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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Boucher"  ' -c year=2003 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Boucher2003.txt -ob lmd_Boucher2003.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Menon}, S. and {Brenguier}, J.-L. and {Boucher}, O. and {Davison}, P. and 
	{Del Genio}, A.~D. and {Feichter}, J. and {Ghan}, S. and {Guibert}, S. and 
	{Liu}, X. and {Lohmann}, U. and {Pawlowska}, H. and {Penner}, J.~E. and 
	{Quaas}, J. and {Roberts}, D.~L. and {Sch{\"u}ller}, L. and 
	{Snider}, J.},
  title = {{Evaluating aerosol/cloud/radiation process parameterizations with single-column models and Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) cloudy column observations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud physics and chemistry, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Precipitation (1854), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, aerosol indirect effect, cloud microphysics, cloud optics},
  year = 2003,
  month = dec,
  volume = 108,
  eid = {4762},
  pages = {4762},
  abstract = {{The Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) data set along
with ECMWF reanalysis meteorological fields provided the basis for the
single column model (SCM) simulations, performed as part of the PACE
(Parameterization of the Aerosol Indirect Climatic Effect) project. Six
different SCMs were used to simulate ACE-2 case studies of clean and
polluted cloudy boundary layers, with the objective being to identify
limitations of the aerosol/cloud/radiation interaction schemes within
the range of uncertainty in in situ, reanalysis and satellite retrieved
data. The exercise proceeds in three steps. First, SCMs are configured
with the same fine vertical resolution as the ACE-2 in situ data base to
evaluate the numerical schemes for prediction of aerosol activation,
radiative transfer and precipitation formation. Second, the same test is
performed at the coarser vertical resolution of GCMs to evaluate its
impact on the performance of the parameterizations. Finally, SCMs are
run for a 24-48 hr period to examine predictions of boundary layer
clouds when initialized with large-scale meteorological fields. Several
schemes were tested for the prediction of cloud droplet number
concentration (N). Physically based activation schemes using vertical
velocity show noticeable discrepancies compared to empirical schemes due
to biases in the diagnosed cloud base vertical velocity. Prognostic
schemes exhibit a larger variability than the diagnostic ones, due to a
coupling between aerosol activation and drizzle scavenging in the
calculation of N. When SCMs are initialized at a fine vertical
resolution with locally observed vertical profiles of liquid water,
predicted optical properties are comparable to observations. Predictions
however degrade at coarser vertical resolution and are more sensitive to
the mean liquid water path than to its spatial heterogeneity. Predicted
precipitation fluxes are severely underestimated and improve when
accounting for sub-grid liquid water variability. Results from the 24-48
hr runs suggest that most models have problems in simulating boundary
layer cloud morphology, since the large-scale initialization fields do
not accurately reproduce observed meteorological conditions. As a
result, models significantly overestimate optical properties. Improved
cloud morphologies were obtained for models with subgrid inversions and
subgrid cloud thickness schemes. This may be a result of representing
subgrid scale effects though we do not rule out the possibility that
better large-forcing data may also improve cloud morphology predictions.
  doi = {10.1029/2003JD003902},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Trentmann}, J. and {Fr{\"u}h}, B. and {Boucher}, O. and {Trautmann}, T. and 
	{Andreae}, M.~O.},
  title = {{Three-dimensional solar radiation effects on the actinic flux field in a biomass-burning plume}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution-urban and regional (0305), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, biomass burning plume, actinic flux, 3-D solar radiative transfer simulations, aerosol absorption},
  year = 2003,
  month = sep,
  volume = 108,
  eid = {4558},
  pages = {4558},
  abstract = {{Three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer models describe
radiative transfer under inhomogeneous atmospheric conditions more
accurately than the commonly used one-dimensional (1-D) radiative
transfer models that assume horizontal homogeneity of the atmosphere.
Here results of 3-D radiative transfer simulations for a biomass-burning
plume are presented and compared with local one-dimensional (l-1-D)
simulations, i.e., 1-D simulations in every column of the model domain.
The spatial distribution of the aerosol particles was derived from a 3-D
atmospheric transport simulation. We studied the impact of 3-D radiative
effects on the actinic flux within the plume center. The differences in
the actinic flux between results from the 3-D and the l-1-D simulations
are considerable, ranging from -40\% to more than +200\%, depending on the
wavelength, solar zenith angle, and the absorbing properties of the
aerosol. The reason for this discrepancy is the neglect of horizontal
photon transport in the 1-D simulation. These large 3-D effects on the
actinic flux have the potential to influence significantly the in-plume
  doi = {10.1029/2003JD003422},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Generoso}, S. and {Bréon}, F.-M. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Schulz}, M.},
  title = {{Improving the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of biomass burning aerosol sources}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2003,
  month = aug,
  volume = 3,
  pages = {1211-1222},
  abstract = {{This paper suggests a method for improving current inventories of
aerosol emissions from biomass burning. The method is based on the
hypothesis that, although the total estimates within large regions are
correct, the exact spatial and temporal description can be improved. It
makes use of open fire detection from the ATSR instrument that is
available since 1996. The emissions inventories are re-distributed in
space and time according to the occurrence of open fires. Although the
method is based on the night-time hot-spot product of the ATSR, other
satellite biomass burning proxies (AVHRR, TRMM, GLOBSCAR and GBA2000)
show similar distributions.

