year = 2005,
  month = sep,
  volume = 32,
  eid = {L17804},
  pages = {17804},
  abstract = {{Satellite instruments do not measure the aerosol chemical composition
needed to discriminate anthropogenic from natural aerosol components.
However the ability of new satellite instruments to distinguish fine
(submicron) from coarse (supermicron) aerosols over the oceans, serves
as a signature of the anthropogenic component and can be used to
estimate the fraction of anthropogenic aerosols with an uncertainty of
+/-30\%. Application to two years of global MODIS data shows that 21 +/-
7\% of the aerosol optical thickness over the oceans has an anthropogenic
origin. We found that three chemical transport models, used for global
estimates of the aerosol forcing of climate, calculate a global average
anthropogenic optical thickness over the ocean between 0.030 and 0.036,
in line with the present MODIS assessment of 0.033. This increases our
confidence in model assessments of the aerosol direct forcing of
climate. The MODIS estimated aerosol forcing over cloud free oceans is
therefore -1.4 +/- 0.4 W/m$^{2}$.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2005GL023125},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3217804K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005JGRD..11011206H,
  author = {{Halthore}, R.~N. and {Crisp}, D. and {Schwartz}, S.~E. and 
	{Anderson}, G.~P. and {Berk}, A. and {Bonnel}, B. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Chang}, F.-L. and {Chou}, M.-D. and {Clothiaux}, E.~E. and 
	{Dubuisson}, P. and {Fomin}, B. and {Fouquart}, Y. and {Freidenreich}, S. and 
	{Gautier}, C. and {Kato}, S. and {Laszlo}, I. and {Li}, Z. and 
	{Mather}, J.~H. and {Plana-Fattori}, A. and {Ramaswamy}, V. and 
	{Ricchiazzi}, P. and {Shiren}, Y. and {Trishchenko}, A. and 
	{Wiscombe}, W.},
  title = {{Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer codes and measurements}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Radiation: transmission and scattering, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Processes: Remote sensing, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, shortwave, model intercomparison, RT models},
  year = 2005,
  month = jun,
  volume = 110,
  number = d9,
  eid = {D11206},
  pages = {11206},
  abstract = {{Computation of components of shortwave (SW) or solar irradiance in the
surface-atmospheric system forms the basis of intercomparison between 16
radiative transfer models of varying spectral resolution ranging from
line-by-line models to broadband and general circulation models. In
order of increasing complexity the components are: direct solar
irradiance at the surface, diffuse irradiance at the surface, diffuse
upward flux at the surface, and diffuse upward flux at the top of the
atmosphere. These components allow computation of the atmospheric
absorptance. Four cases are considered from pure molecular atmospheres
to atmospheres with aerosols and atmosphere with a simple uniform cloud.
The molecular and aerosol cases allow comparison of aerosol forcing
calculation among models. A cloud-free case with measured atmospheric
and aerosol properties and measured shortwave radiation components
provides an absolute basis for evaluating the models. For the
aerosol-free and cloud-free dry atmospheres, models agree to within 1\%
(root mean square deviation as a percentage of mean) in broadband direct
solar irradiance at surface; the agreement is relatively poor at 5\% for
a humid atmosphere. A comparison of atmospheric absorptance, computed
from components of SW radiation, shows that agreement among models is
understandably much worse at 3\% and 10\% for dry and humid atmospheres,
respectively. Inclusion of aerosols generally makes the agreement among
models worse than when no aerosols are present, with some exceptions.
Modeled diffuse surface irradiance is higher than measurements for all
models for the same model inputs. Inclusion of an optically thick
low-cloud in a tropical atmosphere, a stringent test for multiple
scattering calculations, produces, in general, better agreement among
models for a low solar zenith angle (SZA = 30{\deg}) than for a high SZA
(75{\deg}). All models show about a 30\% increase in broadband absorptance
for 30{\deg} SZA relative to the clear-sky case and almost no enhancement
in absorptance for a higher SZA of 75{\deg}, possibly due to water vapor
line saturation in the atmosphere above the cloud.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD005293},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..11011206H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005GeoRL..3212803R,
  author = {{Reddy}, M.~S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Schulz}, M.
