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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.98}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1996 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_all1996.txt -ob lmd_all1996.bib ./}}
  author = {{Layal}, K. and {Raghava}, R. and {Polcher}, J. and {Sadourny}, R. and 
	{Forichon}, M.},
  title = {{Simulations of the 1987 and 1988 Indian Monsoons Using the LMD GCM.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1996,
  month = dec,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {3357-3372},
  abstract = {{Results from 90-day simulations with the LMD GCM are described, where
sea surface temperatures of 1987 or 1988 years are respectively
prescribed. The initial states correspond to 1 June 1987 and 1 June
1988. The simulated precipitation rates over India show a strong
contrast between the two years, with drought occurring during summer
1987 and abundant rainfall during summer 1988. The dry regime simulated
during 1987 corresponds to an eastward displacement of the outflow at
200 mb and a weaker westerly flow at the surface as compared with 1988,
both features being in agreement with reality. Because it is more
difficult for models to simulate rainfall differences than to simulate
wind variations between the two years, the changes in simulated rainfall
over India are studied in more detail. In particular, more integrations
are carried out to test the sensitivity of rainfall variations to
initial conditions, and the result is that the decrease of rainfall in
1987 compared to 1988 is a robust feature of the model.Very early, the
importance of evapotranspiration in simulating land rainfall was
emphasized. Additional integrations are performed in order to study the
impact of the new vegetation scheme introduced in the LMD GCM. It is
shown that the contrast in rainfall between the two years is better
simulated when the evapotranspiration rate of vegetation cover is
represented. When vegetation is not represented in the model, the model
does not simulate accurately the interannual variation of the
precipitation rates.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<3357:SOTAIM>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Harzallah}, A. and {Rocha de Arag{\~a}o}, J.~O. and {Sadourny}, R.
  title = {{Interannual Rainfall Variability in North-East Brazil: Observation and Model Simulation}},
  journal = {International Journal of Climatology},
  keywords = {North-east Brazil, singular value decomposition, general circulation model, El Ni{\amp}ntilde, o-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Dipole, tropical precipitation},
  year = 1996,
  month = aug,
  volume = 16,
  pages = {861-878},
  abstract = {{The relationship between interannual variability of rainfall in
north-east Brazil and tropical sea-surface temperature is studied using
observations and model simulations. The simulated precipitation is the
average of seven independent realizations performed using the
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique atmospheric general
model forced by the 1970-1988 observed sea-surface temperature. The
model reproduces very well the rainfall anomalies (correlation of 091
between observed and modelled anomalies). The study confirms that
precipitation in north-east Brazil is highly correlated to the
sea-surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Using the singular value decomposition method, we find that Nordeste
rainfall is modulated by two independent oscillations, both governed by
the Atlantic dipole, but one involving only the Pacific, the other one
having a period of about 10 years. Correlations between precipitation in
north-east Brazil during February-May and the sea-surface temperature 6
months earlier indicate that both modes are essential to estimate the
quality of the rainy season.
  doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199608)16:8<861::AID-JOC59>3.0.CO;2-D},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Yu}, W. and {Doutriaux}, M. and {Sèze}, G. and {Le Treut}, H. and 
	{Desbois}, M.},
  title = {{A methodology study of the validation of clouds in GCMs using ISCCP satellite observations}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1996,
  month = may,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {389-401},
  abstract = {{The cloudiness fields simulated by a general circulation model and a
validation using the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project
(ISCCP) satellite observations are presented. An adapted methodology is
developed, in which the issue of the sub-grid scale variability of the
cloud fields, and how it may affect the comparison exercise, is
considered carefully. In particular different assumptions about the
vertical overlap of cloud layers are made, allowing us to reconstruct
the cloud distribution inside a model grid column. Carrying out an
analysis directly comparable to that of ISCCP then becomes possible. The
relevance of this method is demonstrated by its application to the
evaluation of the cloud schemes used in Laboratoire de
Météoroligie Dynamique (LMD) general circulation model. We
compare cloud properties, such as cloud-top height and cloud optical
thickness, analysed by ISCCP and simulated by the LMD GCM. The results
show that a direct comparison of simulated low cloudiness and that shown
from satellites is not possible. They also reveal some model
deficiencies concerning the cloud vertical distribution. Some of these
features depend little on the cloud overlap assumption and may reveal
inadequate parameterisation of the boundary layer mixing or the cloud
water precipitation rate. High convective clouds also appear to be too
  doi = {10.1007/BF00211685},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X.},
  title = {{Correlation of the astrometric latitude residuals at Mizusawa and Tokyo with the southern oscillation index on an interannual time scale.}},
  journal = {\aap},
  year = 1996,
  month = may,
  volume = 309,
  pages = {313-316},
  abstract = {{The El Nino/southern oscillation (ENSO) is the most prominent
interannual fluctuation in the atmosphere-oceanic system. A single index
SOI (Southern Oscillation Index), based on the sea level pressure
difference between Tahiti and Darvin, is conventionally used to describe
the ENSO phenomenon. Its linkage to other geophysical phenomena is being
studied now. The paper studies the correlation of SOI with the latitude
residuals by means of cross correlation in using the latitude
observational data of the six astrometric instruments at Mizusawa and
Tokyo: the Zenith Telescope (1900-1978), the Photographic Zenith Tube
No. 1 and No. 2 (1962-1975; 1975-1992), the Floating Zenith
Telescope(1967-1984) and the astrolabe (1966-1984) at Mizusawa; the
Photographic Zenith Tube at Tokyo (1966-1988). It appears that the
latitude residuals at Mizusawa and Tokyo have a significant correlation
at interannual time scale with the SOI, the SOI leading latitude
residual of about 2-3years.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Collins}, M. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and {Hourdin}, F.
