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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Boucher"  ' -c year=2014 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Boucher2014.txt -ob lmd_Boucher2014.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Rotstayn}, L.~D. and {Plymin}, E.~L. and {Collier}, M.~A. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Luo}, J.-J. and {von Salzen}, K. and 
	{Jeffrey}, S.~J. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Ming}, Y. and {Horowitz}, L.~W.
  title = {{Declining Aerosols in CMIP5 Projections: Effects on Atmospheric Temperature Structure and Midlatitude Jets}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {6960-6977},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00258.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gedney}, N. and {Huntingford}, C. and {Weedon}, G.~P. and {Bellouin}, N. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Cox}, P.~M.},
  title = {{Detection of solar dimming and brightening effects on Northern Hemisphere river flow}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2014,
  month = nov,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {796-800},
  abstract = {{Anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere have the potential to affect
regional-scale land hydrology through solar dimming. Increased aerosol
loading may have reduced historical surface evaporation over some
locations, but the magnitude and extent of this effect is uncertain. Any
reduction in evaporation due to historical solar dimming may have
resulted in an increase in river flow. Here we formally detect and
quantify the historical effect of changing aerosol concentrations, via
solar radiation, on observed river flow over the heavily industrialized,
northern extra-tropics. We use a state-of-the-art estimate of twentieth
century surface meteorology as input data for a detailed land surface
model, and show that the simulations capture the observed strong
inter-annual variability in runoff in response to climatic fluctuations.
Using statistical techniques, we identify a detectable aerosol signal in
the observed river flow both over the combined region, and over
individual river basins in Europe and North America. We estimate that
solar dimming due to rising aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere
around 1980 led to an increase in river runoff by up to 25\% in the most
heavily polluted regions in Europe. We propose that, conversely, these
regions may experience reduced freshwater availability in the future, as
air quality improvements are set to lower aerosol loading and solar
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2263},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Irvine}, P.~J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Kravitz}, B. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and 
	{Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Ji}, D. and {Jones}, A. and {Lunt}, D.~J. and 
	{Moore}, J.~C. and {Muri}, H. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Robock}, A. and 
	{Singh}, B. and {Tilmes}, S. and {Watanabe}, S. and {Yang}, S. and 
	{Yoon}, J.-H.},
  title = {{Key factors governing uncertainty in the response to sunshade geoengineering from a comparison of the GeoMIP ensemble and a perturbed parameter ensemble}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengineering, climate engineering, GeoMIP, perturbed parameter ensemble, climate, solar radiation management},
  year = 2014,
  month = jul,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {7946-7962},
  abstract = {{Climate model studies of the consequences of solar geoengineering are
central to evaluating whether such approaches may help to reduce the
harmful impacts of global warming. In this study we compare the sunshade
solar geoengineering response of a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) of
the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3) with a multimodel
ensemble (MME) by analyzing the G1 experiment from the Geoengineering
Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The PPE only perturbed a small
number of parameters and shares a common structure with the unperturbed
HadCM3 model, and so the additional weight the PPE adds to the
robustness of the common climate response features in the MME is minor.
However, analysis of the PPE indicates some of the factors that drive
the spread within the MME. We isolate the role of global mean
temperature biases for both ensembles and find that these biases have
little effect on the ensemble spread in the hydrological response but do
reduce the spread in surface air temperature response, particularly at
high latitudes. We investigate the role of the preindustrial climatology
and find that biases here are likely a key source of ensemble spread at
the zonal and grid cell level. The role of vegetation, and its response
to elevated CO$_{2}$ concentrations through the CO$_{2}$
physiological effect and changes in plant productivity, is also
investigated and proves to have a substantial effect on the terrestrial
hydrological response to solar geoengineering and to be a major source
of variation within the GeoMIP ensemble.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020716},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Huneeus}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and 
	{Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Curry}, C.~L. and {Ji}, D. and {Jones}, A. and 
	{Kravitz}, B. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and {Moore}, J.~C. and 
	{Muri}, H. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Rasch}, P. and {Robock}, A. and 
	{Singh}, B. and {Schmidt}, H. and {Schulz}, M. and {Tilmes}, S. and 
	{Watanabe}, S. and {Yoon}, J.-H.},
  title = {{Forcings and feedbacks in the GeoMIP ensemble for a reduction in solar irradiance and increase in CO$_{2}$}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengineering, energy balance, effective radiative forcing, climate sensitivity},
  year = 2014,
  month = may,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {5226-5239},
  abstract = {{The effective radiative forcings (including rapid adjustments) and
feedbacks associated with an instantaneous quadrupling of the
preindustrial CO$_{2}$ concentration and a counterbalancing
reduction of the solar constant are investigated in the context of the
Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The forcing and
feedback parameters of the net energy flux, as well as its different
components at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface, were examined in
10 Earth System Models to better understand the impact of solar
radiation management on the energy budget. In spite of their very
different nature, the feedback parameter and its components at the TOA
and surface are almost identical for the two forcing mechanisms, not
only in the global mean but also in their geographical distributions.
