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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=1999 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li1999.txt -ob lmd_Li1999.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Scott}, N.~A. and {Chédin}, A. and {Armante}, R. and {Francis}, J. and 
	{Stubenrauch}, C. and {Chaboureau}, J.-P. and {Chevallier}, F. and 
	{Claud}, C. and {Cheruy}, F.},
  title = {{Characteristics of the TOVS Pathfinder Path-B Dataset.}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 1999,
  month = dec,
  volume = 80,
  pages = {2679-2702},
  abstract = {{From 1979 to present, sensors aboard the NOAA series of polar
meteorological satellites have provided continuous measurements of the
earth's surface and atmosphere. One of these sensors, the TIROS-N
Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), observes earth-emitted radiation in
27 wavelength bands within the infrared and microwave portions of the
spectrum, thereby creating a valuable resource for studying the climate
of our planet. The NOAA-NASA Pathfinder program was conceived to make
these data more readily accessible to the community in the form of
processed geophysical variables. The Atmospheric Radiation Analysis
group at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique of the
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France was selected to
process TOVS data into climate products (Path-B). The Improved
Initialization Inversion (3I) retrieval algorithm is used to compute
these products from the satellite-observed radiances. The processing
technique ensures internal coherence and minimizes both observational
and computational biases. Products are at a 1{\deg} {\times} 1{\deg}
latitude-longitude grid and include atmospheric temperature profiles (up
to 10 hPa); total precipitable water vapor and content above four levels
up to 300 hPa; surface skin temperature; and cloud properties (amount,
type, and cloud-top pressure and temperature). The information is
archived as 1-day, 5-day, and monthly means on the entire globe; a.m.
and p.m. products for each satellite are stored separately. Eight years
have been processed to date, and processing continues at the rate of
approximately two satellite-months per day of computer time. Quality
assessment studies are presented. They consist of comparisons to
conventional meteorological data and to other remote sensing datasets.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2679:COTTPP>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Li}, X.~H. and {Kinny}, P.~D. and {Wang}, J.
  title = {{The breakup of Rodinia: did it start with a mantle plume beneath South China?}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  year = 1999,
  month = nov,
  volume = 173,
  pages = {171-181},
  abstract = {{Mafic to ultramafic dykes and sills in South China, dated as
828{\plusmn}7 Ma old, are identical in age to the 827{\plusmn}6 Ma
Gairdner Dyke Swarm in Australia, thought to be of mantle plume origin.
These intrusive rocks, accompanied by widespread granite intrusions and
rapid unroofing at a lateral extent of ca. 1000 km, and followed by
continental rifting, are interpreted to indicate the arrival of a plume
head centred beneath South China. This interpretation supports the idea
that South China lay between Australia and Laurentia in the Rodinia
supercontinent, and suggests that Rodinia breakup may have started with
a mantle plume which initiated continental rifting at about 820 Ma ago.
  doi = {10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00240-X},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lewis}, S.~R. and {Collins}, M. and {Read}, P.~L. and {Forget}, F. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and {Talagrand}, O. and 
	{Huot}, J.-P.},
  title = {{A climate database for Mars}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  year = 1999,
  month = oct,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {24177-24194},
  abstract = {{A database of statistics which describe the climate and surface
environment of Mars has been constructed directly on the basis of output
from multiannual integrations of two general circulation models
developed jointly at Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
du Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, France, and the
University of Oxford, United Kingdom, with support from the European
Space Agency. The models have been developed and validated to reproduce
the main features of the meteorology of Mars, as observed by past
spacecraft missions. As well as the more standard statistical measures
for mission design studies, the Mars Climate Database includes a novel
representation of large-scale variability, using empirical
eigenfunctions derived from an analysis of the full simulations, and
small-scale variability using parameterizations of processes such as
gravity wave propagation. The database may be used as a tool for mission
planning and also provides a valuable resource for scientific studies of
the Martian atmosphere. The database is described and critically
compared with a representative range of currently available
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001024},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and 
	{Talagrand}, O. and {Collins}, M. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and 
	{Huot}, J.-P.},
  title = {{Improved general circulation models of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  year = 1999,
  month = oct,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {24155-24176},
  abstract = {{We describe a set of two ``new generation'' general circulation models
of the Martian atmosphere derived from the models we originally
developed in the early 1990s. The two new models share the same physical
parameterizations but use two complementary numerical methods to solve
the atmospheric dynamic equations. The vertical resolution near the
surface has been refined, and the vertical domain has been extended to
above 80 km. These changes are accompanied by the inclusion of
state-of-the -art parameterizations to better simulate the dynamical and
physical processes near the surface (boundary layer scheme,
subgrid-scale topography parameterization, etc.) and at high altitude
(gravity wave drag). In addition, radiative transfer calculations and
the representation of polar processes have been significantly improved.
