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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.98}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1995 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_all1995.txt -ob lmd_all1995.bib ./}}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Sadourny}, R. and {Courtin}, R. and 
	{Gautier}, D. and {Mckay}, C.~P.},
  title = {{Numerical simulation of the general circulation of the atmosphere of Titan.}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 1995,
  month = oct,
  volume = 117,
  pages = {358-374},
  abstract = {{The atmospheric circulation of Titan is investigated with a general
circulation model. The representation of the large-scale dynamics is
based on a grid point model developed and used at Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique for climate studies. The code also
includes an accurate representation of radiative heating and cooling by
molecular gases and haze as well as a parametrization of the vertical
turbulent mixing of momentum and potential temperature. Long-term
simulations of the atmospheric circulation are presented. Starting from
a state of rest, the model spontaneously produces a strong superrotation
with prograde equatorial winds (i.e., in the same sense as the assumed
rotation of the solid body) increasing from the surface to reach 100 m
sec $^{-1}$ near the 1-mbar pressure level. Those equatorial winds
are in very good agreement with some indirect observations, especially
those of the 1989 occultation of Star 28-Sgr by Titan. On the other
hand, the model simulates latitudinal temperature contrasts in the
stratosphere that are significantly weaker than those observed by
Voyager 1 which, we suggest, may be partly due to the nonrepresentation
of the spatial and temporal variations of the abundances of molecular
species and haze. We present diagnostics of the simulated atmospheric
circulation underlying the importance of the seasonal cycle and a
tentative explanation for the creation and maintenance of the
atmospheric superrotation based on a careful angular momentum budget.
  doi = {10.1006/icar.1995.1162},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Picon}, L. and {Fongang}, S. and {Seze}, G. and {Desbois}, M.
  title = {{African and Atlantic short-term climatic variations described from Meteosat water vapor channel}},
  journal = {Annales Geophysicae},
  year = 1995,
  month = jul,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {768-781},
  abstract = {{Pluriannual series of Meteosat-2 water vapor (WV) images are used to
build average maps of decadal and monthly brightness temperatures in the
6.3 {\micro}m channel. This processing is applied to all the 3-hourly
scenes, clear or cloudy, for July 1983 to July 1987. The ISCCP
cloudiness analyses confirm that the warmest spots in the monthly WV
images correspond to scenes either clear or covered with low clouds,
whereas the coldest areas correspond to scenes where cloud tops above
440 hPa frequently occur. The WV statistics are then used to
characterize seasonal and interannual variations of both the ITCZ
(InterTropical Convergence Zone) and the warm (dry) areas, corresponding
to subtropical subsidence. Thanks mainly to the seasonal variations,
relationships between the variations in the ITCZ and in dry subtropical
areas can be studied. It is shown that, for the Meteosat sector, a
wetter subtropical high troposphere is associated with an enhanced
activity of the ITCZ, and vice versa. For this area where the
north-south assymetry is large, the negative water vapor feedback
previously proposed seems not to occur.
  doi = {10.1007/s00585-995-0768-6},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Raghava}, R.~C. and {Laval}, K. and {Sadourny}, R. and {Polcher}, J.
  title = {{Atmospheric response to tropical denuding of vegetation}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = 1995,
  volume = 29,
  pages = {1963-2000},
  abstract = {{Two simulations of atmospheric circulations during June, July and August
1988 have been made with LMD Atmospheric General Circulation Model using
a classified vegetation global cover with and without the tropical
vegetation separately. The initial conditions prepared from ECMWF
analysed data were used, while the Reynolds' monthly blended analysis,
i.e., the blend of in situ, AVHRR satellite and ice data, were taken to
prescibe the sea surface temperatures. The global charts of mean monthly
precipitation and associated velocity potentials at 200 and 850 mb have
been compared and analysed for June, July and August 1988. The temporal
evolutions of precipitation averaged over a specific region of Indian
summer monsoon during its regime from onset to retreat have also been
discussed. Consequently, a pronounced impact of tropical vegetation on
the precipitation has been observed so as to characterise a forest as
one of the local rain inducing agents. Moreover, the tropical vegetation
appears to modulate the Indian summer monsoon also for the contributive
precipitation over India.