This conclusion holds for each of the individual models despite
intermodel differences in how feedbacks affect the energy budget. This
indicates that the climate sensitivity parameter is independent of the
forcing (when measured as an effective radiative forcing). We also show
the existence of a large contribution of the cloudy-sky component to the
shortwave effective radiative forcing at the TOA suggesting rapid cloud
adjustments to a change in solar irradiance. In addition, the models
present significant diversity in the spatial distribution of the
shortwave feedback parameter in cloudy regions, indicating persistent
uncertainties in cloud feedback mechanisms.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD021110},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ménégoz}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Cozic}, A. and {Lim}, S. and {Ginot}, P. and 
	{Laj}, P. and {Gallée}, H. and {Wagnon}, P. and {Marinoni}, A. and 
	{Jacobi}, H.~W.},
  title = {{Snow cover sensitivity to black carbon deposition in the Himalayas: from atmospheric and ice core measurements to regional climate simulations}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {4237-4249},
  abstract = {{We applied a climate-chemistry global model to evaluate the impact of
black carbon (BC) deposition on the Himalayan snow cover from 1998 to
2008. Using a stretched grid with a resolution of 50 km over this
complex topography, the model reproduces reasonably well the remotely
sensed observations of the snow cover duration. Similar to observations,
modelled atmospheric BC concentrations in the central Himalayas reach a
minimum during the monsoon and a maximum during the post- and
pre-monsoon periods. Comparing the simulated BC concentrations in the
snow with observations is more challenging because of their high spatial
variability and complex vertical distribution. We simulated spring BC
concentrations in surface snow varying from tens to hundreds of {$\mu$}g
kg$^{-1}$, higher by one to two orders of magnitude than those
observed in ice cores extracted from central Himalayan glaciers at high
elevations ({\gt}6000 m a.s.l.), but typical for seasonal snow cover
sampled in middle elevation regions ({\lt}6000 m a.s.l.). In these areas,
we estimate that both wet and dry BC depositions affect the Himalayan
snow cover reducing its annual duration by 1 to 8 days. In our
simulations, the effect of anthropogenic BC deposition on snow is quite
low over the Tibetan Plateau because this area is only sparsely snow
covered. However, the impact becomes larger along the entire Hindu-Kush,
Karakorum and Himalayan mountain ranges. In these regions, BC in snow
induces an increase of the net short-wave radiation at the surface with
an annual mean of 1 to 3 W m$^{-2}$ leading to a localised warming
between 0.05 and 0.3 {\deg}C.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-14-4237-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Gruber}, N. and {Minh}, H.-D. and 
	{Lawrence}, M.~G. and {Lenton}, T.~M. and {Maas}, A. and {Vaughan}, N.~E.
  title = {{Rethinking climate engineering categorization in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation}},
  journal = {Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Volume 5, Issue 1, pages 23{\^a}{\#128}{\#147}35},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {23},
  doi = {10.1002/wcc.261},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Moore}, J.~C. and {Rinke}, A. and {Yu}, X. and {Ji}, D. and 
	{Cui}, X. and {Li}, Y. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and 
	{Muri}, H. and {Boucher}, O. and {Huneeus}, N. and {Kravitz}, B. and 
	{Robock}, A. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Schulz}, M. and {Tilmes}, S. and 
	{Watanabe}, S. and {Yang}, S.},
  title = {{Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation under the GeoMIP G1 scenario}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengeneering, Arctic sea ice, Arctic atmosphere},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {567-583},
  abstract = {{We analyze simulated sea ice changes in eight different Earth System
Models that have conducted experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model
Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The simulated response of balancing
abrupt quadrupling of CO$_{2}$ (abrupt4xCO2) with reduced
shortwave radiation successfully moderates annually averaged Arctic
temperature rise to about 1{\deg}C, with modest changes in seasonal sea
ice cycle compared with the preindustrial control simulations
(piControl). Changes in summer and autumn sea ice extent are spatially
correlated with temperature patterns but much less in winter and spring
seasons. However, there are changes of {\plusmn}20\% in sea ice
concentration in all seasons, and these will induce changes in
atmospheric circulation patterns. In summer and autumn, the models
consistently simulate less sea ice relative to preindustrial simulations
in the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas, and some
models show increased sea ice in the Barents/Kara Seas region. Sea ice
extent increases in the Greenland Sea, particularly in winter and spring
and is to some extent associated with changed sea ice drift. Decreased
sea ice cover in winter and spring in the Barents Sea is associated with
increased cyclonic activity entering this area under G1. In comparison,
the abrupt4xCO2 experiment shows almost total sea ice loss in September
and strong correlation with regional temperatures in all seasons
consistent with open ocean conditions. The tropospheric circulation
displays a Pacific North America pattern-like anomaly with negative
phase in G1-piControl and positive phase under abrupt4xCO2-piControl.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD021060},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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