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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=2012 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li2012.txt -ob lmd_Li2012.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Arakelian}, A. and {Codron}, F.},
  title = {{Southern Hemisphere Jet Variability in the IPSL GCM at Varying Resolutions}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2012,
  month = dec,
  volume = 69,
  pages = {3788-3799},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-12-0119.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Mrowiec}, A.~A. and {Rio}, C. and {Fridlind}, A.~M. and {Ackerman}, A.~S. and 
	{Del Genio}, A.~D. and {Pauluis}, O.~M. and {Varble}, A.~C. and 
	{Fan}, J.},
  title = {{Analysis of cloud-resolving simulations of a tropical mesoscale convective system observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical fluxes and draft properties in convective and stratiform regions}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {TWP-ICE, cloud-resolving modeling, convection parameterization, mesoscale convective system, tropical convection, updrafts and downdrafts, Atmospheric Processes: Convective processes, Atmospheric Processes: Regional modeling (4316), Atmospheric Processes: Tropical convection},
  year = 2012,
  month = oct,
  volume = 117,
  number = d16,
  eid = {D19201},
  pages = {19201},
  abstract = {{We analyze three cloud-resolving model simulations of a strong
convective event observed during the TWP-ICE campaign, differing in
dynamical core, microphysical scheme or both. Based on simulated and
observed radar reflectivity, simulations roughly reproduce observed
convective and stratiform precipitating areas. To identify the
characteristics of convective and stratiform drafts that are difficult
to observe but relevant to climate model parameterization, independent
vertical wind speed thresholds are calculated to capture 90\% of total
convective and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Convective
updrafts are fairly consistent across simulations (likely owing to fixed
large-scale forcings and surface conditions), except that hydrometeor
loadings differ substantially. Convective downdraft and stratiform
updraft and downdraft mass fluxes vary notably below the melting level,
but share similar vertically uniform draft velocities despite differing
hydrometeor loadings. All identified convective and stratiform
downdrafts contain precipitation below {\tilde}10 km and nearly all
updrafts are cloudy above the melting level. Cold pool properties
diverge substantially in a manner that is consistent with convective
downdraft mass flux differences below the melting level. Despite
differences in hydrometeor loadings and cold pool properties, convective
updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are linearly correlated with
convective area, the ratio of ice in downdrafts to that in updrafts is
{\tilde}0.5 independent of species, and the ratio of downdraft to updraft
mass flux is {\tilde}0.5-0.6, which may represent a minimum evaporation
efficiency under moist conditions. Hydrometeor loading in stratiform
regions is found to be a fraction of hydrometeor loading in convective
regions that ranges from {\tilde}10\% (graupel) to {\tilde}90\% (cloud ice).
These findings may lead to improved convection parameterizations.
  doi = {10.1029/2012JD017759},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lee}, J.-E. and {Risi}, C. and {Fung}, I. and {Worden}, J. and 
	{Scheepmaker}, R.~A. and {Lintner}, B. and {Frankenberg}, C.
  title = {{Asian monsoon hydrometeorology from TES and SCIAMACHY water vapor isotope measurements and LMDZ simulations: Implications for speleothem climate record interpretation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Asian monsoon, amount effect, climate modeling, insolation, speleothem, water isotopes, Global Change: Abrupt/rapid climate change (4901, 8408), Global Change: Climate variability (1635, 3305, 3309, 4215, 4513), Global Change: Cryospheric change (0776), Global Change: Impacts of global change (1225, 4321), Global Change: Remote sensing (1855, 4337)},
  year = 2012,
  month = aug,
  volume = 117,
  number = d16,
  eid = {D15112},
  pages = {15112},
  abstract = {{Observations show that heavy oxygen isotope composition in precipitation
({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$) increases from coastal southeastern
(SE) China to interior northwestern (NW) China during the wet season,
contradicting expectations from simple Rayleigh distillation theory.
Here we employ stable isotopes of precipitation and vapor from satellite
measurements and climate model simulations to characterize the moisture
processes that control Asian monsoon precipitation and relate these
processes to speleothem paleoclimate records. We find that
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$ is low over SE China as a result of
local and upstream condensation and that
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$ is high over NW China because of
evaporative enrichment of $^{18}$O as raindrops fall through dry
air. We show that {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$ at cave sites over
southern China is weakly correlated with upstream precipitation in the
core of the Indian monsoon region rather than local precipitation, but
it is well-correlated with the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$ over
large areas of southern and central China, consistent with coherent
speleothem {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$ variations over different
parts of China. Previous studies have documented high correlations
between speleothem {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$ and millennial
timescale climate forcings, and we suggest that the high correlation
between insolation and speleothem {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$ in
southern China reflects the variations of hydrologic processes over the
Indian monsoon region on millennial and orbital timescales. The
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{p}$ in the drier part (north of
{\tilde}30{\deg}N) of China, on the other hand, has consistently negative
correlations with local precipitation and may capture local hydrologic
processes related to changes in the extent of the Hadley circulation.
