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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Risi"  ' -c year=2014 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Risi2014.txt -ob lmd_Risi2014.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Ortega}, P. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Vinther}, B. and {Yiou}, P. and {Vautard}, R. and 
	{Yoshimura}, K.},
  title = {{Characterizing atmospheric circulation signals in Greenland ice cores: insights from a weather regime approach}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {North Atlantic weather regimes, Modes of climate variability, Greenland climate variability, Isotope reanalyses, Ice cores, Water stable isotopes},
  year = 2014,
  month = nov,
  volume = 43,
  pages = {2585-2605},
  abstract = {{Greenland ice cores offer seasonal to annual records of
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, a proxy for precipitation-weighted temperature,
over the last few centuries to millennia. Here, we investigate the
regional footprints of the North Atlantic weather regimes on Greenland
isotope and climate variability, using a compilation of 22 different
shallow ice-cores and the atmospheric pressure conditions from the
twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). As a first step we have verified
that the leading modes of winter and annual {$\delta$}$^{18}$O are
well correlated with oceanic (Atlantic multidecadal oscillation) and
atmospheric [North Atlantic oscillation (NAO)] indices respectively, and
also marginally with external forcings, thus confirming earlier studies.
The link between weather regimes and Greenland precipitation,
precipitation-weighted temperature and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O is further
explored by using an isotope simulation from the LMDZ-iso model, where
the 3-dimensional wind fields are nudged to those of 20CR. In winter,
the NAO+ and NAO- regimes in LMDZ-iso produce the largest isotopic
changes over the entire Greenland region, with maximum anomalies in the
South. Likewise, the Scandinavian blocking and the Atlantic ridge also
show remarkable imprints on isotopic composition over the region. To
assess the robustness and model dependency of our findings, a second
isotope simulation from the isotopic model is also explored. The
percentage of Greenland {$\delta$}$^{18}$O variance explained by the
ensemble of weather regimes is increased by a factor near two in both
LMDZ-iso and IsoGSM when compared to the contribution of the NAO index
only. Similarly, weather regimes provide a net gain in the
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O variance explained of similar magnitude for the
whole set of ice core records. Greenland {$\delta$}$^{18}$O also
appears to be locally affected by the low-frequency variations in the
centres of action of the weather regimes, with clearer imprints in the
LMDZ-iso simulation. This study opens the possibility for reconstructing
past changes in the frequencies of occurrence of the weather regimes,
which would rely on the sensitive regions identified here, and the use
of additional proxies over the North Atlantic region.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2074-z},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gryazin}, V. and {Risi}, C. and {Jouzel}, J. and {Kurita}, N. and 
	{Worden}, J. and {Frankenberg}, C. and {Bastrikov}, V. and {Gribanov}, K. and 
	{Stukova}, O.},
  title = {{To what extent could water isotopic measurements help us understand model biases in the water cycle over Western Siberia}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = sep,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {9807-9830},
  abstract = {{We evaluate the isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation
simulated by the LMDZ (Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique-Zoom) GCM (General Circulation Model) over Siberia using
several data sets: TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and GOSAT
(Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) satellite observations of
tropospheric water vapor, GNIP (Global Network for Isotopes in
Precipitation) and SNIP (Siberian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation)
precipitation networks, and daily, in situ measurements of water vapor
and precipitation at the Kourovka site in Western Siberia. LMDZ captures
the spatial, seasonal and daily variations reasonably well, but it
underestimates humidity (q) in summer and overestimates {$\delta$}D in the
vapor and precipitation in all seasons. The performance of LMDZ is put
in the context of other isotopic models from the SWING2 (Stable Water
Intercomparison Group phase 2) models. There is significant spread among
models in the simulation of {$\delta$}D, and of the {$\delta$}D-q
relationship. This confirms that {$\delta$}D brings additional information
compared to q only. We specifically investigate the added value of water
isotopic measurements to interpret the warm and dry bias featured by
most GCMs over mid and high latitude continents in summer. The analysis
of the slopes in {$\delta$}D-q diagrams and of processes controlling
{$\delta$}D and q variations suggests that the cause of the dry bias could
be either a problem in the large-scale advection transporting too much
dry and warm air from the south, or too strong boundary-layer mixing.
