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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Codron"  ' -c year=2013 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Codron2013.txt -ob lmd_Codron2013.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Caubel}, A. and {Marti}, O. and {Aumont}, O. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Bekki}, S. and {Bellenger}, H. and {Benshila}, R. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Bopp}, L. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Brockmann}, P. and {Cadule}, P. and 
	{Cheruy}, F. and {Codron}, F. and {Cozic}, A. and {Cugnet}, D. and 
	{de Noblet}, N. and {Duvel}, J.-P. and {Ethé}, C. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Fichefet}, T. and {Flavoni}, S. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Guez}, L. and {Guilyardi}, E. and {Hauglustaine}, D. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Idelkadi}, A. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Joussaume}, S. and 
	{Kageyama}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Labetoulle}, S. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Lefevre}, F. and {Levy}, C. and {Li}, Z.~X. and 
	{Lloyd}, J. and {Lott}, F. and {Madec}, G. and {Mancip}, M. and 
	{Marchand}, M. and {Masson}, S. and {Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Mignot}, J. and 
	{Musat}, I. and {Parouty}, S. and {Polcher}, J. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Schulz}, M. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Szopa}, S. and {Talandier}, C. and 
	{Terray}, P. and {Viovy}, N. and {Vuichard}, N.},
  title = {{Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate, Climate change, Climate projections, Earth System Model, CMIP5, CMIP3, Greenhouse gases, Aerosols, Carbon cycle, Allowable emissions, RCP scenarios, Land use changes},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2123-2165},
  abstract = {{We present the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to
study the long-term response of the climate system to natural and
anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This model includes an interactive
carbon cycle, a representation of tropospheric and stratospheric
chemistry, and a comprehensive representation of aerosols. As it
represents the principal dynamical, physical, and bio-geochemical
processes relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an
Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model may be used in a
multitude of configurations associated with different boundary
conditions and with a range of complexities in terms of processes and
interactions. This paper presents an overview of the different model
components and explains how they were coupled and used to simulate
historical climate changes over the past 150 years and different
scenarios of future climate change. A single version of the IPSL-CM5
model (IPSL-CM5A-LR) was used to provide climate projections associated
with different socio-economic scenarios, including the different
Representative Concentration Pathways considered by CMIP5 and several
scenarios from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios considered by
CMIP3. Results suggest that the magnitude of global warming projections
primarily depends on the socio-economic scenario considered, that there
is potential for an aggressive mitigation policy to limit global warming
to about two degrees, and that the behavior of some components of the
climate system such as the Arctic sea ice and the Atlantic Meridional
Overturning Circulation may change drastically by the end of the
twenty-first century in the case of a no climate policy scenario.
Although the magnitude of regional temperature and precipitation changes
depends fairly linearly on the magnitude of the projected global warming
(and thus on the scenario considered), the geographical pattern of these
changes is strikingly similar for the different scenarios. The
representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model is shown
to strongly influence the simulated climate variability and both the
magnitude and pattern of the projected climate changes.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1636-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Codron}, F. and {Guemas}, V. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Bony}, S. and {Denvil}, S. and {Guez}, L. and 
	{Lott}, F. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Marti}, O. and 
	{Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Bopp}, L.},
  title = {{Impact of the LMDZ atmospheric grid configuration on the climate and sensitivity of the IPSL-CM5A coupled model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate modeling, Grid resolution, Climate change projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2167-2192},
  abstract = {{The IPSL-CM5A climate model was used to perform a large number of
control, historical and climate change simulations in the frame of
CMIP5. The refined horizontal and vertical grid of the atmospheric
component, LMDZ, constitutes a major difference compared to the previous
IPSL-CM4 version used for CMIP3. From imposed-SST (Sea Surface
Temperature) and coupled numerical experiments, we systematically
analyze the impact of the horizontal and vertical grid resolution on the
simulated climate. The refinement of the horizontal grid results in a
systematic reduction of major biases in the mean tropospheric structures
and SST. The mid-latitude jets, located too close to the equator with
the coarsest grids, move poleward. This robust feature, is accompanied
by a drying at mid-latitudes and a reduction of cold biases in
mid-latitudes relative to the equator. The model was also extended to
the stratosphere by increasing the number of layers on the vertical from
19 to 39 (15 in the stratosphere) and adding relevant parameterizations.
