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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Bony"  ' -c year=1994 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Bony1994.txt -ob lmd_Bony1994.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Duvel}, J.-P.},
  title = {{Influence of the vertical structure of the atmosphere on the seasonal variation of precipitable water and greenhouse effect}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology},
  year = 1994,
  month = jun,
  volume = 99,
  pages = {12963},
  abstract = {{By using satellite observations and European Centre for Medium Range
Weather Forecasts analyses, we study the seasonal variations of the
precipitable water and the greenhouse effect, defined as the normalized
difference between the longwave flux emitted at the surface and that
emergent at the top of the atmosphere. Results show a strong systematic
influence of the vertical structure of the atmosphere on geographical
and seasonal variations of both precipitable water and greenhouse
effect. Over ocean, in middle and high latitudes, the seasonal variation
of the mean temperature lapse rate in the troposphere leads to large
seasonal phase lags between greenhouse effect and precipitable water. By
contrast, the seasonal variation of the clear-sky greenhouse effect over
tropical oceans is mainly driven by the total atmospheric transmittance
and thus by precipitable water variations. Over land, the seasonal
variation of the tropospheric lapse rate acts to amplify the radiative
impact of water vapor changes, giving a strong seasonal variation of the
greenhouse effect. Over tropical land regions, monsoon activity
generates a seasonal phase lag between surface temperature and relative
humidity variations that gives a seasonal lag of about 2 months between
the surface temperature and the clear-sky greenhouse effect. Generally,
the cloudiness amplifies clear-sky tendencies. Finally, as an
illustration, obtained results are used to evaluate the general
circulation model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie
  doi = {10.1029/94JD00482},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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