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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Risi"  ' -c year=2013 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Risi2013.txt -ob lmd_Risi2013.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Yao}, T. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Gao}, J. and {Yu}, W. and 
	{Yang}, X. and {Risi}, C. and {Sturm}, C. and {Werner}, M. and 
	{Zhao}, H. and {He}, Y. and {Ren}, W. and {Tian}, L. and {Shi}, C. and 
	{Hou}, S.},
  title = {{A review of climatic controls on {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau: Observations and simulations}},
  journal = {Reviews of Geophysics},
  keywords = {precipitation stable isotopes, observations, AGCMs simulations, Tibetan Plateau},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 51,
  pages = {525-548},
  abstract = {{stable oxygen isotope ratio ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O) in precipitation is
an integrated tracer of atmospheric processes worldwide. Since the
1990s, an intensive effort has been dedicated to studying precipitation
isotopic composition at more than 20 stations in the Tibetan Plateau
(TP) located at the convergence of air masses between the westerlies and
Indian monsoon. In this paper, we establish a database of precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and use different models to evaluate the climatic
controls of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O over the TP. The spatial
and temporal patterns of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and their
relationships with temperature and precipitation reveal three distinct
domains, respectively associated with the influence of the westerlies
(northern TP), Indian monsoon (southern TP), and transition in between.
Precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in the monsoon domain experiences an
abrupt decrease in May and most depletion in August, attributable to the
shifting moisture origin between Bay of Bengal (BOB) and southern Indian
Ocean. High-resolution atmospheric models capture the spatial and
temporal patterns of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and their
relationships with moisture transport from the westerlies and Indian
monsoon. Only in the westerlies domain are atmospheric models able to
represent the relationships between climate and precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O. More significant temperature effect exists when
either the westerlies or Indian monsoon is the sole dominant atmospheric
process. The observed and simulated altitude-{$\delta$}$^{18}$O
relationships strongly depend on the season and the domain (Indian
monsoon or westerlies). Our results have crucial implications for the
interpretation of paleoclimate records and for the application of
atmospheric simulations to quantifying paleoclimate and paleo-elevation
  doi = {10.1002/rog.20023},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Jouzel}, J. and {Delaygue}, G. and {Landais}, A. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Vimeux}, F.},
  title = {{Water isotopes as tools to document oceanic sources of precipitation}},
  journal = {Water Resources Research},
  year = 2013,
  month = nov,
  volume = 49,
  pages = {7469-7486},
  abstract = {{The isotopic composition of precipitation, in deuterium, oxygen 18 and
oxygen 17, depends on the climatic conditions prevailing in the oceanic
regions where it originates, mainly the sea surface temperature and the
relative humidity of air. This dependency applies to present-day
precipitation but also to past records which are extracted, for example,
from polar ice cores. In turn, coisotopic measurements of deuterium and
oxygen 18 offer the possibility to retrieve information about the
oceanic origin of modern precipitation as well as about past changes in
sea surface temperature and relative humidity of air. This
interpretation of isotopic measurements has largely relied on simple
Rayleigh-type isotopic models and is complemented by Lagrangian back
trajectory analysis of moisture sources. It is now complemented by
isotopic General Circulation Models (IGCM) in which the origin of
precipitation can be tagged. We shortly review published results
documenting this link between the oceanic sources of precipitation and
their isotopic composition. We then present experiments performed with
two different IGCMs, the GISS model II and the LMDZ model. We focus our
study on marine water vapor and its contribution to precipitation over
Antarctica and over the Andean region of South America. We show how IGCM
experiments allow us to relate climatic conditions prevailing in the
oceanic source of precipitation to its isotopic composition. Such
experiments support, at least qualitatively, the current interpretation
of ice core isotopic data in terms of changes in sea surface
temperature. Additionally, we discuss recent studies clearly showing the
added value of oxygen 17 measurements.
