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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Laval"  ' -c year=1997 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Laval1997.txt -ob lmd_Laval1997.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Peylin}, P. and {Polcher}, J. and {Bonan}, G. and {Williamson}, D.~L. and 
	{Laval}, K.},
  title = {{Comparison of two complex land surface schemes coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research general circulation model}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Land/atmosphere interactions, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology},
  year = 1997,
  month = aug,
  volume = 102,
  pages = {19413},
  abstract = {{Two climate simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric
Research general circulation model (version CCM2) coupled either to the
Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) or to Sechiba land surface
scheme are compared. Both parameterizations of surface-atmosphere
exchanges may be considered as complex but represent the soil hydrology
and the role of vegetation in very different ways. The global impact of
the change in land surface scheme on the simulated climate appears to be
small. Changes are smaller than those obtained when comparing either one
of these schemes to the fixed hydrology used in the standard CCM2.
Nevertheless, at the regional scale, changing the land-surface scheme
can have a large impact on the local climate. As one example, wre detail
how circulation patterns are modified above the Tibetan plateau during
the monsoon season. Elsewhere, mainly over land, changes can also be
important. In the tropics, during the dry season, Sechiba produces
warmer surface temperatures than does BATS. This warming arises from
differences in the soil hydrology, both storage capacity and the
dynamics of soil water transport. Over the Tundra biotype, the
formulation of the transpiration induces significant differences in the
energy balance.
  doi = {10.1029/97JD00489},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chen}, T.~H. and {Henderson-Sellers}, A. and {Milly}, P.~C.~D. and 
	{Pitman}, A.~J. and {Beljaars}, A.~C.~M. and {Polcher}, J. and 
	{Abramopoulos}, F. and {Boone}, A. and {Chang}, S. and {Chen}, F. and 
	{Dai}, Y. and {Desborough}, C.~E. and {Dickinson}, R.~E. and 
	{D{\"u}menil}, L. and {Ek}, M. and {Garratt}, J.~R. and {Gedney}, N. and 
	{Gusev}, Y.~M. and {{\nbsp}Kim}, J. and {{\nbsp}Koster}, R. and 
	{{\nbsp}Kowalczyk}, E.~A. and {{\nbsp}Laval}, K. and {{\nbsp}Lean}, J. and 
	{{\nbsp}Lettenmaier}, D. and {{\nbsp}Liang}, X. and {{\nbsp}Mahfouf}, J.-F. and 
	{{\nbsp}Mengelkamp}, H.-T. and {{\nbsp}Mitchell}, K. and {{\nbsp}Nasonova}, O.~N. and 
	{{\nbsp}Noilhan}, J. and {{\nbsp}Robock}, A. and {{\nbsp}Rosenzweig}, C. and 
	{{\nbsp}Schaake}, J. and {{\nbsp}Schlosser}, C.~A. and {{\nbsp}Schulz}, J.-P. and 
	{{\nbsp}Shao}, Y. and {{\nbsp}Shmakin}, A.~B. and {{\nbsp}Verseghy}, D.~L. and 
	{{\nbsp}Wetzel}, P. and {{\nbsp}Wood}, E.~F. and {{\nbsp}Xue}, Y. and 
	{{\nbsp}Yang}, Z.-L. and {{\nbsp}Zeng}, Q.},
  title = {{Cabauw Experimental Results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1997,
  month = jun,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {1194-1215},
  abstract = {{In the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization
Schemes phase 2a experiment, meteorological data for the year 1987 from
Cabauw, the Netherlands, were used as inputs to 23 land-surface flux
schemes designed for use in climate and weather models. Schemes were
evaluated by comparing their outputs with long-term measurements of
surface sensible heat fluxes into the atmosphere and the ground, and of
upward longwave radiation and total net radiative fluxes, and also
comparing them with latent heat fluxes derived from a surface energy
balance. Tuning of schemes by use of the observed flux data was not
permitted. On an annual basis, the predicted surface radiative
temperature exhibits a range of 2 K across schemes, consistent with the
range of about 10 W m$^{2}$ in predicted surface net radiation.
Most modeled values of monthly net radiation differ from the
observations by less than the estimated maximum monthly observational
error ({\plusmn}10 W m$^{2}$). However, modeled radiative surface
temperature appears to have a systematic positive bias in most schemes;
this might be explained by an error in assumed emissivity and by models'
neglect of canopy thermal heterogeneity. Annual means of sensible and
latent heat fluxes, into which net radiation is partitioned, have ranges
across schemes of30 W m$^{2}$ and 25 W m$^{2}$,
respectively. Annual totals of evapotranspiration and runoff, into which
the precipitation is partitioned, both have ranges of 315 mm. These
ranges in annual heat and water fluxes were approximately halved upon
exclusion of the three schemes that have no stomatal resistance under
non-water-stressed conditions. Many schemes tend to underestimate latent
heat flux and overestimate sensible heat flux in summer, with a reverse
tendency in winter. For six schemes, root-mean-square deviations of
predictions from monthly observations are less than the estimated upper
bounds on observation errors (5 W m$^{2}$ for sensible heat flux
and 10 W m$^{2}$ for latent heat flux). Actual runoff at the site
is believed to be dominated by vertical drainage to groundwater, but
several schemes produced significant amounts of runoff as overland flow
or interflow. There is a range across schemes of 184 mm (40\% of total
pore volume) in the simulated annual mean root-zone soil moisture.
Unfortunately, no measurements of soil moisture were available for model
evaluation. A theoretical analysis suggested that differences in
boundary conditions used in various schemes are not sufficient to
explain the large variance in soil moisture. However, many of the
extreme values of soil moisture could be explained in terms of the
particulars of experimental setup or excessive evapotranspiration.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1194:CERFTP>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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