The 39-layer version captures the dominant modes of the stratospheric
variability and exhibits stratospheric sudden warmings. Changing either
the vertical or horizontal resolution modifies the global energy balance
in imposed-SST simulations by typically several W/m$^{2}$ which
translates in the coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations into a different
global-mean SST. The sensitivity is of about 1.2 K per 1 W/m$^{2}$
when varying the horizontal grid. A re-tuning of model parameters was
thus required to restore this energy balance in the imposed-SST
simulations and reduce the biases in the simulated mean surface
temperature and, to some extent, latitudinal SST variations in the
coupled experiments for the modern climate. The tuning hardly
compensates, however, for robust biases of the coupled model. Despite
the wide range of grid configurations explored and their significant
impact on the present-day climate, the climate sensitivity remains
essentially unchanged.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1411-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Charnay}, B. and {Forget}, F. and {Wordsworth}, R. and {Leconte}, J. and 
	{Millour}, E. and {Codron}, F. and {Spiga}, A.},
  title = {{Exploring the faint young Sun problem and the possible climates of the Archean Earth with a 3-D GCM}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1310.4286},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  keywords = {early Earth, Archean, paleo-climates},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 118,
  number = d17,
  pages = {10414},
  abstract = {{Different solutions have been proposed to solve the ''faint young Sun
problem,'' defined by the fact that the Earth was not fully frozen during
the Archean despite the fainter Sun. Most previous studies were
performed with simple 1-D radiative convective models and did not
account well for the clouds and ice-albedo feedback or the atmospheric
and oceanic transport of energy. We apply a global climate model (GCM)
to test the different solutions to the faint young Sun problem. We
explore the effect of greenhouse gases (CO$_{2}$ and
CH$_{4}$), atmospheric pressure, cloud droplet size, land
distribution, and Earth's rotation rate. We show that neglecting organic
haze, 100 mbar of CO$_{2}$ with 2 mbar of CH$_{4}$ at 3.8 Ga
and 10 mbar of CO$_{2}$ with 2 mbar of CH$_{4}$ at 2.5 Ga
allow a temperate climate (mean surface temperature between 10{\deg}C and
20{\deg}C). Such amounts of greenhouse gases remain consistent with the
geological data. Removing continents produces a warming lower than
+4{\deg}C. The effect of rotation rate is even more limited. Larger
droplets (radii of 17 {$\mu$}m versus 12 {$\mu$}m) and a doubling of the
atmospheric pressure produce a similar warming of around +7{\deg}C. In
our model, ice-free water belts can be maintained up to 25{\deg}N/S with
less than 1 mbar of CO$_{2}$ and no methane. An interesting cloud
feedback appears above cold oceans, stopping the glaciation. Such a
resistance against full glaciation tends to strongly mitigate the faint
young Sun problem.
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50808},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Cattiaux}, J. and {Quesada}, B. and {Arakélian}, A. and 
	{Codron}, F. and {Vautard}, R. and {Yiou}, P.},
  title = {{North-Atlantic dynamics and European temperature extremes in the IPSL model: sensitivity to atmospheric resolution}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Global climate model, Atmospheric resolution, Mid-latitudes jet stream, Weather regimes, European temperature extremes},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2293-2310},
  abstract = {{The variability of the European climate is mostly controlled by the
unstable nature of the North-Atlantic dynamics, especially in
wintertime. The intra-seasonal to inter-annual fluctuations of
atmospheric circulations has often been described as the alternation
between a limited number of preferential weather regimes. Such discrete
description can be justified by the multi-modality of the latitudinal
position of the jet stream. In addition, seasonal extremes in European
temperatures are generally associated with an exceptional persistence
into one weather regime. Here we investigate the skill of the IPSL model
to both simulate North-Atlantic weather regimes and European temperature
extremes, including summer heat waves and winter cold spells. We use a
set of eight IPSL experiments, with six different horizontal resolutions
and the two versions used in CMIP3 and CMIP5. We find that despite a
substantial deficit in the simulated poleward peak of the jet stream,
the IPSL model represents weather regimes fairly well. A significant
improvement is found for all horizontal resolutions higher than the one
used in CMIP3, while the increase in vertical resolution included in the
CMIP5 version tends to improve the wintertime dynamics. In addition to a
recurrent cold bias over Europe, the IPSL model generally overestimates
(underestimates) the indices of winter cold spells (summer heat waves)
such as frequencies or durations. We find that the increase in
horizontal resolution almost always improves these statistics, while the
influence of vertical resolution is less clear. Overall, the CMIP5
version of the IPSL model appears to carry promising improvements in the
simulation of the European climate variability.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1529-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chavaillaz}, Y. and {Codron}, F. and {Kageyama}, M.},
  title = {{Southern westerlies in LGM and future (RCP4.5) climates}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = mar,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {517-524},
  abstract = {{Mid-latitude westerlies are a major component of the atmospheric
circulation and understanding their behaviour under climate change is
important for understanding changes in precipitation, storms and
atmosphere-ocean momentum, heat and CO$_{2}$ exchanges. The
Southern Hemisphere westerlies have been particularly studied in terms
of the latter aspects, since the Southern Ocean is a key region for the
global oceanic circulation as well as for CO$_{2}$ uptake. In this
study, we analyse, mainly in terms of jet stream position, the behaviour
of the southern westerlies for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 yr
ago, which is the last past cold extreme) and for a future climate,
obtained after stabilisation of the RCP4.5 scenario. The a priori guess
would be that the behaviour of the westerly jet stream would be similar
when examining its changes from LGM to pre-industrial (PI) conditions
and from PI to RCP4.5, i.e. in both cases a poleward shift in response
to global warming. We show that this is in fact not the case, due to the
impact of altitude changes of the Antarctic ice sheet and/or to sea ice
cover changes.
  doi = {10.5194/cp-9-517-2013},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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