  doi = {10.1029/2011JD017133},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Huneeus}, N. and {Chevallier}, F. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Estimating aerosol emissions by assimilating observed aerosol optical depth in a global aerosol model}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2012,
  month = may,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {4585-4606},
  abstract = {{This study estimates the emission fluxes of a range of aerosol species
and one aerosol precursor at the global scale. These fluxes are
estimated by assimilating daily total and fine mode aerosol optical
depth (AOD) at 550 nm from the Moderate Resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into a global aerosol model of intermediate
complexity. Monthly emissions are fitted homogenously for each species
over a set of predefined regions. The performance of the assimilation is
evaluated by comparing the AOD after assimilation against the MODIS
observations and against independent observations. The system is
effective in forcing the model towards the observations, for both total
and fine mode AOD. Significant improvements for the root mean square
error and correlation coefficient against both the assimilated and
independent datasets are observed as well as a significant decrease in
the mean bias against the assimilated observations. These improvements
are larger over land than over ocean. The impact of the assimilation of
fine mode AOD over ocean demonstrates potential for further improvement
by including fine mode AOD observations over continents. The
Angstr{\"o}m exponent is also improved in African, European and dusty
stations. The estimated emission flux for black carbon is 15 Tg
yr$^{-1}$, 119 Tg yr$^{-1}$ for particulate organic matter,
17 Pg yr$^{-1}$ for sea salt, 83 TgS yr$^{-1}$ for
SO$_{2}$ and 1383 Tg yr$^{-1}$ for desert dust. They
represent a difference of +45 \%, +40 \%, +26 \%, +13 \% and -39 \%
respectively, with respect to the a priori values. The initial errors
attributed to the emission fluxes are reduced for all estimated species.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-12-4585-2012},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Zhang}, H. and {Wang}, Z. and {Wang}, Z. and {Liu}, Q. and 
	{Gong}, S. and {Zhang}, X. and {Shen}, Z. and {Lu}, P. and {Wei}, X. and 
	{Che}, H. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Simulation of direct radiative forcing of aerosols and their effects on East Asian climate using an interactive AGCM-aerosol coupled system}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {AGCM, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Climate effects, East Asian monsoon},
  year = 2012,
  month = apr,
  volume = 38,
  pages = {1675-1693},
  abstract = {{An interactive system coupling the Beijing Climate Center atmospheric
general circulation model (BCC\_AGCM2.0.1) and the Canadian Aerosol
Module (CAM) with updated aerosol emission sources was developed to
investigate the global distributions of optical properties and direct
radiative forcing (DRF) of typical aerosols and their impacts on East
Asian climate. The simulated total aerosol optical depth (AOD), single
scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter were generally consistent
with the ground-based measurements. Under all-sky conditions, the
simulated global annual mean DRF at the top of the atmosphere was -2.03
W m$^{-2}$ for all aerosols including sulfate, organic carbon
(OC), black carbon (BC), dust, and sea salt; the global annual mean DRF
was -0.23 W m$^{-2}$ for sulfate, BC, and OC aerosols. The
sulfate, BC, and OC aerosols led to decreases of 0.58{\deg} and 0.14 mm
day$^{-1}$ in the JJA means of surface temperature and
precipitation rate in East Asia. The differences of land-sea surface
temperature and surface pressure were reduced in East Asian monsoon
region due to these aerosols, thus leading to the weakening of East
Asian summer monsoon. Atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic were
affected due to the three types of aerosol, and the southward motion
between 15{\deg}N and 30{\deg}N in lower troposphere was increased, which
slowed down the northward transport of moist air carried by the East
Asian summer monsoon, and moreover decreased the summer monsoon
precipitation in south and east China.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-011-1131-0},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Brachet}, S. and {Codron}, F. and {Feliks}, Y. and {Ghil}, M. and 
	{Le Treut}, H. and {Simonnet}, E.},
  title = {{Atmospheric Circulations Induced by a Midlatitude SST Front: A GCM Study}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2012,
  month = mar,
  volume = 25,
  pages = {1847-1853},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00329.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Shi}, C. and {Daux}, V. and {Zhang}, Q.-B. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Hou}, S.-G. and {Stievenard}, M. and {Pierre}, M. and {Li}, Z. and 
	{Masson-Delmotte}, V.},
  title = {{Reconstruction of southeast Tibetan Plateau summer climate using tree ring {$\delta$}$^{18}$O: moisture variability over the past two centuries}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2012,
  month = feb,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {205-213},
  abstract = {{A tree-ring {$\delta$}$^{18}$O chronology of Linzhi spruce, spanning
from AD 1781 to 2005, was developed in Bomi, Southeast Tibetan Plateau
(TP). During the period with instrumental data (AD 1961-2005), this
record is strongly correlated with regional CRU (Climate Research Unit)
summer cloud data, which is supported by a precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O simulation conducted with the isotope-enabled
atmospheric general circulation model LMDZiso. A reconstruction of a
regional summer cloud index, based upon the empirical relationship
between cloud and diurnal temperature range, was therefore achieved.
This index reflects regional moisture variability in the past 225 yr.
The climate appears drier and more stable in the 20th century than
previously. The drying trend in late 19th century of our reconstruction
is consistent with a decrease in the TP glacier accumulation recorded in
ice cores. An exceptional dry decade is documented in the 1810s,
possibly related to the impact of repeated volcanic eruptions on monsoon
  doi = {10.5194/cp-8-205-2012},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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