	},
  title = {{Aerosol optical depths and direct radiative perturbations by species and source type}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Radiation: transmission and scattering, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry},
  year = 2005,
  month = jun,
  volume = 32,
  eid = {L12803},
  pages = {12803},
  abstract = {{We have used the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
General Circulation Model (LMDZT GCM) to estimate the relative
contributions of different aerosol source types (i.e., fossil fuels,
biomass burning, and ``natural'') and aerosol species to the aerosol
optical depth (AOD) and direct aerosol radiative perturbation (DARP) at
the top-of-atmosphere. The largest estimated contribution to the global
annual average AOD (0.12 at 550 nm) is from natural (58\%), followed by
fossil fuel (26\%), and biomass burning (16\%) sources. The global annual
mean all-sky DARP in the shortwave (SW) spectrum by sulfate, black
carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), dust, and sea salt are -0.62, +0.55,
-0.33, -0.28, and -0.30 Wm$^{-2}$, respectively. The all-sky DARP
in the longwave spectrum (LW) is not negligible and is a bit less than
half of the SW DARP. The net (i.e., SW+LW) DARP distribution is
predominantly negative with patches of positive values over the dust
source regions, and off the west coasts of Southern Africa and South and
North America. For dust aerosols the SW effect is partially offset by LW
greenhouse effect.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2004GL021743},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3212803R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005JGRD..110.6112P,
  author = {{Pham}, M. and {Boucher}, O. and {Hauglustaine}, D.},
  title = {{Changes in atmospheric sulfur burdens and concentrations and resulting radiative forcings under IPCC SRES emission scenarios for 1990-2100}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere (1610, 8125), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Impacts of global change (1225), sulfur emission scenarios, atmospheric sulfur cycle, sulfate radiative forcing},
  year = 2005,
  month = mar,
  volume = 110,
  eid = {D06112},
  pages = {6112},
  abstract = {{Simulations of the global sulfur cycle under the IPCC SRES scenarios
have been performed. Sulfur dioxide and sulfate burdens, as well as the
direct and first indirect radiative forcing (RF) by sulfate aerosols
only, are presented for the period 1990 to 2100. By 2100, global sulfur
emission rates decline everywhere in all scenarios. At that time, the
anthropogenic sulfate burden ranges from 0.34 to 1.03 times the 1990
value of 0.47 Tg S. Direct and indirect global and annually mean RFs
relative to the year 1990 are near 0 or positive (range of -0.07 to 0.28
Wm$^{-2}$ and 0.01 to 0.38 Wm$^{-2}$ for the direct and
indirect effects, respectively). For reference these forcings amount
respectively to -0.42 and -0.79 Wm$^{-2}$ in 1990 relative to
preindustrial conditions (around 1750). Sulfur aerosols will therefore
induce a smaller cooling effect in 2100 than in 1990 relative to
preindustrial conditions. For the period 1990 to 2100, the forcing
efficiencies (computed relatively to 1990) are fairly constant for the
direct effect (around -160 W (g sulfate)$^{-1}$). The forcing
efficiencies for the indirect effect are around -200 and -100 W (g
sulfate)$^{-1}$ for negative and positive burden differences,
respectively. This is due to a shift in regional patterns of emissions
and a saturation in the indirect effect. The simulated annually averaged
SO$_{2}$ concentrations for A1B scenario in 2020 are close to air
quality objectives for public health in some parts of Africa and exceed
these objectives in some parts of China and Korea. Moreover, sulfate
deposition rates are estimated to increase by 200\% from the present
level in East and Southeast Asia. This shows that Asia may experience in
the future sulfur-related environmental and human health problems as
important as Europe and the United States did in the 1970s.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD005125},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.6112P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2005ACP.....5.1125S,
  author = {{Stier}, P. and {Feichter}, J. and {Kinne}, S. and {Kloster}, S. and 
	{Vignati}, E. and {Wilson}, J. and {Ganzeveld}, L. and {Tegen}, I. and 
	{Werner}, M. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Schulz}, M. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Minikin}, A. and {Petzold}, A.},
  title = {{The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2005,
  month = mar,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {1125-1156},
  abstract = {{The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is
based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of
externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a
wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an
ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed
aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition.
The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal
modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate
(SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt
(SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual
mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SU: 0.80
Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4
days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An
extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements
underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with
observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual
mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement
with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a
composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16).
Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main
patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
}},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ACP.....5.1125S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
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