  doi = {10.1016/1352-2310(94)00291-R},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Anderson}, T.~L.},
  title = {{General circulation model assessment of the sensitivity of direct climate forcing by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to aerosol size and chemistry}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes},
  year = 1995,
  month = dec,
  volume = 100,
  pages = {26117},
  abstract = {{Climate response to atmospheric changes brought about by human activity
may depend strongly on the geographical and temporal pattern of
radiative forcing [Taylor and Penner, 1994]. In the case of aerosols
stemming from anthropogenic sulfur emissions, geographical and temporal
variations are certainly caused by variations in local mass
concentration [Charlson et el., 1991; Kiehl and Briegleb, 1993], but
could also arise from variations in the optical properties of sulfate
aerosols. Since optical properties (including their relative humidity
(RH) variation) depend fundamentally on aerosol size and chemical form
and since size and chemical form are features of the aerosol which are
not likely to be modeled on the global scale in the near future,
geographical and temporal variations in optical properties could
represent a stumbling block to accurate climate change forecasts. While
extensive measurements of aerosol optical properties are needed to fully
assess this problem, a preliminary assessment can be gained by
considering the sensitivity of climate forcing to realistic variations
in sulfate aerosol size and chemical form. Within a plausible set of
assumptions (sulfate aerosol resides in the accumulation mode size range
and only interacts with water vapor and ammonia vapor), we show that
this sensitivity is fairly small ({\plusmn}20\%). This low sensitivity
derives from a number of compensating factors linking the three optical
parameters identified by Charlson et al. [1991]. By implication, these
optical parameters, low RH scattering efficiency, the ratio of
hemispheric backscatter to total scatter, and the RH dependence of
scattering efficiency, should not be treated independently in either
theoretical or experimental investigations of direct climate forcing. A
suggested logical focus for such investigations is the backscatter
efficiency at high RH. If borne out by future research, low sensitivity
to sulfate aerosol size and chemistry would mean that direct sulfate
climate forcing can be incorporated in global climate models with only a
knowledge of sulfate mass concentration. We emphasize, therefore, the
need to study the extent to which our assumptions break down, in
particular, the fraction of anthropogenic sulfate that forms on coarse
mode particles (i.e., those with diameters {\gt}1 {$\mu$}m) and the extent
and effects of sulfate interactions with other accumulation mode
components. Finally, we find that a significant fraction of direct
aerosol forcing occurs in cloud-covered regions, according to a simple
bulk parameterization.
  doi = {10.1029/95JD02531},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Baker}, M.~B.},
  title = {{Precipitation and radiation modeling in a general circulation model: Introduction of cloud microphysical processes}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: General or miscellaneous},
  year = 1995,
  month = aug,
  volume = 100,
  pages = {16395},
  abstract = {{Cloud microphysical processes are introduced in the precipitation
parameterization of a general circulation model (GCM). Three
microphysical processes are included in this representation of warm
cloud precipitation: autoconversion of droplets, collection of droplets
by falling raindrops, and evaporation of raindrops falling in clear sky.
The mean droplet radius, r, is calculated from the cloud water mixing
ratio, which is computed in the model, and the cloud droplet number
concentration, N, which is prescribed. The autoconversion rate is set to
zero for r {\lt} r$_{0}$, a prescribed threshold mean droplet
radius. We investigate the model sensitivity to r$_{0}$ and to N,
the cloud droplet concentration, which is linked to the concentration of
cloud condensation nuclei and is likely to vary. We find that an
increase in N leads to an increase in the amount of cloud water stored
in the atmosphere. In further experiments the mean droplet radius used
in the parameterization of cloud optical properties is calculated in the
same way as in the precipitation parameterization in order to bring more
consistency between the different schemes. We again investigate the
model sensitivity to r$_{0}$ and to N and we find that an increase
in N significantly enhances cloud albedo.
  doi = {10.1029/95JD01382},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Lohmann}, U.},
  title = {{The sulfate-CCN-cloud albedo effect.}},
  journal = {Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology B},
  year = 1995,
  month = jul,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {281},
  abstract = {{Aerosol particles, such as sulfate aerosols, can act as cloud
condensation nuclei (CCN). The CCN spectrum and the water vapour supply
in a cloud determine the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and
hence the shortwave optical properties of low-level liquid clouds. The
capability of anthropogenic aerosols to increase cloud reflectivity and
thereby cool the Earth's surface is referred to as the indirect effect
of anthropogenic aerosols. To obtain an estimate of this effect on
climate, we empirically relate the CDNC, and thus the cloud optical
properties, of two general circulation models (GCM) to the sulfate
aerosol mass concentration derived from a chemical transport model.
