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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Dufresne"  ' -c year=2008 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Dufresne2008.txt -ob lmd_Dufresne2008.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Chepfer}, H. and {Bony}, S. and {Winker}, D. and {Chiriaco}, M. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Sèze}, G.},
  title = {{Use of CALIPSO lidar observations to evaluate the cloudiness simulated by a climate model}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Global Change: Remote sensing (1855), Atmospheric Processes: Climatology (1616, 1620, 3305, 4215, 8408)},
  year = 2008,
  month = aug,
  volume = 35,
  eid = {L15704},
  pages = {15704},
  abstract = {{New space-borne active sensors make it possible to observe the
three-dimensional structure of clouds. Here we use CALIPSO lidar
observations together with a lidar simulator to evaluate the cloudiness
simulated by a climate model: modeled atmospheric profiles are converted
to an ensemble of subgrid-scale attenuated backscatter lidar signals
from which a cloud fraction is derived. Except in regions of persistent
thick upper-level clouds, the cloud fraction diagnosed through this
procedure is close to that actually predicted by the model. A fractional
cloudiness is diagnosed consistently from CALIPSO data at a
spatio-temporal resolution comparable to that of the model. The
comparison of the model's cloudiness with CALIPSO data reveals
discrepancies more pronounced than in previous model evaluations based
on passive observations. This suggests that space-borne lidar
observations constitute a powerful tool for the evaluation of clouds in
large-scale models, including marine boundary-layer clouds
  doi = {10.1029/2008GL034207},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{An Assessment of the Primary Sources of Spread of Global Warming Estimates from Coupled Atmosphere Ocean Models}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2008,
  volume = 21,
  pages = {5135},
  doi = {10.1175/2008JCLI2239.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Arzel}, O. and {Fichefet}, T. and {Goosse}, H. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.
  title = {{Causes and impacts of changes in the Arctic freshwater budget during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in an AOGCM}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2008,
  month = jan,
  volume = 30,
  pages = {37-58},
  abstract = {{The fourth version of the atmosphere-ocean general circulation (AOGCM)
model developed at the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL-CM4) is used
to investigate the mechanisms influencing the Arctic freshwater balance
in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. The freshwater
influence on the interannual variability of deep winter oceanic
convection in the Nordic Seas is also studied on the basis of
correlation and regression analyses of detrended variables. The model
shows that the Fram Strait outflow, which is an important source of
freshwater for the northern North Atlantic, experiences a rapid and
strong transition from a weak state toward a relatively strong state
during 1990-2010. The authors propose that this climate shift is
triggered by the retreat of sea ice in the Barents Sea during the late
twentieth century. This sea ice reduction initiates a positive feedback
in the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system that alters both the atmospheric
and oceanic circulations in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian
(GIN)-Barents Seas sector. Around year 2080, the model predicts a second
transition threshold beyond which the Fram Strait outflow is restored
toward its original weak value. The long-term freshening of the GIN Seas
is invoked to explain this rapid transition. It is further found that
the mechanism of interannual changes in deep mixing differ fundamentally
between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. This difference is
caused by the dominant influence of freshwater over the twenty-first
century. In the GIN Seas, the interannual changes in the liquid
freshwater export out of the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait combined
with the interannual changes in the liquid freshwater import from the
North Atlantic are shown to have a major influence in driving the
interannual variability of the deep convection during the twenty-first
century. South of Iceland, the other region of deep water renewal in the
model, changes in freshwater import from the North Atlantic constitute
the dominant forcing of deep convection on interannual time scales over
the twenty-first century.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-007-0258-5},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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