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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1996 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_LEGACY1996.txt -ob lmd_LEGACY1996.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Layal}, K. and {Raghava}, R. and {Polcher}, J. and {Sadourny}, R. and 
	{Forichon}, M.},
  title = {{Simulations of the 1987 and 1988 Indian Monsoons Using the LMD GCM.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1996,
  month = dec,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {3357-3372},
  abstract = {{Results from 90-day simulations with the LMD GCM are described, where
sea surface temperatures of 1987 or 1988 years are respectively
prescribed. The initial states correspond to 1 June 1987 and 1 June
1988. The simulated precipitation rates over India show a strong
contrast between the two years, with drought occurring during summer
1987 and abundant rainfall during summer 1988. The dry regime simulated
during 1987 corresponds to an eastward displacement of the outflow at
200 mb and a weaker westerly flow at the surface as compared with 1988,
both features being in agreement with reality. Because it is more
difficult for models to simulate rainfall differences than to simulate
wind variations between the two years, the changes in simulated rainfall
over India are studied in more detail. In particular, more integrations
are carried out to test the sensitivity of rainfall variations to
initial conditions, and the result is that the decrease of rainfall in
1987 compared to 1988 is a robust feature of the model.Very early, the
importance of evapotranspiration in simulating land rainfall was
emphasized. Additional integrations are performed in order to study the
impact of the new vegetation scheme introduced in the LMD GCM. It is
shown that the contrast in rainfall between the two years is better
simulated when the evapotranspiration rate of vegetation cover is
represented. When vegetation is not represented in the model, the model
does not simulate accurately the interannual variation of the
precipitation rates.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<3357:SOTAIM>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Harzallah}, A. and {Rocha de Arag{\~a}o}, J.~O. and {Sadourny}, R.
  title = {{Interannual Rainfall Variability in North-East Brazil: Observation and Model Simulation}},
  journal = {International Journal of Climatology},
  keywords = {North-east Brazil, singular value decomposition, general circulation model, El Ni{\amp}ntilde, o-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Dipole, tropical precipitation},
  year = 1996,
  month = aug,
  volume = 16,
  pages = {861-878},
  abstract = {{The relationship between interannual variability of rainfall in
north-east Brazil and tropical sea-surface temperature is studied using
observations and model simulations. The simulated precipitation is the
average of seven independent realizations performed using the
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique atmospheric general
model forced by the 1970-1988 observed sea-surface temperature. The
model reproduces very well the rainfall anomalies (correlation of 091
between observed and modelled anomalies). The study confirms that
precipitation in north-east Brazil is highly correlated to the
sea-surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Using the singular value decomposition method, we find that Nordeste
rainfall is modulated by two independent oscillations, both governed by
the Atlantic dipole, but one involving only the Pacific, the other one
having a period of about 10 years. Correlations between precipitation in
north-east Brazil during February-May and the sea-surface temperature 6
months earlier indicate that both modes are essential to estimate the
quality of the rainy season.
  doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199608)16:8<861::AID-JOC59>3.0.CO;2-D},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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