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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Boucher"  ' -c year=2004 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Boucher2004.txt -ob lmd_Boucher2004.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Quaas}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Treut}, H.
  title = {{Impacts of greenhouse gases and aerosol direct and indirect effects on clouds and radiation in atmospheric GCM simulations of the 1930 1989 period}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2004,
  month = dec,
  volume = 23,
  pages = {779-789},
  abstract = {{Among anthropogenic perturbations of the Earth{\rsquo}s atmosphere,
greenhouse gases and aerosols are considered to have a major impact on
the energy budget through their impact on radiative fluxes. We use three
ensembles of simulations with the LMDZ general circulation model to
investigate the radiative impacts of five species of greenhouse gases
(CO$_{2}$, CH$_{4}$, N$_{2}$O, CFC-11 and CFC-12) and
sulfate aerosols for the period 1930 1989. Since our focus is on the
atmospheric changes in clouds and radiation from greenhouse gases and
aerosols, we prescribed sea-surface temperatures in these simulations.
Besides the direct impact on radiation through the greenhouse effect and
scattering of sunlight by aerosols, strong radiative impacts of both
perturbations through changes in cloudiness are analysed. The increase
in greenhouse gas concentration leads to a reduction of clouds at all
atmospheric levels, thus decreasing the total greenhouse effect in the
longwave spectrum and increasing absorption of solar radiation by
reduction of cloud albedo. Increasing anthropogenic aerosol burden
results in a decrease in high-level cloud cover through a cooling of the
atmosphere, and an increase in the low-level cloud cover through the
second aerosol indirect effect. The trend in low-level cloud lifetime
due to aerosols is quantified to 0.5 min day$^{-1}$
decade$^{-1}$ for the simulation period. The different
changes in high (decrease) and low-level (increase) cloudiness due to
the response of cloud processes to aerosols impact shortwave radiation
in a contrariwise manner, and the net effect is slightly positive. The
total aerosol effect including the aerosol direct and first indirect
effects remains strongly negative.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-004-0475-0},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Reddy}, M.~S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Venkataraman}, C. and 
	{Verma}, S. and {LéOn}, J.-F. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Pham}, M.
  title = {{General circulation model estimates of aerosol transport and radiative forcing during the Indian Ocean Experiment}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere-constituent transport and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution-urban and regional (0305), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation, Indian Ocean, India, south Asia, radiative impacts, fly ash},
  year = 2004,
  month = aug,
  volume = 109,
  number = d18,
  eid = {D16205},
  pages = {16205},
  abstract = {{Aerosol sources, transport, and sinks are simulated, and aerosol direct
radiative effects are assessed over the Indian Ocean for the Indian
Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) Intensive Field Phase during January to March
1999 using the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
(LMDZT) general circulation model. The model reproduces the latitudinal
gradient in aerosol mass concentration and optical depth (AOD). The
model-predicted aerosol concentrations and AODs agree reasonably well
with measurements but are systematically underestimated during
high-pollution episodes, especially in the month of March. The largest
aerosol loads are found over southwestern China, the Bay of Bengal, and
the Indian subcontinent. Aerosol emissions from the Indian subcontinent
are transported into the Indian Ocean through either the west coast or
the east coast of India. Over the INDOEX region, carbonaceous aerosols
are the largest contributor to the estimated AOD, followed by sulfate,
dust, sea salt, and fly ash. During the northeast winter monsoon,
natural and anthropogenic aerosols reduce the solar flux reaching the
surface by 25 W m$^{-2}$, leading to 10-15\% less insolation at the
surface. A doubling of black carbon (BC) emissions from Asia results in
an aerosol single-scattering albedo that is much smaller than in situ
measurements, reflecting the fact that BC emissions are not
underestimated in proportion to other (mostly scattering) aerosol types.