  doi = {10.1002/2013WR013508},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gao}, J. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Risi}, C. and {He}, Y. and 
	{Yao}, T.},
  title = {{What controls precipitation {\^I}{\acute}18O in the southern Tibetan Plateau at seasonal and intra-seasonal scales? A case study at Lhasa and Nyalam}},
  journal = {Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology B},
  year = 2013,
  month = oct,
  volume = 54,
  pages = {21043},
  abstract = {{Understanding the spatial and temporal controls of precipitation
{$\delta$}18O in the southern Tibetan Plateau of central Asia is necessary
for paleoclimate reconstructions from the wealth of regional archives
(ice cores, lake sediments, tree ring cellulose, and speleothems). While
classical interpretations of such records were conducted in terms of
local precipitation, simulations conducted with atmospheric general
circulation models enabled with water stable isotopes have suggested
that past changes in south Asia precipitation {$\delta$}18O may be driven
by remote processes linked to moisture transport. Studies conducted at
the event scale can provide constraints to assess the drivers of
precipitation {$\delta$}18O and the validity of simulated mechanisms. Here,
we take advantage of new event precipitation {$\delta$}18O monitored from
January 2005 to December 2007 at two southern Tibetan Plateau stations
(Lhasa and Nyalam). The drivers of daily to seasonal variations are
investigated using statistical relationships with local and regional
temperature, precipitation amount and convective activity based on in
situ data and satellite products. The strongest control on precipitation
{$\delta$}18O at Lhasa during the monsoon season at event and seasonal
scales is provided by the integrated regional convective activity
upstream air mass trajectories, cumulated over several days. In
contrast, the integrated convection appears to be the main driver of
precipitation {$\delta$}18O at Nyalam only in July and August, and the
situation is more complex in other months. Local climate variables can
only account for a small fraction of the observed {$\delta$}18O variance,
with significant differences between both stations. This study offers a
better constraint on climate archives interpretation in the southern
Tibetan Plateau. The daily data presented here also provides a benchmark
to evaluate the capacity of isotopically enabled atmospheric general
circulation models (iGCMs) to simulate the response of precip!

itation {$\delta$}18O to convection. This is illustrated using a nudged and
zo omed simulation with the LMDZiso model. While it successfully
simulates some seasonal and daily characteristics of precipitation
{$\delta$}18O in the southern Tibetan Plateau, it fails to simulate the
correlation between {$\delta$}18O and upstream precipitation. This calls
for caution when using atmospheric models to interpret precipitation
{$\delta$}18O archives in terms of past monsoon variability.
  doi = {10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.21043},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Landais}, A. and {Winkler}, R. and {Vimeux}, F.
  title = {{Can we determine what controls the spatio-temporal distribution of d-excess and $^{17}$O-excess in precipitation using the LMDZ general circulation model?}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {2173-2193},
  abstract = {{Combined measurements of the H$_{2}$$^{18}$O and HDO
isotopic ratios in precipitation, leading to second-order parameter
D-excess, have provided additional constraints on past climates compared
to the H$_{2}$$^{18}$O isotopic ratio alone. More recently,
measurements of H$_{2}$$^{17}$O have led to another
second-order parameter: $^{17}$O-excess. Recent studies suggest
that $^{17}$O-excess in polar ice may provide information on
evaporative conditions at the moisture source. However, the processes
controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of $^{17}$O-excess
are still far from being fully understood. We use the isotopic general
circulation model (GCM) LMDZ to better understand what controls d-excess
and $^{17}$O-excess in precipitation at present-day (PD) and
during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The simulation of D-excess and
$^{17}$O-excess is evaluated against measurements in meteoric
water, water vapor and polar ice cores. A set of sensitivity tests and
diagnostics are used to quantify the relative effects of evaporative
conditions (sea surface temperature and relative humidity), Rayleigh
distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins,
precipitation re-evaporation and supersaturation during condensation at
low temperature. In LMDZ, simulations suggest that in the tropics
convective processes and rain re-evaporation are important controls on
precipitation D-excess and $^{17}$O-excess. In higher latitudes,
the effect of distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins
and supersaturation are the most important controls. For example, the
lower d-excess and $^{17}$O-excess at LGM simulated at LGM are
mainly due to the supersaturation effect. The effect of supersaturation
is however very sensitive to a parameter whose tuning would require more
measurements and laboratory experiments. Evaporative conditions had
previously been suggested to be key controlling factors of d-excess and
$^{17}$O-excess, but LMDZ underestimates their role. More
generally, some shortcomings in the simulation of $^{17}$O-excess
by LMDZ suggest that general circulation models are not yet the perfect
tool to quantify with confidence all processes controlling
  doi = {10.5194/cp-9-2173-2013},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Noone}, D. and {Frankenberg}, C. and {Worden}, J.
