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lmd_Li2003_abstracts.html

2003 .

(3 publications)

S. Menon, J.-L. Brenguier, O. Boucher, P. Davison, A. D. Del Genio, J. Feichter, S. Ghan, S. Guibert, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, H. Pawlowska, J. E. Penner, J. Quaas, D. L. Roberts, L. Schüller, and J. Snider. Evaluating aerosol/cloud/radiation process parameterizations with single-column models and Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) cloudy column observations. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 108:4762, December 2003. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) data set along with ECMWF reanalysis meteorological fields provided the basis for the single column model (SCM) simulations, performed as part of the PACE (Parameterization of the Aerosol Indirect Climatic Effect) project. Six different SCMs were used to simulate ACE-2 case studies of clean and polluted cloudy boundary layers, with the objective being to identify limitations of the aerosol/cloud/radiation interaction schemes within the range of uncertainty in in situ, reanalysis and satellite retrieved data. The exercise proceeds in three steps. First, SCMs are configured with the same fine vertical resolution as the ACE-2 in situ data base to evaluate the numerical schemes for prediction of aerosol activation, radiative transfer and precipitation formation. Second, the same test is performed at the coarser vertical resolution of GCMs to evaluate its impact on the performance of the parameterizations. Finally, SCMs are run for a 24-48 hr period to examine predictions of boundary layer clouds when initialized with large-scale meteorological fields. Several schemes were tested for the prediction of cloud droplet number concentration (N). Physically based activation schemes using vertical velocity show noticeable discrepancies compared to empirical schemes due to biases in the diagnosed cloud base vertical velocity. Prognostic schemes exhibit a larger variability than the diagnostic ones, due to a coupling between aerosol activation and drizzle scavenging in the calculation of N. When SCMs are initialized at a fine vertical resolution with locally observed vertical profiles of liquid water, predicted optical properties are comparable to observations. Predictions however degrade at coarser vertical resolution and are more sensitive to the mean liquid water path than to its spatial heterogeneity. Predicted precipitation fluxes are severely underestimated and improve when accounting for sub-grid liquid water variability. Results from the 24-48 hr runs suggest that most models have problems in simulating boundary layer cloud morphology, since the large-scale initialization fields do not accurately reproduce observed meteorological conditions. As a result, models significantly overestimate optical properties. Improved cloud morphologies were obtained for models with subgrid inversions and subgrid cloud thickness schemes. This may be a result of representing subgrid scale effects though we do not rule out the possibility that better large-forcing data may also improve cloud morphology predictions.

Z. X. Li and S. Conil. Transient Response of an Atmospheric GCM to North Atlantic SST Anomalies. Journal of Climate, 16:3993-3998, December 2003. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

A high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is used to evaluate the atmospheric response to North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The transient evolution of the response is studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear effects can thus be contrasted and separated by their different time scales. Baroclinic patterns related directly to the surface anomalies quickly reach their maximum manifestation. However, barotropic patterns related to the mid- and upper troposphere eddy vorticity fluxes have longer time scales with much more important amplitude, able to gradually replace the initial baroclinic response. This study thus provides an evolutional picture of the two types of response in a GCM.

O. Boucher, C. Moulin, S. Belviso, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, E. Cosme, R. von Kuhlmann, M. G. Lawrence, M. Pham, M. S. Reddy, J. Sciare, and C. Venkataraman. DMS atmospheric concentrations and sulphate aerosol indirect radiative forcing: a sensitivity study to the DMS source representation and oxidation. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 3:49-65, January 2003. [ bib | ADS link ]

The global sulphur cycle has been simulated using a general circulation model with a focus on the source and oxidation of atmospheric dimethylsulphide (DMS). The sensitivity of atmospheric DMS to the oceanic DMS climatology, the parameterisation of the sea-air transfer and to the oxidant fields have been studied. The importance of additional oxidation pathways (by O3 in the gas- and aqueous-phases and by BrO in the gas phase) not incorporated in global models has also been evaluated. While three different climatologies of the oceanic DMS concentration produce rather similar global DMS fluxes to the atmosphere at 24-27 Tg S yr -1, there are large differences in the spatial and seasonal distribution. The relative contributions of OH and NO3 radicals to DMS oxidation depends critically on which oxidant fields are prescribed in the model. Oxidation by O3 appears to be significant at high latitudes in both hemispheres. Oxidation by BrO could be significant even for BrO concentrations at sub-pptv levels in the marine boundary layer. The impact of such refinements on the DMS chemistry onto the indirect radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosols is also discussed.

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