However, {$\delta$}D-q diagrams using the available data do not tell the
full story. Additional measurements would be needed, or a more
sophisticated theoretical framework would need to be developed.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-14-9807-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pommier}, M. and {Lacour}, J.-L. and {Risi}, C. and {Bréon}, F.~M. and 
	{Clerbaux}, C. and {Coheur}, P.-F. and {Gribanov}, K. and {Hurtmans}, D. and 
	{Jouzel}, J. and {Zakharov}, V.},
  title = {{Observation of tropospheric {$\delta$}D by IASI over western Siberia: comparison with a general circulation model}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  year = 2014,
  month = jun,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {1581-1595},
  abstract = {{This study presents the joint H$_{2}$$^{16}$O and HDO
retrieval from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)
spectra over western Siberia. IASI is an instrument on board the MetOp-A
European satellite. The global coverage of the instrument and the good
signal-to-noise ratio allow us to provide information on {$\delta$}D over
this remote region. We show that IASI measurements may be used to
estimate integrated {$\delta$}D between the surface and 3 km altitude or
from 1 to 5 km depending on the thermal contrast, with observational
errors lower than 4\% and 7\%, respectively. The retrieved data are
compared to simulations from an isotopic general circulation model,
LMDZ-iso for 2011. The satellite measurements and the model agree well
and they reproduce well the seasonal and day-to-day variations for
{$\delta$}D, presenting a good correlation (r up to 0.8 with the smoothed
data in summer). The IASI-based retrievals also show the seasonal
variation of the specific humidity in both altitude ranges.
  doi = {10.5194/amt-7-1581-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Butzin}, M. and {Werner}, M. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Frankenberg}, C. and {Gribanov}, K. and {Jouzel}, J. and 
	{Zakharov}, V.~I.},
  title = {{Variations of oxygen-18 in West Siberian precipitation during the last 50 years}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = jun,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {5853-5869},
  abstract = {{Global warming is associated with large increases in surface air
temperature in Siberia. Here, we apply the isotope-enabled atmospheric
general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso to explore the potential of water
isotope measurements at a recently opened monitoring station in Kourovka
(57.04{\deg} N, 59.55{\deg} E) in order to successfully trace climate
change in western Siberia. Our model is constrained to atmospheric
reanalysis fields for the period 1957-2013 to facilitate the comparison
with observations of {$\delta$}D in total column water vapour from the
GOSAT satellite, and with precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
measurements from 15 Russian stations of the Global Network of Isotopes
in Precipitation. The model captures the observed Russian climate within
reasonable error margins, and displays the observed isotopic gradients
associated with increasing continentality and decreasing meridional
temperatures. The model also reproduces the observed seasonal cycle of
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, which parallels the seasonal cycle of temperature
and ranges from -25 {\permil} in winter to -5 {\permil} in summer.
Investigating West Siberian climate and precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O variability during the last 50 years, we find
long-term increasing trends in temperature and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O,
while precipitation trends are uncertain. During the last 50 years,
winter temperatures have increased by 1.7 {\deg}C. The simulated
long-term increase of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O is at the
detection limit ({\lt}1 {\permil} per 50 years) but significant. West
Siberian climate is characterized by strong interannual variability,
which in winter is strongly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation.