The impact of the method on the emission inventories is assessed using an aerosol transport model, the results of which are compared to sunphotometer and satellite data. The seasonal cycle of aerosol load in the atmosphere is significantly improved in several regions, in particular South America and Australia. Besides, the use of ATSR fire detection may be used to account for interannual events, as is demonstrated on the large Indonesian fires of 1997, a consequence of the 1997-1998 El Ni{\~n}o. Despite these improvements, there are still some large discrepancies between the simulated and observed aerosol optical thicknesses resulting from biomass burning emissions. }}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Tanré}, D. and {Dubovik}, O.
  title = {{Aerosol absorption over the clear-sky oceans deduced from POLDER-1 and AERONET observations}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Global Change: Remote sensing, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes},
  year = 2003,
  month = jul,
  volume = 30,
  eid = {1748},
  pages = {1748},
  abstract = {{We estimate aerosol absorption over the clear-sky oceans using aerosol
geophysical products from POLDER-1 space measurements and absorption
properties from ground-based AERONET measurements. Our best estimate is
2.5 Wm$^{-2}$ averaged over the 8-month lifetime of POLDER-1. Low
and high absorption estimates are 2.2 and 3.1 Wm$^{-2}$ based on
the variability in aerosol single-scattering albedo observed by AERONET.
Main sources of uncertainties are the discrimation of the aerosol type
from satellite measurements, and potential clear-sky bias induced by the
cloud-screening procedure.
  doi = {10.1029/2003GL017121},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Guyon}, P. and {Graham}, B. and {Beck}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Gerasopoulos}, E. and {Mayol-Bracero}, O.~L. and {Roberts}, G.~C. and 
	{Artaxo}, P. and {Andreae}, M.~O.},
  title = {{Physical properties and concentration of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during background and biomass burning conditions}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2003,
  month = jul,
  volume = 3,
  pages = {951-967},
  abstract = {{We investigated the size distribution, scattering and absorption
properties of Amazonian aerosols and the optical thickness of the
aerosol layer under the pristine background conditions typical of the
wet season, as well as during the biomass-burning-influenced dry season.
The measurements were made during two campaigns in 1999 as part of the
European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment
in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). In moving from the wet to the dry season,
median particle numbers were observed to increase from values comparable
to those of the remote marine boundary layer (\~{}400 cm$^{-3}$) to
values more commonly associated with urban smog (\~{}4000 cm$^{-3}$),
due to a massive injection of submicron smoke particles. Aerosol optical
depths at 500 nm increased from 0.05 to 0.8 on average, reaching a value
of 2 during the dry season. Scattering and absorption coefficients,
measured at 550 nm, showed a concomitant increase from average values of
6.8 and 0.4 Mm$^{-1}$ to values of 91 and 10 Mm$^{-1}$,
respectively, corresponding to an estimated decrease in
single-scattering albedo from ca. 0.97 to 0.91. The roughly tenfold
increase in many of the measured parameters attests to the dramatic
effect that extensive seasonal biomass burning (deforestation, pasture
cleaning) is having on the composition and properties of aerosols over
Amazonia. The potential exists for these changes to impact on regional
and global climate through changes to the extinction of solar radiation
as well as the alteration of cloud properties.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Moulin}, C. and {Belviso}, S. and {Aumont}, O. and 
	{Bopp}, L. and {Cosme}, E. and {von Kuhlmann}, R. and {Lawrence}, M.~G. and 
	{Pham}, M. and {Reddy}, M.~S. and {Sciare}, J. and {Venkataraman}, C.
  title = {{DMS atmospheric concentrations and sulphate aerosol indirect radiative forcing: a sensitivity study to the DMS source representation and oxidation}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2003,
  month = jan,
  volume = 3,
  pages = {49-65},
  abstract = {{The global sulphur cycle has been simulated using a general circulation
model with a focus on the source and oxidation of atmospheric
dimethylsulphide (DMS). The sensitivity of atmospheric DMS to the
oceanic DMS climatology, the parameterisation of the sea-air transfer
and to the oxidant fields have been studied. The importance of
additional oxidation pathways (by O$_{3}$ in the gas- and
aqueous-phases and by BrO in the gas phase) not incorporated in global
models has also been evaluated. While three different climatologies of
the oceanic DMS concentration produce rather similar global DMS fluxes
to the atmosphere at 24-27 Tg S yr $^{-1}$, there are large
differences in the spatial and seasonal distribution. The relative
contributions of OH and NO$_{3}$ radicals to DMS oxidation depends
critically on which oxidant fields are prescribed in the model.
Oxidation by O$_{3}$ appears to be significant at high latitudes
in both hemispheres. Oxidation by BrO could be significant even for BrO
concentrations at sub-pptv levels in the marine boundary layer. The
impact of such refinements on the DMS chemistry onto the indirect
radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosols is also discussed.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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