South Asia is the dominant contributor to sulfate aerosols over the
INDOEX region and accounts for 60-70\% of the AOD by sulfate. It is also
an important but not the dominant contributor to carbonaceous aerosols
over the INDOEX region with a contribution of less than 40\% to the AOD
by this aerosol species. The presence of elevated plumes brings
significant quantities of aerosols to the Indian Ocean that are
generated over Africa and Southeast and east Asia.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD004557},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Vesperini}, M. and {Tanré}, D.~E.
  title = {{Estimating the direct aerosol radiative perturbation: Impact of ocean surface representation and aerosol non-sphericity}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2004,
  month = jul,
  volume = 130,
  pages = {2217-2232},
  abstract = {{Atmospheric aerosols are now actively studied, in particular because of
their radiative and climate impacts. Estimations of the direct aerosol
radiative perturbation, caused by extinction of incident solar
radiation, usually rely on radiative transfer codes and involve
simplifying hypotheses. This paper addresses two approximations which
are widely used for the sake of simplicity and limiting the
computational cost of the calculations. Firstly, it is shown that using
a Lambertian albedo instead of the more rigorous bidirectional
reflectance distribution function (BRDF) to model the ocean surface
radiative properties leads to large relative errors in the instantaneous
aerosol radiative perturbation. When averaging over the day, these
errors cancel out to acceptable levels of less than 3\% (except in the
northern hemisphere winter). The other scope of this study is to address
aerosol non-sphericity effects. Comparing an experimental phase function
with an equivalent Mie-calculated phase function, we found acceptable
relative errors if the aerosol radiative perturbation calculated for a
given optical thickness is daily averaged. However, retrieval of the
optical thickness of non-spherical aerosols assuming spherical particles
can lead to significant errors. This is due to significant differences
between the spherical and non-spherical phase functions. Discrepancies
in aerosol radiative perturbation between the spherical and
non-spherical cases are sometimes reduced and sometimes enhanced if the
aerosol optical thickness for the spherical case is adjusted to fit the
simulated radiance of the non-spherical case.
  doi = {10.1256/qj.03.136},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Reddy}, M.~S. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{A study of the global cycle of carbonaceous aerosols in the LMDZT general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution-urban and regional (0305), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere-composition and chemistry, carbonaceous aerosols, model validation, sensitivity studies},
  year = 2004,
  month = jul,
  volume = 109,
  number = d18,
  eid = {D14202},
  pages = {14202},
  abstract = {{The global atmospheric cycle of carbonaceous aerosols is simulated in
the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general
circulation model, and the subsequent aerosol optical depth is estimated
for the period 1997 to 1999. The seasonal and interannual variability in
the open biomass burning emissions has been improved by combining
existing emission inventories and satellite measured fire counts. The
model performance has been thoroughly evaluated against measured aerosol
mass concentrations and optical depth in different regions of the globe.
At a majority of locations, the modeled mass concentrations of black
carbon (BC) at the surface are within a factor of two of observed
values. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) are generally
underestimated in comparison to measurements. The discrepancies between
model predicted values and measurements are attributable to the
difference in time periods between the measurements and model
simulations and/or a real underestimation of aerosol emissions in the
model. The atmospheric residence times of both BC and OC aerosols are
about a week. The hydrophilic fraction of carbonaceous aerosols accounts
for about 90\% of the total burden. Organic matter (OM) and associated
water dominate the optical depth by carbonaceous aerosols with a 86\%
contribution (global mean of 0.031 at 0.55 {$\mu$}m). Different sensitivity
experiments on the transformation time for conversion of hydrophobic to
hydrophilic aerosols and emission partitioning show significant changes
in the distribution of aerosol burdens and optical depth. The globally
averaged burdens change by {\plusmn}15\% and residence times are shorter
or longer by about 1 day in the various experiments as compared to the
control simulation. In all of these experiments the largest sensitivity
in aerosol concentrations is found in the remote regions and in the free
troposphere (pressure range of 700-400 hPa). Emissions from biomass
burning dominate the burden and optical depth of carbonaceous aerosols
in the entire SH and NH tropics, while fossil fuel emissions dominate
the NH extratropics. On the global scale biomass burning accounts for
78\% of the total carbonaceous aerosol burden (BC + OM) followed by
natural secondary organic aerosols (SOA)(14\%) and fossil fuels (8\%). The
contributions to corresponding AOD are similar with the largest
contribution from biomass burning (76\%) followed by natural SOA (14\%),
and fossil fuels (10\%).