In winter, regional temperature is the predominant factor controlling
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O variations on interannual to decadal timescales
with a slope of about 0.5 {\permil} {\deg}C$^{-1}$. In summer, the
interannual variability of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O can be attributed to
short-term, regional-scale processes such as evaporation and convective
precipitation. This finding suggests that precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O has the potential to reveal hydrometeorological
regime shifts in western Siberia which are otherwise difficult to
identify. Focusing on Kourovka, the simulated evolution of temperature,
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and, to a smaller extent, precipitation during the
last 50 years is synchronous with model results averaged over all of
western Siberia, suggesting that this site will be representative to
monitor future isotopic changes in the entire region.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-14-5853-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Tremoy}, G. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Soumana}, S. and {Souley}, I. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Favreau}, G. and {O{\"i}}, M.},
  title = {{Clustering mesoscale convective systems with laser-based water vapor {$\delta$}$^{18}$O monitoring in Niamey (Niger)}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water vapor isotopic composition, mesoscale convective systems, convective processes, rain evaporation, Sahel rainfall},
  year = 2014,
  month = may,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {5079-5103},
  abstract = {{The isotopic composition of surface water vapor ({$\delta$}$_{v}$)
has been measured continuously in Niamey along with the isotopic
composition of event-based precipitation ({$\delta$}$_{p}$) since
2010. We investigate the evolution of water vapor and precipitation
isotope ratios during rain events of the 2010, 2011, and 2012 monsoon
periods. We establish a classification of rain systems into three types
based on the {$\delta$}$_{v}$ temporal evolution. We find that 51\% of
rain events (class A) exhibit a sharp decrease in
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ in phase with the surface air
temperature drop, leading to a depletion of water vapor by -1.9{\permil}
on average during rainfall. Twenty-nine percent of rain events (class B)
show a similar decrease in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ in phase
with the temperature drop but are characterized by a progressive
enrichment of the vapor in the stratiform region, resulting in a
depletion of water vapor by -1.2{\permil} on average during rainfall. The
last 20\% of the rain events (class C) are associated with a progressive
increase in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ during rainfall
(+0.8{\permil}). We also examine the temporal evolution of water vapor
deuterium excess (d$_{v}$) which shows a sharp increase as
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ decreases, followed by a progressive
decrease in the stratiform part for classes A and B. Using a basic box
model, we examine for each class the respective roles that mesoscale
subsidence and rain evaporation play on the evolution of
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$. We show that those two processes are
dominant for class A, whereas other processes may exert a major role on
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ for classes B and C.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020968},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bonne}, J.-L. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Cattani}, O. and 
	{Delmotte}, M. and {Risi}, C. and {Sodemann}, H. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C.
  title = {{The isotopic composition of water vapour and precipitation in Ivittuut, southern Greenland}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2014,
  month = may,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {4419-4439},
  abstract = {{Since September 2011, a wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy
analyser has been remotely operated in Ivittuut, southern Greenland,
providing the first record of surface water vapour isotopic composition
based on continuous measurements in South Greenland and the first record
including the winter season in Greenland. The comparison of vapour data
with measurements of precipitation isotopic composition suggest an
equilibrium between surface vapour and precipitation. 

{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and deuterium excess are generally anti-correlated and show important seasonal variations, with respective amplitudes of \~{}10 and \~{}20{\permil}, as well as large synoptic variations. The data depict small summer diurnal variations. At the seasonal scale, {$\delta$}$^{18}$O has a minimum in November-December and a maximum in June-July, while deuterium excess has a minimum in May-June and a maximum in November. The approach of low-pressure systems towards South Greenland leads to {$\delta$}$^{18}$O increase (typically +5{\permil}) and deuterium excess decrease (typically -15{\permil}).

Seasonal and synoptic variations coincide with shifts in the moisture sources, estimated using a quantitative moisture source diagnostic based on a Lagrangian back-trajectory model. The atmospheric general circulation model LMDZiso correctly captures the seasonal and synoptic variability of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, but does not capture the observed magnitude of deuterium excess variability.