  title = {{Role of continental recycling in intraseasonal variations of continental moisture as deduced from model simulations and water vapor isotopic measurements}},
  journal = {Water Resources Research},
  keywords = {continental recycling, remote-sensing, water isotopes, moisture tracking},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 49,
  pages = {4136-4156},
  abstract = {{Climate models suggest an important role for land-atmosphere feedbacks
on climate, but exhibit a large dispersion in the simulation of this
role. We focus here on the role of continental recycling in the
intraseasonal variability of continental moisture, and we explore the
possibility of using water isotopic measurements to observationally
constrain this role. Based on water tagging, we design a diagnostic,
named D1, to estimate the role of continental recycling on the
intraseasonal variability of continental moisture simulated by the
general circulation model LMDZ. In coastal regions, the intraseasonal
variability of continental moisture is mainly driven by the variability
in oceanic moisture convergence. More inland, the role of continental
recycling becomes important. The simulation of this role is sensitive to
model parameters modulating evapotranspiration. Then we show that
{$\delta$}D in the low-level water vapor is a good tracer for continental
recycling, due to the enriched signature of transpiration. Over tropical
land regions, the intraseasonal relationship between {$\delta$}D and
precipitable water, named D1\_iso, is a good observational proxy for D1.
We test the possibility of using D1\_iso for model evaluation using two
satellite data sets: GOSAT and TES. LMDZ captures well the spatial
patterns of D1\_iso, but underestimates its values. However, a more
accurate description of how atmospheric processes affect the isotopic
composition of water vapor is necessary before concluding with certitude
that LMDZ underestimates the role of continental recycling.
  doi = {10.1002/wrcr.20312},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Winkler}, R. and {Landais}, A. and {Risi}, C. and {Baroni}, M. and 
	{Ekaykin}, A. and {Jouzel}, J. and {Petit}, J.~R. and {Prie}, F. and 
	{Minster}, B. and {Falourd}, S.},
  title = {{Interannual variation of water isotopologues at Vostok indicates a contribution from stratospheric water vapor}},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Science},
  year = 2013,
  month = jun,
  volume = 110,
  pages = {17674-17679},
  abstract = {{Combined measurements of water isotopologues of a snow pit at Vostok
over the past 60 y reveal a unique signature that cannot be explained
only by climatic features as usually done. Comparisons of the data using
a general circulation model and a simpler isotopic distillation model
reveal a stratospheric signature in the 17O-excess record at Vostok. Our
data and theoretical considerations indicate that mass-independent
fractionation imprints the isotopic signature of stratospheric water
vapor, which may allow for a distinction between stratospheric and
tropospheric influences at remote East Antarctic sites.
  doi = {10.1073/pnas.1215209110},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Sime}, L.~C. and {Risi}, C. and {Tindall}, J.~C. and {Sjolte}, J. and 
	{Wolff}, E.~W. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Capron}, E.},
  title = {{Warm climate isotopic simulations: what do we learn about interglacial signals in Greenland ice cores?}},
  journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 67,
  pages = {59-80},
  abstract = {{Measurements of Last Interglacial stable water isotopes in ice cores
show that central Greenland {$\delta$}$^{18}$O increased by at least
3{\permil} compared to present day. Attempting to quantify the Greenland
interglacial temperature change from these ice core measurements rests
on our ability to interpret the stable water isotope content of
Greenland snow. Current orbitally driven interglacial simulations do not
show {$\delta$}$^{18}$O or temperature rises of the correct
magnitude, leading to difficulty in using only these experiments to
inform our understanding of higher interglacial {$\delta$}$^{18}$O.