We present some examples of zonal-mean fields from simulations using the
model at several seasons. One relatively novel aspect, previously
introduced by Wilson [1997], is that around northern winter solstice the
strong pole to pole diabatic forcing creates a quasi-global,
angular-momentum conserving Hadley cell which has no terrestrial
equivalent. Within such a cell the Coriolis forces accelerate the winter
meridional flow toward the pole and induce a strong warming of the
middle polar atmosphere down to 25 km. This winter polar warming had
been observed but not properly modeled until recently. In fact, thermal
inversions are generally predicted above one, and often both, poles
around 60-70 km. However, the Mars middle atmosphere above 40 km is
found to be very model-sensitive and thus difficult to simulate
accurately in the absence of observations.
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001025},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Le Treut}, H.},
  title = {{Transient behavior of the meridional moisture transport across South America and its relation to atmospheric circulation patterns}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Synoptic-scale meteorology, Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309)},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 26,
  pages = {1409-1412},
  abstract = {{ The transient behavior of meridional moisture transport across the
South American continent is examined with the reanalysis data provided
by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The
results show clearly the effects of the valley between the Andes and the
Brazilian Plateau in canalizing the southward moisture transport: an
intense jet is episodically formed in this valley. The synoptic
variability of this low-level jet and its relation to the large-scale
atmospheric circulation are studied.
  doi = {10.1029/1999GL900274},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.-X.},
  title = {{Ensemble Atmospheric GCM Simulation of Climate Interannual Variability from 1979 to 1994.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1999,
  month = apr,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {986-1001},
  abstract = {{The climate interannual variability is examined using the general
circulation model (GCM) developed at the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique. The model is forced by the
observed sea surface temperature for the period 1979-94. An ensemble of
eight simulations is realized with different initial conditions. The
variability of the Southern Oscillation is studied. The simulated sea
level pressure anomalies at both Tahiti and Darwin are realistic
compared to observations. It is revealed, however, that the simulated
convection activity response to the warm episode of El Ni{\~n}o is
too weak over the eastern part of the tropical Pacific. This explains
why the simulated Pacific-North American pattern is shifted westward. A
global El Ni{\~n}o pattern index is defined and calculated for both
the simulation and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction
(NCEP) reanalysis data. This serves as a quantitative measure of El
Ni{\~n}o's global impact. A singular value decomposition analysis
performed with the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature and the
Northern Hemisphere 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the model's
teleconnection between the Tropics and high latitudes is similar to that
of the NCEP reanalysis data.In an exploratory manner, the model's
internal variability versus the external forced variability is studied.
It is shown that, except for the equatorial strip, the internal model
variability is larger than the external variability. An ensemble mean is
thus necessary in order to focus on the model's response to external sea
surface temperature anomalies. An attempt is also made to evaluate
statistically the influence of the ensemble's size on the model's
reproducibility. It is shown that, with this particular GCM, at least
five realizations are necessary to correctly assess the teleconnection
between the Tropics and the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. This
dependency on the number of realizations is less for the tropical
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0986:EAGSOC>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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