Based on a series of model experiments, the normalized globally averaged
indirect forcing is about - 1W/m$^{2}$ and ranges from   0.5 to -
1.5W/m$^{2}$ in both GCMs for different experiments. However, it
is argued that the total uncertainty of the forcing is certainly larger
than this range. The overall agreement between the two climate models is
good, although the geographical distributions of the forcing are
somewhat different. The highest forcings occur in and off the coasts of
the polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The regional
distribution of the forcing and the land/sea contrast are very sensitive
to the choice of the CDNC-sulfate mass relationship. The general
patterns of the forcing, and the appropriateness of the different
CDNC-sulfate mass relationships, are assessed. We also examine the
simulated droplet effective radii and compare them with satellite
  doi = {10.1034/j.1600-0889.47.issue3.1.x},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Duvel}, J.-P. and {Le Trent}, H.},
  title = {{Observed dependence of the water vapor and clear-sky greenhouse effect on sea surface temperature: comparison with climate warming experiments}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1995,
  month = jul,
  volume = 11,
  pages = {307-320},
  abstract = {{This study presents a comparison of the water vapor and clear-sky
greenhouse effect dependence on sea surface temperature for climate
variations of different types. Firstly, coincident satellite
observations and meteorological analyses are used to examine seasonal
and interannual variations and to evaluate the performance of a general
circulation model. Then, this model is used to compare the results
inferred from the analysis of observed climate variability with those
derived from global climate warming experiments. One part of the
coupling between the surface temperature, the water vapor and the
clear-sky greenhouse effect is explained by the dependence of the
saturation water vapor pressure on the atmospheric temperature. However,
the analysis of observed and simulated fields shows that the coupling is
very different according to the type of region under consideration and
the type of climate forcing that is applied to the Earth-atmosphere
system. This difference, due to the variability of the vertical
structure of the atmosphere, is analyzed in detail by considering the
temperature lapse rate and the vertical profile of relative humidity.
Our results suggest that extrapolating the feedbacks inferred from
seasonal and short-term interannual climate variability to longer-term
climate changes requires great caution. It is argued that our confidence
in climate models' predictions would be increased significantly if the
basic physical processes that govern the variability of the vertical
structure of the atmosphere, and its relation to the large-scale
circulation, were better understood and simulated. For this purpose,
combined observational and numerical studies focusing on physical
processes are needed.
  doi = {10.1007/BF00211682},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{GCM Estimate of the Indirect Aerosol Forcing Using Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Droplet Effective Radii.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1995,
  month = may,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {1403-1409},
  abstract = {{In a recent paper, Han et al. analyzed satellite data radiances to
retrieve cloud droplet effective radii and reported significant
interhemispheric differences for both maritime and continental clouds.
The mean cloud droplet radius in the Northern Hemisphere is smaller than
in the Southern Hemisphere by about 0.7 [mgr]m. This hemispheric
contrast suggests the presence of an aerosol effect on cloud droplet
size and is consistent with higher cloud condensation nuclei number
concentration in the Northern Hemisphere due to anthropogenic production
of aerosol precursors. In the present study, we constrain a climate
model with the satellite retrievals of Han et al. and discuss the
climate forcing that can be inferred from the observed distribution of
cloud droplet radius. Based on two sets of experiments, this sensitivity
study suggests that the indirect radiative forcing by anthropogenic
aerosols could he about 0.6 or 1 W m$^{2}$ averaged in the
0{\deg}-50{\deg}N latitude band. The uncertainty of these estimates is
difficult to a assess but is at least 50\%.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1403:GEOTIA>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Forget}, F. and {Talagrand}, O.},
  title = {{The sensitivity of the Martian surface pressure and atmospheric mass budget to various parameters: A comparison between numerical simulations and Viking observations}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Circulation, Atmospheric Models, Atmospheric Pressure, Comparison, Mars Atmosphere, Mass Flow, Albedo, Annual Variations, Data Reduction, Optical Thickness, Surface Roughness, Thermal Emission, Topography},
  year = 1995,
  month = mar,
  volume = 100,
  pages = {5501-5523},
  abstract = {{The sensitvity of the Martian atmospheric circulation to a number of
poorly known or strongly varying parameters (surface roughness length,
atmospheric optical depth, CO2 ice albedo, and thermal emissivity) is
investigated through experiments performed with the Martian version of