Here, analysis of greenhouse gas warmed simulations from two
isotope-enabled general circulation models, in conjunction with a set of
Last Interglacial sea surface observations, indicates a possible
explanation for the interglacial {$\delta$}$^{18}$O rise. A reduction
in the winter time sea ice concentration around the northern half of
Greenland, together with an increase in sea surface temperatures over
the same region, is found to be sufficient to drive a {\gt}3{\permil}
interglacial enrichment in central Greenland snow. Warm climate
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and {$\delta$}D in precipitation falling on Greenland
are shown to be strongly influenced by local sea surface condition
changes: local sea surface warming and a shrunken sea ice extent
increase the proportion of water vapour from local (isotopically
enriched) sources, compared to that from distal (isotopically depleted)
sources. Precipitation intermittency changes, under warmer conditions,
leads to geographical variability in the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O against
temperature gradients across Greenland. Little sea surface warming
around the northern areas of Greenland leads to low
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O against temperature gradients (0.1-0.3{\permil} per
{\deg}C), whilst large sea surface warmings in these regions leads to
higher gradients (0.3-0.7{\permil} per {\deg}C). These gradients imply a
wide possible range of present day to interglacial temperature increases
(4 to {\gt}10 {\deg}C). Thus, we find that uncertainty about local
interglacial sea surface conditions, rather than precipitation
intermittency changes, may lead to the largest uncertainties in
interpreting temperature from Greenland ice cores. We find that
interglacial sea surface change observational records are currently
insufficient to enable discrimination between these different
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O against temperature gradients. In conclusion,
further information on interglacial sea surface temperatures and sea ice
changes around northern Greenland should indicate whether +5 {\deg}C
during the Last Interglacial is sufficient to drive the observed ice
core {$\delta$}$^{18}$O increase, or whether a larger temperature
increases or ice sheet changes are also required to explain the ice core
  doi = {10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.01.009},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Eagle}, R.~A. and {Risi}, C. and {Mitchell}, J.~L. and {Eiler}, J.~M. and 
	{Seibt}, U. and {Neelin}, J.~D. and {Li}, G. and {Tripati}, A.~K.
  title = {{High regional climate sensitivity over continental China constrained by glacial-recent changes in temperature and the hydrological cycle}},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Science},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 110,
  pages = {8813-8818},
  abstract = {{The East Asian monsoon is one of Earth's most
significant climatic phenomena, and numerous paleoclimate archives have
revealed that it exhibits variations on orbital and suborbital time
scales. Quantitative constraints on the climate changes associated with
these past variations are limited, yet are needed to constrain
sensitivity of the region to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Here, we
show central China is a region that experienced a much larger
temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum than typically
simulated by climate models. We applied clumped isotope thermometry to
carbonates from the central Chinese Loess Plateau to reconstruct
temperature and water isotope shifts from the Last Glacial Maximum to
present. We find a summertime temperature change of
6-7 {\deg}C that is reproduced by climate model
simulations presented here. Proxy data reveal evidence for a shift to
lighter isotopic composition of meteoric waters in glacial times, which
is also captured by our model. Analysis of model outputs suggests that
glacial cooling over continental China is significantly amplified by the
influence of stationary waves, which, in turn, are enhanced by
continental ice sheets. These results not only support high regional
climate sensitivity in Central China but highlight the fundamental role
of planetary-scale atmospheric dynamics in the sensitivity of regional
climates to continental glaciation, changing greenhouse gas levels, and
  doi = {10.1073/pnas.1213366110},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Johnsen}, S.~J. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Stenni}, B. and {Risi}, C. and {Sodemann}, H. and {Balslev-Clausen}, D. and 
	{Blunier}, T. and {Dahl-Jensen}, D. and {Elleh{\o}j}, M.~D. and 
	{Falourd}, S. and {Grindsted}, A. and {Gkinis}, V. and {Jouzel}, J. and 
	{Popp}, T. and {Sheldon}, S. and {Simonsen}, S.~B. and {Sjolte}, J. and 
	{Steffensen}, J.~P. and {Sperlich}, P. and {Sveinbj{\"o}rnsd{\'o}ttir}, A.~E. and 
	{Vinther}, B.~M. and {White}, J.~W.~C.},
  title = {{Continuous monitoring of summer surface water vapor isotopic composition above the Greenland Ice Sheet}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {4815-4828},
  abstract = {{We present here surface water vapor isotopic measurements conducted from
June to August 2010 at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Drilling
Project) camp, NW Greenland (77.45{\deg} N, 51.05{\deg} W, 2484 m a.s.l.).
