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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1995 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_LEGACY1995.txt -ob lmd_LEGACY1995.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Sadourny}, R. and {Courtin}, R. and 
	{Gautier}, D. and {Mckay}, C.~P.},
  title = {{Numerical simulation of the general circulation of the atmosphere of Titan.}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 1995,
  month = oct,
  volume = 117,
  pages = {358-374},
  abstract = {{The atmospheric circulation of Titan is investigated with a general
circulation model. The representation of the large-scale dynamics is
based on a grid point model developed and used at Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique for climate studies. The code also
includes an accurate representation of radiative heating and cooling by
molecular gases and haze as well as a parametrization of the vertical
turbulent mixing of momentum and potential temperature. Long-term
simulations of the atmospheric circulation are presented. Starting from
a state of rest, the model spontaneously produces a strong superrotation
with prograde equatorial winds (i.e., in the same sense as the assumed
rotation of the solid body) increasing from the surface to reach 100 m
sec $^{-1}$ near the 1-mbar pressure level. Those equatorial winds
are in very good agreement with some indirect observations, especially
those of the 1989 occultation of Star 28-Sgr by Titan. On the other
hand, the model simulates latitudinal temperature contrasts in the
stratosphere that are significantly weaker than those observed by
Voyager 1 which, we suggest, may be partly due to the nonrepresentation
of the spatial and temporal variations of the abundances of molecular
species and haze. We present diagnostics of the simulated atmospheric
circulation underlying the importance of the seasonal cycle and a
tentative explanation for the creation and maintenance of the
atmospheric superrotation based on a careful angular momentum budget.
  doi = {10.1006/icar.1995.1162},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Harzallah}, A. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{Internal Versus SST-Forced Atmospheric Variability as Simulated by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1995,
  month = mar,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {474-495},
  abstract = {{The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an
internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or
forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing.
The two modes of variability are identified by performing an ensemble of
seven independent long-term simulations of the atmospheric response to
observed SST (1970-1988) with the LMD atmospheric general circulation
model. The forced variability is defined from the analysis of the
ensemble mean and the internal variability from the analysis of
deviations from the ensemble mean. Emphasis is put on interannual
variability of sea level pressure and 5OO-hPa geopotential height for
the Northern Hemisphere winter. In view of the large systematic errors
related to the relatively small number of realizations, unbiased
variance estimators have been developed. Although statistical
significance is not reached in some extratropical regions, large
significant extratropical responses are found at the North
Pacific-Alaska sector for SLP and over western Canada and the Aleutians
for 5OO-hPa geopotential height. The influence of SST variations on
internal variability is also examined by using a 7-year simulation using
the climatological SST seasonal cycle. It is found that interannual SST
changes strongly influence the geographical distribution of internal
variability; in particular, it tends to increase it over oceans.
Patterns of internal and external variability of the 5OO-hPa
geopotential height are further examined by using EOF decompositions
showing that the model realistically simulates the leading observed
variability modes. The geographical structure of internal variability
patterns is found to be similar to that of total variability, although
similar modes tend to evolve rather differently in time. The zonally
symmetric seesaw dominates the internal variability for both observed
and climatologically prescribed SST. The Pacific-North American (PNA)
and Western Pacific (WP) patterns, on the other hand, are the dominant
modes associated with patterns of SST variability: the latter is related
to Atlantic anomalies, while the former responds to both El Ni{\~n}o
events and extratropical forcing.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<0474:IVSFAV>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Raghava}, R.~C. and {Laval}, K. and {Sadourny}, R. and {Polcher}, J.
  title = {{Atmospheric response to tropical denuding of vegetation}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = 1995,
  volume = 29,
  pages = {1963-2000},
  abstract = {{Two simulations of atmospheric circulations during June, July and August
1988 have been made with LMD Atmospheric General Circulation Model using
a classified vegetation global cover with and without the tropical
vegetation separately. The initial conditions prepared from ECMWF
analysed data were used, while the Reynolds' monthly blended analysis,
i.e., the blend of in situ, AVHRR satellite and ice data, were taken to
prescibe the sea surface temperatures. The global charts of mean monthly
precipitation and associated velocity potentials at 200 and 850 mb have
been compared and analysed for June, July and August 1988. The temporal
evolutions of precipitation averaged over a specific region of Indian
summer monsoon during its regime from onset to retreat have also been
discussed. Consequently, a pronounced impact of tropical vegetation on
the precipitation has been observed so as to characterise a forest as
one of the local rain inducing agents. Moreover, the tropical vegetation
appears to modulate the Indian summer monsoon also for the contributive
precipitation over India.
  doi = {10.1016/1352-2310(94)00291-R},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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