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2004 .

(5 publications)

F. Chèruy, A. Speranza, A. Sutera, and N. Tartaglione. Surface winds in the Euro-Mediterranean area: the real resolution of numerical grids. Annales Geophysicae, 22:4043-4048, December 2004. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Surface wind is a variable of great importance in forcing marine waves and circulations, modulating surface fluxes, etc. Surface wind defined on numerical grids is currently used in forecast-analysis, as well as in climatology. Gridded fields, however, suffer for systematic errors associated with the numerical procedures adopted in computing them. In this paper the climatology of surface wind produced by three different numerical models in the European-Mediterranean area is analyzed. The systematic loss of power at the smallest grid-scales appears in the power spectrum of all the different models. Some prototype numerical integrations show that this systematic over-smoothing is due to numerical stabilization operators that represent the main source of the diagnosed error; the error progression in space and time is also analyzed.

J. Y. Grandpeix, V. Phillips, and R. Tailleux. Improved mixing representation in Emanuel's convection scheme. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 130:3207-3222, October 2004. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Recent empirical and modelling studies suggest that mid-tropospheric relative humidity (RH) is an important controlling factor of deep atmospheric convection, which appears to be underestimated in present cumulus parametrizations. This indicates the possible presence of shortcomings in the way that entrainment is represented in such parametrizations. This matter was explored in the European Cloud Systems project (EUROCS) by means of an idealized humidity experiment in which the main controlling parameter is RH. In the latter study, cloud-resolving model (CRM) experiments suggested that a shallow/deep convection transition occurs when RH crosses a threshold value that ranges from about RH = 50% to RH = 60%. In this paper, we seek to increase the responsiveness of Emanuel's convection scheme to RH, and to reproduce the threshold behaviour of the idealized humidity case, by replacing the original uniform probability density function (PDF) for mixing fractions by a more flexible two-parameter bell-shaped function that allows a wider range of behaviour. The main result is that the parameters of this PDF can be tuned to allow a regime transition to occur near a threshold value of RH 55%. In contrast to CRM results, however, this transition is between two different regimes of deep convection rather than between a shallow and deep regime. Possible ways to obtain a shallow-to-deep transition with Emanuel's scheme are discussed.

Z. X. Li, D. A. D. Evans, and S. Zhang. A 90deg spin on Rodinia: possible causal links between the Neoproterozoic supercontinent, superplume, true polar wander and low-latitude glaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 220:409-421, April 2004. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We report here new geochronological and paleomagnetic data from the 80210 Ma Xiaofeng dykes in South China. Together with existing data, these results suggest that Rodinia probably spread from the equator to the polar region at ca. 800 Ma, followed by a rapid ca. 90deg rotation around an axis near Greenland that brought the entire supercontinent to a low-latitude position by ca. 750 Ma. We propose that it was the initiation of a mantle superplume under the polar end of Rodinia that triggered an episode of true polar wander (TPW) which brought the entire supercontinent into equatorial latitudes. An unusually extensive emerged land area at the equator increased both atmospheric CO 2 drawdown and global albedo, which, along with waning plume volcanism led directly to the low-latitude Sturtian glaciation at ca. 750-720 Ma.

D. A. Hauglustaine, F. Hourdin, L. Jourdain, M.-A. Filiberti, S. Walters, J.-F. Lamarque, and E. A. Holland. Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: Description and background tropospheric chemistry evaluation. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 109:4314, February 2004. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We provide a description and evaluation of LMDz-INCA, which couples the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model (LMDz) and the Interaction with Chemistry and Aerosols (INCA) model. In this first version of the model a CH4-NOx-CO-O3 chemical scheme representative of the background chemistry of the troposphere is considered. We derive rapid interhemispheric exchange times of 1.13-1.38 years and 0.70-0.82 years, based on surface and pressure-weighted mixing ratios of inert tracers, respectively. The general patterns of the nitrogen deposition are correctly reproduced by the model. However, scavenging processes remain a major source of uncertainty in current models, with convective precipitation playing a key role in the global distribution of soluble species. The global and annual mean methane (7.9 years) and methylchloroform (4.6 years) chemical lifetimes suggest that OH is too high by about 19-25% in the model. This disagreement with previous estimates is attributed to the missing nonmethane hydrocarbons in this version of the model. The model simulates quite satisfactorily the distribution and seasonal cycle of CO at most stations. At several tropical sites and in the Northern Hemisphere during summer, the OH overestimate leads, however, to a too intense CO chemical destruction. LMDz-INCA reproduces fairly well the distribution of ozone throughout most of the troposphere. A main disagreement appears in the Northern Hemisphere upper troposphere during summer, due to a too high tropopause in the GCM. When the GCM winds are relaxed toward assimilated meteorology, a much higher variability is obtained for ozone in the upper troposphere, reflecting more frequent stratospheric intrusions. The stratospheric influx of ozone increases from 523 Tg/yr in the base case simulation to 783 Tg/yr in the nudged version.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon. Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER. Advances in Space Research, 33:1080-1088, January 2004. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Polarization and directionality of the Earth's reflectances (POLDER) is a multispectral imaging radiometer-polarimeter with a wide field-of-view, a moderate spatial resolution, and a multi-angle viewing capability. It functioned nominally aboard ADEOS1 from November 1996 to June 1997. When the satellite passes over a target, POLDER allows to observe it under up to 14 different viewing directions and in several narrow spectral bands of the visible and near-infrared spectrum (443-910 nm). This new type of multi-angle instruments offers new opportunity for deriving cloud parameters at global scale. The aim of this short overview paper is to point out the main contributions of such an instrument for cloud study through its original instrumental capabilities (multidirectionality, multipolarization, and multispectrality). This is mainly illustrated by using ADEOS 1-POLDER derived cloud parameters which are operationally processed by CNES and are available since the beginning of 1999.

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