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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1999 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_LEGACY1999.txt -ob lmd_LEGACY1999.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Martineu}, C. and {Caneill}, J.-Y. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{Potential Predictability of European Winters from the Analysis of Seasonal Simulations with an AGCM.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1999,
  month = oct,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {3033-3061},
  abstract = {{The potential predictability of European winters on the seasonal scale
is investigated with the cycle 5.3 version of the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model by
analyzing the link between atmospheric low-frequency variability and
oceanic temperature prescribed as boundary conditions. The
word`potential' refers to the assumption that the SST is a priori known
in the experiments, and to the use of a model to evaluate the real
climate predictability. Eleven simulations of the 1971-92 winters have
been performed with the model in SST-forced mode. The methodology used
identifies atmospheric clusters by Ward clustering scheme, and
atmospheric variability modes over Europe by matrix analysis of
relationships between variables. Tropical Pacific surface temperature
fluctuations play a prevailing role in the modulation of European
variability:the model preferentially simulates negative phases of the
North Atlantic Oscillation during El Ni{\~n}o episodes, and a high
pressure pattern in western Europe during La Ni{\~n}a ones. These two
situations are associated with modulations in the structure of the North
Atlantic jet and of the North Atlantic storm track, in agreement with
data analyses synthesized in the literature. They confirm the prevailing
role of interactions between different scales of the flow in the
maintenance of persistent anomalies in the North Atlantic/European area.
The strong link simulated by the model between the Pacific-North
American oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation plays an
important role in the propagation of the impact of the forcing from the
tropical Pacific to the North Atlantic.For some winters (1971, 1984,
1989, and 1992), the number of simulations has been increased to 30. The
normality of the simulated 1984 winter suggests a weak role of the
tropical Atlantic in specifying climate anomalies in Europe. The
differences in strength of the European response between the 1971 and
1989 La Ni{\~n}a events are linked to differences in the
Pacific/North American area. A stronger spread is found in the El
Ni{\~n}o case (1992 winter) than in the two La Ni{\~n}a cases. The
sensitivity of the response to the number of realizations demonstrates
that one has to reach about 15 simulations to obtain a significant
response over Europe.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<3033:PPOEWF>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Teitelbaum}, H. and {Moustaoui}, M. and {Sadourny}, R. and 
	{Lott}, F.},
  title = {{Critical levels and mixing layers induced by convectively generated gravity waves during CEPEX}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 1999,
  month = jul,
  volume = 125,
  pages = {1715-1734},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.49712555712},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Vintzileos}, A. and {Delecluse}, P. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{On the mechanisms in a tropical ocean-global atmosphere coupled general circulation model. Part II: interannual variability and its relation to the seasonal cycle}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {63-80},
  abstract = {{The thirty year simulation of the coupled global atmosphere-tropical
Pacific Ocean general circulation model of the Laboratoire de
Métérologie Dynamique and the Laboratoire
d'Océanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie presented in Part I
is further investigated in order to understand the mechanisms of
interannual variability. The model does simulate interannual events with
ENSO characteristics; the dominant periodicity is quasi-biennial, though
strong events are separated by four year intervals. The mechanism that
is responsible for seasonal oscillations, identified in Part I, is also
active in interannual variability with the difference that now the
Western Pacific is dynamically involved. A warm interannual phase is
associated with an equatorward shift of the ITCZ in the Western and
Central Pacific. The coupling between the ITCZ and the ocean circulation
is then responsible for the cooling of the equatorial subsurface by the
draining mechanism. Cold subsurface temperature anomalies then propagate
eastward along the mean equatorial thermocline. Upon reaching the
Eastern Pacific where the mean thermocline is shallow, cold subsurface
anomalies affect surface temperatures and reverse the phase of the
oscillation. The preferred season for efficient eastward propagation of
thermocline depth temperature anomalies is boreal autumn, when draining
of equatorial waters towards higher latitudes is weaker than in spring
by a factor of six. In that way, the annual cycle acts as a dam that
synchronizes lower frequency oscillations.
  doi = {10.1007/s003820050268},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Vintzileos}, A. and {Delecluse}, P. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{On the mechanisms in a tropical ocean-global atmosphere coupled general circulation model. Part I: mean state and the seasonal cycle}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {43-62},
  abstract = {{The mechanisms responsible for the mean state and the seasonal and
interannual variations of the coupled tropical Pacific-global atmosphere
system are investigated by analyzing a thirty year simulation, where the
LMD global atmospheric model and the LODYC tropical Pacific model are
coupled using the delocalized physics method. No flux correction is
needed over the tropical region. The coupled model reaches its regime
state roughly after one year of integration in spite of the fact that
the ocean is initialized from rest. Departures from the mean state are
characterized by oscillations with dominant periodicites at annual,
biennial and quadriennial time scales. In our model, equatorial sea
surface temperature and wind stress fluctuations evolved in phase. In
the Central Pacific during boreal autumn, the sea surface temperature is
cold, the wind stress is strong, and the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
(ITCZ) is shifted northwards. The northward shift of the ITCZ enhances
atmospheric and oceanic subsidence between the equator and the latitude
of organized convention. In turn, the stronger oceanic subsidence
reinforces equatorward convergence of water masses at the thermocline
depth which, being not balanced by equatorial upwelling, deepens the
equatorial thermocline. An equivalent view is that the deepening of the
thermocline proceeds from the weakening of the meridional draining of
near-surface equatorial waters. The inverse picture prevails during
spring, when the equatorial sea surface temperatures are warm. Thus
temperature anomalies tend to appear at the thermocline level, in phase
opposition to the surface conditions. These subsurface temperature
fluctuations propagate from the Central Pacific eastwards along the
thermocline; when reaching the surface in the Eastern Pacific, they
trigger the reversal of sea surface temperature anomalies. The whole
oscillation is synchronized by the apparent meridional motion of the
sun, through the seasonal oscillation of the ITCZ. This possible
mechanism is partly supported by the observed seasonal reversal of
vorticity between the equator and the ITCZ, and by observational
evidence of eastward propagating subsurface temperature anomalies at the
thermocline level.
  doi = {10.1007/s003820050267},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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