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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Hourdin"  ' -c year=1995 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Hourdin1995.txt -ob lmd_Hourdin1995.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Sadourny}, R. and {Courtin}, R. and 
	{Gautier}, D. and {Mckay}, C.~P.},
  title = {{Numerical simulation of the general circulation of the atmosphere of Titan.}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 1995,
  month = oct,
  volume = 117,
  pages = {358-374},
  abstract = {{The atmospheric circulation of Titan is investigated with a general
circulation model. The representation of the large-scale dynamics is
based on a grid point model developed and used at Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique for climate studies. The code also
includes an accurate representation of radiative heating and cooling by
molecular gases and haze as well as a parametrization of the vertical
turbulent mixing of momentum and potential temperature. Long-term
simulations of the atmospheric circulation are presented. Starting from
a state of rest, the model spontaneously produces a strong superrotation
with prograde equatorial winds (i.e., in the same sense as the assumed
rotation of the solid body) increasing from the surface to reach 100 m
sec $^{-1}$ near the 1-mbar pressure level. Those equatorial winds
are in very good agreement with some indirect observations, especially
those of the 1989 occultation of Star 28-Sgr by Titan. On the other
hand, the model simulates latitudinal temperature contrasts in the
stratosphere that are significantly weaker than those observed by
Voyager 1 which, we suggest, may be partly due to the nonrepresentation
of the spatial and temporal variations of the abundances of molecular
species and haze. We present diagnostics of the simulated atmospheric
circulation underlying the importance of the seasonal cycle and a
tentative explanation for the creation and maintenance of the
atmospheric superrotation based on a careful angular momentum budget.
  doi = {10.1006/icar.1995.1162},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Forget}, F. and {Talagrand}, O.},
  title = {{The sensitivity of the Martian surface pressure and atmospheric mass budget to various parameters: A comparison between numerical simulations and Viking observations}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Circulation, Atmospheric Models, Atmospheric Pressure, Comparison, Mars Atmosphere, Mass Flow, Albedo, Annual Variations, Data Reduction, Optical Thickness, Surface Roughness, Thermal Emission, Topography},
  year = 1995,
  month = mar,
  volume = 100,
  pages = {5501-5523},
  abstract = {{The sensitvity of the Martian atmospheric circulation to a number of
poorly known or strongly varying parameters (surface roughness length,
atmospheric optical depth, CO2 ice albedo, and thermal emissivity) is
investigated through experiments performed with the Martian version of
the atmospheric general circulation model of Laboratoire de Meteorologie
Dynamique, with a rather coarse horizontal resolution (a grid with 32
points in longitude and 24 points in latitude). The results are
evaluated primarily on the basis of comparisons with the surface
pressure records of the Viking mission. To that end, the records are
decomposed into long-period seasonal variations due to mass exchange
with the polar caps and latitudinal redistribution of mass, and
short-period variations due to transient longitudinally propagating
waves. The sensitivty experiments include a 5-year control simulation
and shorter simulations (a little longer than 1 year) performed with
'perturbed' parameter values. The main conclusions are that (1) a change
of horizontal resolution (twice as many points in each direction) mostly
affects the transient waves, (2) surface roughness lengths have a
significant impact on the near-suface wind and, as a matter of
consequence, on the latitudinal redistribution of mass, (3) atmospheric
dust optical depth has a significant impact on radiative balance and
dynamics, and (4) CO2 ice albedo and thermal emissivity strongly
influence mass exchange between the atmosphere and the polar caps. In
view of this last conclusion, an automatic procedure is implemented
through which the albedo and emissivity of each of the two polar caps
are determined, together with the total (i.e., including the caps)
atmospheric CO2 content, in such a way as to get the closest fit of the
model to the Viking pressure measurements.
  doi = {10.1029/94JE03079},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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