  doi = {10.1029/2003JD004048},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Quaas}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {BréOn}, F.-M.},
  title = {{Aerosol indirect effects in POLDER satellite data and the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-Zoom (LMDZ) general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud physics and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Remote sensing, Hydrology: Anthropogenic effects, indirect effects, aerosol, clouds},
  year = 2004,
  month = apr,
  volume = 109,
  eid = {D08205},
  pages = {8205},
  abstract = {{The POLDER-1 instrument was able to measure aerosol and cloud properties
for eight months in 1996-1997. We use these observational data for
aerosol concentration (the aerosol index), cloud optical thickness, and
cloud droplet effective radius to establish statistical relationships
among these parameters in order to analyze the first and second aerosol
indirect effects. We also evaluate the representation of these effects
as parameterized in the Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique-Zoom (LMDZ) general circulation model. We find a decrease in
cloud top droplet radius with increasing aerosol index in both the model
and the observations. Our results are only slightly changed if the
analysis is done at fixed cloud liquid water path (LWP) instead of
considering all LWP conditions. We also find a positive correlation
between aerosol index and cloud liquid water path, which is particularly
pronounced over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. This may be
interpreted as observational evidence for the second aerosol indirect
effect on a large scale. The model-simulated relationship agrees well
with that derived from POLDER data. Model simulations show a rather
small change in the two relationships if preindustrial rather than
present-day aerosol distributions are used. However, when entirely
switching off the second aerosol indirect effect in our model, we find a
much steeper slope than we do when including it.
  doi = {10.1029/2003JD004317},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Parol}, F. and {Buriez}, J.~C. and {Vanbauce}, C. and {Riedi}, J. and 
	{Labonnote}, L.~C. and {Doutriaux-Boucher}, M. and {Vesperini}, M. and 
	{Sèze}, G. and {Couvert}, P. and {Viollier}, M. and {Bréon}, F.~M.
  title = {{Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2004,
  month = jan,
  volume = 33,
  pages = {1080-1088},
  abstract = {{Polarization and directionality of the Earth's reflectances (POLDER) is
a multispectral imaging radiometer-polarimeter with a wide
field-of-view, a moderate spatial resolution, and a multi-angle viewing
capability. It functioned nominally aboard ADEOS1 from November 1996 to
June 1997. When the satellite passes over a target, POLDER allows to
observe it under up to 14 different viewing directions and in several
narrow spectral bands of the visible and near-infrared spectrum (443-910
nm). This new type of multi-angle instruments offers new opportunity for
deriving cloud parameters at global scale. The aim of this short
overview paper is to point out the main contributions of such an
instrument for cloud study through its original instrumental
capabilities (multidirectionality, multipolarization, and
multispectrality). This is mainly illustrated by using ADEOS 1-POLDER
derived cloud parameters which are operationally processed by CNES and
are available since the beginning of 1999.
  doi = {10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00734-8},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Myhre}, G. and {Myhre}, A.},
  title = {{Direct human influence of irrigation on atmospheric water vapour and climate}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 22,
  pages = {597-603},
  abstract = {{Human activity increases the atmospheric water vapour content in an
indirect way through climate feedbacks. We conclude here that human
activity also has a direct influence on the water vapour concentration
through irrigation. In idealised simulations we estimate a global mean
radiative forcing in the range of 0.03 to +0.1 Wm$^{-2}$ due to
the increase in water vapour from irrigation. However, because the water
cycle is embodied in the climate system, irrigation has a more complex
influence on climate. We also simulate a change in the temperature
vertical profile and a large surface cooling of up to 0.8 K over
irrigated land areas. This is of opposite sign than expected from the
radiative forcing alone, and this questions the applicability of the
radiative forcing concept for such a climatic perturbation. Further,
this study shows stronger links than previously recognised between
climate change and freshwater scarcity which are environmental issues of
paramount importance for the twenty first century.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-004-0402-4},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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