  title = {{Baroclinic Wave Transitions in the Martian Atmosphere}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 1996,
  month = apr,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {344-357},
  abstract = {{Surface pressure data from the Viking Lander mission and from GCM
simulations of the martian atmosphere have been analyzed using singular
systems analysis. Very regular oscillations are found with frequencies
that are distributed bimodally with peaks corresponding to periods of
approximately 2-4 days and 5-7 days, respectively. Reconstructions of
the amplitudes of the two oscillations are often negatively correlated;
i.e., when the amplitude of one oscillation is large, that of the other
is small. The GCM simulations show that the negative correlation in the
amplitudes of the two oscillations can be explained as a flipping
between two different wavenumber modes. In the absence of diurnal
forcing in the model, transition from an unrealistically regular high
frequency mode to a similarly unrealistic regular low frequency mode
occurs at most once during the northern winter season. The diurnal cycle
in the model, however, acts in a non-linear sense to stimulate the
transitions between the two wavenumbers and thus increases the frequency
of mode flipping events. The corresponding simulations bear a closer
resemblance to the observations.
  doi = {10.1006/icar.1996.0055},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stubenrauch}, C.~J. and {Seze}, G. and {Scott}, N.~A. and {Chedin}, A. and 
	{Desbois}, M. and {Kandel}, R.~S.},
  title = {{Cloud Field Identification for Earth Radiation Budget Studies. Part II: Cloud Field Classification for the ScaRaB Radiometer.}},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Meteorology},
  year = 1996,
  month = mar,
  volume = 35,
  pages = {428-443},
  abstract = {{Gaining a better understanding of the influence of clouds on the earth's
energy budget requires a cloud classification that takes into account
cloud height, thickness, and cloud cover. The radiometer ScaRaB (scanner
for radiation balance), which was launched in January 1994, has two
narrowband channels (0.5 0.7 and 10.5 12.5 {\micro}m) in addition to the
two broadband channels (0.2 4 and 0.2 50 {\micro}m) necessary for earth
radiation budget (ERB) measurements in order to improve cloud detection.
Most automatic cloud classifications were developed with measurements of
very good spatial resolution (200 m to 5 km). Earth radiation budget
experiments (ERBE), on the hand, work at a spatial resolution of about
50 km (at nadir), and therefore a cloud field classification adapted to
this scale must be investigated. For this study, ScaRaB measurements are
simulated by collocated Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)
ERBE data. The best-suited variables for a global cloud classification
are chosen using as a reference cloud types determined by an
operationally working threshold algorithm applied to AVHRR measurements
at a reduced spatial resolution of 4 km over the North Atlantic. Cloud
field types are then classified by an algorithm based on the dynamic
clustering method. More recently, the authors have carried out a global
cloud field identification using cloud parameters extracted by the 3I
(improved initialization inversion) algorithm, from High-Resolution
Infrared Sounder (HIRS)-Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) data. This enables
the authors first to determine mean values of the variables best suited
for cloud field classification and then to use a maximum-likelihood
method for the classification. The authors find that a classification of
cloud fields is still possible at a spatial resolution of ERB
measurements. Roughly, one can distinguish three cloud heights and two
effective cloud amounts (combination of cloud emissivity and cloud
cover). However, only by combining flux measurements (ERBE) with cloud
field classifications from sounding instruments (HIRS/MSU) can
differences in radiative behavior of specific cloud fields be evaluated
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0450(1996)035<0428:CFIFER>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hutzell}, W.~T. and {McKay}, C.~P. and {Toon}, O.~B. and {Hourdin}, F.
  title = {{Simulations of Titan's Brightness by a Two-Dimensional Haze Model}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 1996,
  month = jan,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {112-129},
  abstract = {{We have used a 2-D microphysics model to study the effects of
atmospheric motions on the albedo of Titan's thick haze layer. We
compare our results to the observed variations of Titan's brightness
with season and latitude. We use two wind fields; the first is a simple
pole-to-pole Hadley cell that reverses twice a year. The second is based
on the results of a preliminary Titan GCM. Seasonally varying wind
fields, with horizontal velocities of about 1 cm sec $^{-1}$at
optical depth unity, are capable of producing the observed change in
geometric albedo of about 10\% over the Titan year. Neither of the two
wind fields can adequately reproduce the latitudinal distribution of
reflectivity seen by Voyager. At visible wavelengths, where only haze
opacity is important, upwelling produces darkening by increasing the
particle size at optical depth unity. This is due to the suspension of
larger particles as well as the lateral removal of smaller particles
from the top of the atmosphere. At UV wavelengths and at 0.89 {$\mu$}m the
albedo is determined by the competing effects of the gas and the haze
material. Gas is bright in the UV and dark at 0.89 {$\mu$}m. Haze transport
at high altitudes controls the UV albedo and transport at low altitude
controls the 0.89-{$\mu$}m albedo. Comparisons between the hemispheric
contrast at UV, visible, and IR wavelengths can be diagnostic of the
vertical structure of the wind field on Titan.
  doi = {10.1006/icar.1996.0005},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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