Measurements were conducted at 9 different heights from 0.1 m to 13.5 m
above the snow surface using two different types of cavity-enhanced
near-infrared absorption spectroscopy analyzers. For each instrument
specific protocols were developed for calibration and drift corrections.
The inter-comparison of corrected results from different instruments
reveals excellent reproducibility, stability, and precision with a
standard deviations of \~{} 0.23{\permil} for {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and \~{}
1.4{\permil} for {$\delta$}D. Diurnal and intraseasonal variations show
strong relationships between changes in local surface humidity and water
vapor isotopic composition, and with local and synoptic weather
conditions. This variability probably results from the interplay between
local moisture fluxes, linked with firn-air exchanges, boundary layer
dynamics, and large-scale moisture advection. Particularly remarkable
are several episodes characterized by high ({\gt} 40{\permil}) surface
water vapor deuterium excess. Air mass back-trajectory calculations from
atmospheric analyses and water tagging in the LMDZiso (Laboratory of
Meteorology Dynamics Zoom-isotopic) atmospheric model reveal that these
events are associated with predominant Arctic air mass origin. The
analysis suggests that high deuterium excess levels are a result of
strong kinetic fractionation during evaporation at the sea-ice margin.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-13-4815-2013},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Casado}, M. and {Ortega}, P. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Daux}, V. and {Genty}, D. and 
	{Maignan}, F. and {Solomina}, O. and {Vinther}, B. and {Viovy}, N. and 
	{Yiou}, P.},
  title = {{Impact of precipitation intermittency on NAO-temperature signals in proxy records}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = mar,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {871-886},
  abstract = {{In mid and high latitudes, the stable isotope ratio in precipitation is
driven by changes in temperature, which control atmospheric
distillation. This relationship forms the basis for many continental
paleoclimatic reconstructions using direct (e.g. ice cores) or indirect
(e.g. tree ring cellulose, speleothem calcite) archives of past
precipitation. However, the archiving process is inherently biased by
intermittency of precipitation. Here, we use two sets of atmospheric
reanalyses (NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) and
ERA-interim) to quantify this precipitation intermittency bias, by
comparing seasonal (winter and summer) temperatures estimated with and
without precipitation weighting. We show that this bias reaches up to 10
{\deg}C and has large interannual variability. We then assess the impact
of precipitation intermittency on the strength and stability of temporal
correlations between seasonal temperatures and the North Atlantic
Oscillation (NAO). Precipitation weighting reduces the correlation
between winter NAO and temperature in some areas (e.g. Québec,
South-East USA, East Greenland, East Siberia, Mediterranean sector) but
does not alter the main patterns of correlation. The correlations
between NAO, {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in precipitation, temperature and
precipitation weighted temperature are investigated using outputs of an
atmospheric general circulation model enabled with stable isotopes and
nudged using reanalyses (LMDZiso (Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique Zoom)). In winter, LMDZiso shows
similar correlation values between the NAO and both the precipitation
weighted temperature and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in precipitation, thus
suggesting limited impacts of moisture origin. Correlations of
comparable magnitude are obtained for the available observational
evidence (GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) and
Greenland ice core data). Our findings support the use of archives of
past {$\delta$}$^{18}$O for NAO reconstructions.
  doi = {10.5194/cp-9-871-2013},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Frankenberg}, C. and {Wunch}, D. and {Toon}, G. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Scheepmaker}, R. and {Lee}, J.-E. and {Wennberg}, P. and {Worden}, J.
