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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=2001 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li2001.txt -ob lmd_Li2001.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Friedlingstein}, P. and {Bopp}, L. and {Ciais}, P. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Fairhead}, L. and {LeTreut}, H. and {Monfray}, P. and {Orr}, J.
  title = {{Positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Biosphere/atmosphere interactions, Global Change, Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Carbon cycling},
  year = 2001,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {1543-1546},
  abstract = {{Future climate change due to increased atmospheric CO$_{2}$ may
affect land and ocean efficiency to absorb atmospheric CO$_{2}$.
Here, using climate and carbon three-dimensional models forced by a 1\%
per year increase in atmospheric CO$_{2}$, we show that there is a
positive feedback between the climate system and the carbon cycle.
Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO$_{2}$,
respectively by 54\% and 35\% at 4 {\times} CO$_{2}$. This negative
impact implies that for prescribed anthropogenic CO$_{2}$
emissions, the atmospheric CO$_{2}$ would be higher than the level
reached if climate change does not affect the carbon cycle. We estimate
the gain of this climate-carbon cycle feedback to be 10\% at 2 {\times}
CO$_{2}$ and 20\% at 4 {\times} CO$_{2}$. This translates into
a 15\% higher mean temperature increase.
  doi = {10.1029/2000GL012015},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Qiang}, X.~K. and {Li}, Z.~X. and {Powell}, C.~M. and {Zheng}, H.~B.
  title = {{Magnetostratigraphic record of the Late Miocene onset of the East Asian monsoon, and Pliocene uplift of northern Tibet}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  year = 2001,
  month = apr,
  volume = 187,
  pages = {83-93},
  abstract = {{Widespread eolian red clay underlying the Plio-Pleistocene
loess-palaeosol succession in northern China has been dated
magnetostratigraphically back to 8.35 Ma, indicating that the East Asian
monsoon started at about the same time as the Indian monsoon. An initial
sedimentation rate of 11 m/Myr increased gradually to 17.5 m/Myr by 6
Ma, and then decreased to 6 m/Myr between 5 Ma and 3.5 Ma. A marked
increase in sedimentation rate and grain size beginning between 3.5 Ma
and 3.1 Ma indicates that the East Asian winter monsoon strengthened at
this time, and intensified further after 2.6 Ma. The temporal
coincidence of the stronger winter monsoon and the Pliocene uplift of
northwestern Tibet just before the onset of the Northern Hemisphere
glaciation indicate that the three events could be causally linked.
  doi = {10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00281-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X.},
  title = {{Thermodynamic Air-Sea Interactions and Tropical Atlantic SST Dipole Pattern}},
  journal = {Physics and Chemistry of the Earth B},
  year = 2001,
  month = jan,
  volume = 26,
  pages = {155-157},
  doi = {10.1016/S1464-1909(00)00233-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Liberti}, G.~L. and {Chéruy}, F. and {Desbois}, M.},
  title = {{Land Effect on the Diurnal Cycle of Clouds over the TOGA COARE Area, as Observed from GMS IR Data}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2001,
  volume = 129,
  pages = {1500},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<1500:LEOTDC>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ide}, K. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Li}, Z.-X. and {Ghil}, M.},
  title = {{Atmospheric radiative equilibria. Part II: bimodal solutions for atmospheric optical properties}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2001,
  volume = 18,
  pages = {29-49},
  abstract = {{A simple theoretical model of atmospheric radiative equilibrium is
solved analytically to help understand the energetics of maintaining
Earth's tropical and subtropical climate. The model climate is
constrained by energy balance between shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW)
radiative fluxes. Given a complete set of SW and LW optical properties
in each atmospheric layer, the model yields a unique
equilibrium-temperature profile. In contrast, if the atmospheric
temperature profile and SW properties are prescribed, the model yields
essentially two distinct LW transmissivity profiles. This bimodality is
due to a nonlinear competition between the ascending and descending
energy fluxes, as well as to their local conversion to sensible heat in
the atmosphere. Idealized slab models that are often used to describe
the greenhouse effect are shown to be a special case of our model when
this nonlinearity is suppressed. In this special case, only one solution
for LW transmissivity is possible. Our model's bimodality in LW
transmissivity for given SW fluxes and temperature profile may help
explain certain features of Earth's climate: at low latitudes the
temperature profiles are fairly homogeneous, while the humidity profiles
exhibit a bimodal distribution; one mode is associated with regions of
moist-and-ascending, the other with dry-and-subsiding air. The model's
analytical results show good agreement with the European Centre for
Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' reanalysis data. Sensitivity analysis of
the temperature profile with respect to LW transmissivity changes leads
to an assessment of the low-latitude climate's sensitivity to the
``runaway greenhouse'' effect.