the atmospheric general circulation model of Laboratoire de Meteorologie
Dynamique, with a rather coarse horizontal resolution (a grid with 32
points in longitude and 24 points in latitude). The results are
evaluated primarily on the basis of comparisons with the surface
pressure records of the Viking mission. To that end, the records are
decomposed into long-period seasonal variations due to mass exchange
with the polar caps and latitudinal redistribution of mass, and
short-period variations due to transient longitudinally propagating
waves. The sensitivty experiments include a 5-year control simulation
and shorter simulations (a little longer than 1 year) performed with
'perturbed' parameter values. The main conclusions are that (1) a change
of horizontal resolution (twice as many points in each direction) mostly
affects the transient waves, (2) surface roughness lengths have a
significant impact on the near-suface wind and, as a matter of
consequence, on the latitudinal redistribution of mass, (3) atmospheric
dust optical depth has a significant impact on radiative balance and
dynamics, and (4) CO2 ice albedo and thermal emissivity strongly
influence mass exchange between the atmosphere and the polar caps. In
view of this last conclusion, an automatic procedure is implemented
through which the albedo and emissivity of each of the two polar caps
are determined, together with the total (i.e., including the caps)
atmospheric CO2 content, in such a way as to get the closest fit of the
model to the Viking pressure measurements.
  doi = {10.1029/94JE03079},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Harzallah}, A. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{Internal Versus SST-Forced Atmospheric Variability as Simulated by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1995,
  month = mar,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {474-495},
  abstract = {{The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an
internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or
forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing.
The two modes of variability are identified by performing an ensemble of
seven independent long-term simulations of the atmospheric response to
observed SST (1970-1988) with the LMD atmospheric general circulation
model. The forced variability is defined from the analysis of the
ensemble mean and the internal variability from the analysis of
deviations from the ensemble mean. Emphasis is put on interannual
variability of sea level pressure and 5OO-hPa geopotential height for
the Northern Hemisphere winter. In view of the large systematic errors
related to the relatively small number of realizations, unbiased
variance estimators have been developed. Although statistical
significance is not reached in some extratropical regions, large
significant extratropical responses are found at the North
Pacific-Alaska sector for SLP and over western Canada and the Aleutians
for 5OO-hPa geopotential height. The influence of SST variations on
internal variability is also examined by using a 7-year simulation using
the climatological SST seasonal cycle. It is found that interannual SST
changes strongly influence the geographical distribution of internal
variability; in particular, it tends to increase it over oceans.
Patterns of internal and external variability of the 5OO-hPa
geopotential height are further examined by using EOF decompositions
showing that the model realistically simulates the leading observed
variability modes. The geographical structure of internal variability
patterns is found to be similar to that of total variability, although
similar modes tend to evolve rather differently in time. The zonally
symmetric seesaw dominates the internal variability for both observed
and climatologically prescribed SST. The Pacific-North American (PNA)
and Western Pacific (WP) patterns, on the other hand, are the dominant
modes associated with patterns of SST variability: the latter is related
to Atlantic anomalies, while the former responds to both El Ni{\~n}o
events and extratropical forcing.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<0474:IVSFAV>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Picon}, L. and {Desbois}, M.},
  title = {{High level moisture observations and derived parameters from METEOSAT and other geostationary satellites}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 1995,
  volume = 16,
  pages = {73-86},
  abstract = {{This paper summarizes the interpretation and the main applications of
the water vapor Meteosat channel. Some comparisons are made with GOES
and GMS. The water vapor channel allows to detect the variations of the
mid-tropospheric humidity between about 300 and 600 hPa over both sea
and land. The upper tropospheric humidity operationaly producted by the
ESOC is compared with humidity obtained from GOES data. The second kind
of studies involves tropospheric dynamics. Results of the wind
extraction method using the water vapor Meteosat data are shown. The
usefulness of these data for the height assignment of cloud tracers and
for the satellite rainfall estimation is also discussed. Finally some
climatic studies performed with water vapor data are presented.
  doi = {10.1016/0273-1177(95)00383-P},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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