  title = {{Water vapor isotopologue retrievals from high-resolution GOSAT shortwave infrared spectra}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  year = 2013,
  month = feb,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {263-274},
  abstract = {{Remote sensing of the isotopic composition of water vapor can provide
valuable information on the hydrological cycle. Here, we demonstrate the
feasibility of retrievals of the relative abundance of HDO (the
HDO/H$_{2}$O ratio) from the Japanese GOSAT satellite. For this
purpose, we use high spectral resolution nadir radiances around 6400
cm$^{-1}$ (1.56 {$\mu$}m) to retrieve vertical column amounts of
H$_{2}$O and HDO. Retrievals of H$_{2}$O correlate well with
ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) integrated
profiles (r$^{2}$ = 0.96). Typical precision errors in the
retrieved column-averaged deuterium depletion ({$\delta$}D) are
20-40{\permil}. We compare {$\delta$}D against a TCCON (Total Carbon Column
Observing Network) ground-based station in Lamont, Oklahoma. Using
retrievals in very dry areas over Antarctica, we detect a small
systematic offset in retrieved H$_{2}$O and HDO column amounts and
take this into account for a bias correction of {$\delta$}D. Monthly
averages of {$\delta$}D in the June 2009 to September 2011 time frame are
well correlated with TCCON (r$^{2}$ = 0.79) and exhibit a slope of
0.98 (1.23 if not bias corrected). We also compare seasonal averages on
the global scale with results from the SCIAMACHY instrument in the
2003-2005 time frame. Despite the lack of temporal overlap, seasonal
averages in general agree well, with spatial correlations
(r$^{2}$) ranging from 0.62 in September through November to 0.83
in June through August. However, we observe higher variability in GOSAT
{$\delta$}D, indicated by fitted slopes between 1.2 and 1.46. The
discrepancies are likely related to differences in vertical
sensitivities but warrant further validation of both GOSAT and SCIAMACHY
and an extension of the validation dataset.
  doi = {10.5194/amt-6-263-2013},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Noone}, D. and {Risi}, C. and {Bailey}, A. and {Berkelhammer}, M. and 
	{Brown}, D.~P. and {Buenning}, N. and {Gregory}, S. and {Nusbaumer}, J. and 
	{Schneider}, D. and {Sykes}, J. and {Vanderwende}, B. and {Wong}, J. and 
	{Meillier}, Y. and {Wolfe}, D.},
  title = {{Determining water sources in the boundary layer from tall tower profiles of water vapor and surface water isotope ratios after a snowstorm in Colorado}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2013,
  month = feb,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {1607-1623},
  abstract = {{The D/H isotope ratio is used to attribute boundary layer humidity
changes to the set of contributing fluxes for a case following a
snowstorm in which a snow pack of about 10 cm vanished. Profiles of
H$_{2}$O and CO$_{2}$ mixing ratio, D/H isotope ratio, and
several thermodynamic properties were measured from the surface to 300 m
every 15 min during four winter days near Boulder, Colorado. Coeval
analysis of the D/H ratios and CO$_{2}$ concentrations find these
two variables to be complementary with the former being sensitive to
daytime surface fluxes and the latter particularly indicative of
nocturnal surface sources. Together they capture evidence for strong
vertical mixing during the day, weaker mixing by turbulent bursts and
low level jets within the nocturnal stable boundary layer during the
night, and frost formation in the morning. The profiles are generally
not well described with a gradient mixing line analysis because D/H
ratios of the end members (i.e., surface fluxes and the free
troposphere) evolve throughout the day which leads to large
uncertainties in the estimate of the D/H ratio of surface water flux. A
mass balance model is constructed for the snow pack, and constrained
with observations to provide an optimal estimate of the partitioning of
the surface water flux into contributions from sublimation, evaporation
of melt water in the snow and evaporation from ponds. Results show that
while vapor measurements are important in constraining surface fluxes,
measurements of the source reservoirs (soil water, snow pack and
standing liquid) offer stronger constraint on the surface water balance.
Measurements of surface water are therefore essential in developing
observational programs that seek to use isotopic data for flux
  doi = {10.5194/acp-13-1607-2013},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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