  doi = {10.1007/s003820100168},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Menéndez}, C.~G. and {Saulo}, A.~C. and {Li}, Z.-X.},
  title = {{Simulation of South American wintertime climate with a nesting system}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2001,
  volume = 17,
  pages = {219-231},
  abstract = {{A numerical nesting system is developed to simulate wintertime climate
of the eastern South Pacific-South America-western South Atlantic
region, and preliminary results are presented. The nesting system
consists of a large-scale global atmospheric general circulation model
(GCM) and a regional climate model (RCM). The latter is driven at its
boundaries by the GCM. The particularity of this nesting system is that
the GCM itself has a variable horizontal resolution (stretched grid).
Our main purpose is to assess the plausibility of such a technique to
improve climate representation over South America. In order to evaluate
how this nesting system represents the main features of the regional
circulation, several mean fields have been analyzed. The global model,
despite its relatively low resolution, could simulate reasonably well
the more significant large-scale circulation patterns. The use of the
regional model often results in improvements, but not universally. Many
of the systematic errors of the global model are also present in the
regional model, although the biases tend to be rectified. Our
preliminary results suggest that nesting technique is a computationally
low-cost alternative for simulating regional climate features. However,
additional simulations, parametrizations tuning and further diagnosis
are clearly needed to represent local patterns more precisely.
  doi = {10.1007/s003820000107},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chassefière}, E. and {Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Vial}, F. and {Rème}, H. and {Mazelle}, C. and {Vignes}, D. and 
	{Sauvaud}, J.-A. and {Blelly}, P.-L. and {Toublanc}, D. and 
	{Berthelier}, J.-J. and {Cerisier}, J.-C. and {Chanteur}, G. and 
	{Duvet}, L. and {Menvielle}, M. and {Lilensten}, J. and {Witasse}, O. and 
	{Touboul}, P. and {Quèmerais}, E. and {Bertaux}, J.-L. and 
	{Hulot}, G. and {Cohen}, Y. and {Lognonné}, P. and {Barriot}, J.~P. and 
	{Balmino}, G. and {Blanc}, M. and {Pinet}, P. and {Parrot}, M. and 
	{Trotignon}, J.-G. and {Moncuquet}, M. and {Bougeret}, J.-L. and 
	{Issautier}, K. and {Lellouch}, E. and {Meyer}, N. and {Sotin}, C. and 
	{Grasset}, O. and {Barlier}, F. and {Berger}, C. and {Tarits}, P. and 
	{Dyment}, J. and {Breuer}, D. and {Spohn}, T. and {P{\"a}tzold}, M. and 
	{Sperveslage}, K. and {Gough}, P. and {Buckley}, A. and {Szego}, K. and 
	{Sasaki}, S. and {Smrekar}, S. and {Lyons}, D. and {Acuna}, M. and 
	{Connerney}, J. and {Purucker}, M. and {Lin}, R. and {Luhmann}, J. and 
	{Mitchell}, D. and {Leblanc}, F. and {Johnson}, R. and {Clarke}, J. and 
	{Nagy}, A. and {Young}, D. and {Bougher}, S. and {Keating}, G. and 
	{Haberle}, R. and {Jakosky}, B. and {Hodges}, R. and {Parmentier}, M. and 
	{Waite}, H. and {Bass}, D.},
  title = {{Scientific objectives of the DYNAMO mission}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2001,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {1851-1860},
  abstract = {{DYNAMO is a small Mars orbiter planned to be launched in 2005 or 2007,
in the frame of the NASA/ CNES Mars exploration program. It is aimed at
improving gravity and magnetic field resolution, in order to better
understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars, and at
characterizing current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly
constrained. These objectives are achieved by using a low periapsis
orbit, similar to the one used by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft
during its aerobraking phases. The proposed periapsis altitude for
DYNAMO of 120-130 km, coupled with the global distribution of periapses
to be obtained during one Martian year of operation, through about 5000
low passes, will produce a magnetic/gravity field data set with
approximately five times the spatial resolution of MGS. Additional data
on the internal structure will be obtained by mapping the electric
conductivity. Low periapsis provides a unique opportunity to investigate
the chemical and dynamical properties of the deep ionosphere,
thermosphere, and the interaction between the atmosphere and the solar
wind, therefore atmospheric escape, which may have played a crucial role
in removing atmosphere and water from the planet.
  doi = {10.1016/S0273-1177(01)00338-6},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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