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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Boucher"  ' -c year=2012 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Boucher2012.txt -ob lmd_Boucher2012.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Browse}, J. and {Carslaw}, K.~S. and {Arnold}, S.~R. and {Pringle}, K. and 
	{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{The scavenging processes controlling the seasonal cycle in Arctic sulphate and black carbon aerosol}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2012,
  month = aug,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {6775-6798},
  abstract = {{The seasonal cycle in Arctic aerosol is typified by high concentrations
of large aged anthropogenic particles transported from lower latitudes
in the late Arctic winter and early spring followed by a sharp
transition to low concentrations of locally sourced smaller particles in
the summer. However, multi-model assessments show that many models fail
to simulate a realistic cycle. Here, we use a global aerosol
microphysics model (GLOMAP) and surface-level aerosol observations to
understand how wet scavenging processes control the seasonal variation
in Arctic black carbon (BC) and sulphate aerosol. We show that the
transition from high wintertime concentrations to low concentrations in
the summer is controlled by the transition from ice-phase cloud
scavenging to the much more efficient warm cloud scavenging in the late
spring troposphere. This seasonal cycle is amplified further by the
appearance of warm drizzling cloud in the late spring and summer
boundary layer. Implementing these processes in GLOMAP greatly improves
the agreement between the model and observations at the three Arctic
ground-stations Alert, Barrow and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard. The
SO$_{4}$ model-observation correlation coefficient (R) increases
from: -0.33 to 0.71 at Alert (82.5{\deg} N), from -0.16 to 0.70 at Point
Barrow (71.0{\deg} N) and from -0.42 to 0.40 at Zeppelin Mountain
(78{\deg} N). The BC model-observation correlation coefficient increases
from -0.68 to 0.72 at Alert and from -0.42 to 0.44 at Barrow.
Observations at three marginal Arctic sites (Janiskoski, Oulanka and
Karasjok) indicate a far weaker aerosol seasonal cycle, which we show is
consistent with the much smaller seasonal change in the frequency of ice
clouds compared to higher latitude sites. Our results suggest that the
seasonal cycle in Arctic aerosol is driven by temperature-dependent
scavenging processes that may be susceptible to modification in a future
  doi = {10.5194/acp-12-6775-2012},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Verma}, S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Shekar Reddy}, M. and {Upadhyaya}, H.~C. and 
	{Le Van}, P. and {Binkowski}, F.~S. and {Sharma}, O.~P.},
  title = {{Tropospheric distribution of sulphate aerosols mass and number concentration during INDOEX-IFP and its transport over the Indian Ocean: a GCM study}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2012,
  month = jul,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {6185-6196},
  abstract = {{The sulphate aerosols mass and number concentration during the Indian
Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) Intensive Field Phase-1999 (INDOEX-IFP) has
been simulated using an interactive chemistry GCM. The model considers
an interactive scheme for feedback from chemistry to meteorology with
internally resolving microphysical properties of aerosols. In
particular, the interactive scheme has the ability to predict both
particle mass and number concentration for the Aitken and accumulation
modes as prognostic variables. 

On the basis of size distribution retrieved from the observations made along the cruise route during IFP-1999, the model successfully simulates the order of magnitude of aerosol number concentration. The results show the southward migration of minimum concentrations, which follows ITCZ (Inter Tropical Convergence Zone) migration. Sulphate surface concentration during INDOEX-IFP at Kaashidhoo (73.46{\deg} E, 4.96{\deg} N) gives an agreement within a factor of 2 to 3. The measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) from all aerosol species at KCO was 0.37 {\plusmn} 0.11 while the model simulated sulphate AOD ranged from 0.05 to 0.11. As sulphate constitutes 29\% of the observed AOD, the model predicted values of sulphate AOD are hence fairly close to the measured values. The model thus has capability to predict the vertically integrated column sulphate burden. Furthermore, the model results indicate that Indian contribution to the estimated sulphate burden over India is more than 60\% with values upto 40\% over the Arabian Sea. }}, doi = {10.5194/acp-12-6185-2012}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Halloran}, P.~R. and {Burke}, E.~J. and {Doutriaux-Boucher}, M. and 
	{Jones}, C.~D. and {Lowe}, J. and {Ringer}, M.~A. and {Robertson}, E. and 
	{Wu}, P.},
  title = {{Reversibility in an Earth System model in response to CO$_{2}$ concentration changes}},
  journal = {Environmental Research Letters},
  year = 2012,
  month = jun,
  volume = 7,
  number = 2,
  eid = {024013},
  pages = {024013},
  abstract = {{We use the HadGEM2-ES Earth System model to examine the degree of
reversibility of a wide range of components of the Earth System under
idealized climate change scenarios where the atmospheric CO$_{2}$
concentration is gradually increased to four times the pre-industrial
level and then reduced at a similar rate from several points along this
trajectory. While some modelled quantities respond almost immediately to
the atmospheric CO$_{2}$ concentrations, others exhibit a time lag
relative to the change in CO$_{2}$. Most quantities also exhibit a
lag relative to the global-mean surface temperature change, which can be
described as a hysteresis behaviour. The most surprising responses are
from low-level clouds and ocean stratification in the Southern Ocean,
which both exhibit hysteresis on timescales longer than expected. We see
no evidence of critical thresholds in these simulations, although some
of the hysteresis phenomena become more apparent above 2 {\times}
CO$_{2}$ or 3 {\times} CO$_{2}$. Our findings have
implications for the parametrization of climate impacts in integrated
assessment and simple climate models and for future climate studies of
geoengineering scenarios.
  doi = {10.1088/1748-9326/7/2/024013},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Huneeus}, N. and {Chevallier}, F. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Estimating aerosol emissions by assimilating observed aerosol optical depth in a global aerosol model}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2012,
  month = may,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {4585-4606},
  abstract = {{This study estimates the emission fluxes of a range of aerosol species
and one aerosol precursor at the global scale. These fluxes are
estimated by assimilating daily total and fine mode aerosol optical
depth (AOD) at 550 nm from the Moderate Resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into a global aerosol model of intermediate
complexity. Monthly emissions are fitted homogenously for each species
over a set of predefined regions. The performance of the assimilation is
evaluated by comparing the AOD after assimilation against the MODIS
observations and against independent observations. The system is
effective in forcing the model towards the observations, for both total
and fine mode AOD. Significant improvements for the root mean square
error and correlation coefficient against both the assimilated and
independent datasets are observed as well as a significant decrease in
the mean bias against the assimilated observations. These improvements
are larger over land than over ocean. The impact of the assimilation of
fine mode AOD over ocean demonstrates potential for further improvement
by including fine mode AOD observations over continents. The
Angstr{\"o}m exponent is also improved in African, European and dusty
stations. The estimated emission flux for black carbon is 15 Tg
yr$^{-1}$, 119 Tg yr$^{-1}$ for particulate organic matter,
17 Pg yr$^{-1}$ for sea salt, 83 TgS yr$^{-1}$ for
SO$_{2}$ and 1383 Tg yr$^{-1}$ for desert dust. They
represent a difference of +45 \%, +40 \%, +26 \%, +13 \% and -39 \%
respectively, with respect to the a priori values. The initial errors
attributed to the emission fluxes are reduced for all estimated species.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-12-4585-2012},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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