Covariations of water vapour isotopic composition with local and moisture source meteorological parameters have been evaluated. {$\delta$}$^{18}$O is strongly correlated with the logarithm of local surface humidity, consistent with Rayleigh distillation processes, and with local surface air temperature, associated with a slope of \~{}0.4{\permil} {\deg}C$^{-1}$. Deuterium excess correlates with local surface relative humidity as well as surface relative humidity from the dominant moisture source area located in the North Atlantic, south of Greenland and Iceland. }}, doi = {10.5194/acp-14-4419-2014}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Liu}, Z. and {Yoshimura}, K. and {Bowen}, G.~J. and {Buenning}, N.~H. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Welker}, J.~M. and {Yuan}, F.},
  title = {{Paired oxygen isotope records reveal modern North American atmospheric dynamics during the Holocene}},
  journal = {Nature Communications},
  year = 2014,
  month = apr,
  volume = 5,
  eid = {3701},
  pages = {3701},
  abstract = {{The Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection has a strong influence
on North American climate. Instrumental records and century-scale
reconstructions indicate an accelerating tendency towards the positive
PNA state since the mid-1850s, but much less is known about long-term
PNA variability. Here we reconstruct PNA-like climate variability during
the mid- and late Holocene using paired oxygen isotope records from two
regions in North America with robust, anticorrelated isotopic response
to the modern PNA. We identify mean states of more negative and positive
PNA-like climate during the mid- and late Holocene, respectively.
Superimposed on the secular change between states is a robust,
quasi-200-year oscillation, which we associate with the de Vries solar
cycle. These findings suggest the persistence of PNA-like climate
variability throughout the mid- and late Holocene, provide evidence for
modulation of PNA over multiple timescales and may help researchers
de-convolve PNA pattern variation from other factors reflected in
  doi = {10.1038/ncomms4701},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Hirabayashi}, M. and 
	{Winkler}, R. and {Satow}, K. and {Prié}, F. and {Bayou}, N. and 
	{Brun}, E. and {Cuffey}, K.~M. and {Dahl-Jensen}, D. and {Dumont}, M. and 
	{Guillevic}, M. and {Kipfstuhl}, S. and {Landais}, A. and {Popp}, T. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Steffen}, K. and {Stenni}, B. and {Sveinbj{\"o}rnsdott{\'{\i}}r}, A.~E.
  title = {{What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2014,
  month = feb,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {377-392},
  abstract = {{Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key
paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation
isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric
models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow
metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of
the isotopic composition ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O, {$\delta$}D) of
near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm)
snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011-2012) at NEEM,
NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of $^{17}$O-excess
measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland
heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming
isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a
strong correlation between near-surface vapor {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and
air temperature (0.85 {\plusmn} 0.11{\permil} {\deg}C$^{-1}$ (R =
0.76) for 2012). The correlation with air temperature is not observed in
precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess) is
strongly anti-correlated with {$\delta$}$^{18}$O with a stronger
slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During
nine 1-5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate
parallel changes of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and d-excess in surface snow
and near-surface vapor. The changes in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O of the
vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that
6 to 20\% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In
our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to
the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with
atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor
isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in
air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in
between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic
composition are driven by these changes in near-surface vapor isotopic
composition. This is consistent with an estimated 60\% mass turnover of
surface snow per day driven by snow recrystallization processes under
NEEM summer surface snow temperature gradients. Our findings have
implications for ice core data interpretation and model-data
comparisons, and call for further process studies.
  doi = {10.5194/cp-10-377-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Schmidt}, G.~A. and {Annan}, J.~D. and {Bartlein}, P.~J. and 
	{Cook}, B.~I. and {Guilyardi}, E. and {Hargreaves}, J.~C. and 
	{Harrison}, S.~P. and {Kageyama}, M. and {LeGrande}, A.~N. and 
	{Konecky}, B. and {Lovejoy}, S. and {Mann}, M.~E. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Thompson}, D. and {Timmermann}, A. and {Tremblay}, L.-B. and 
	{Yiou}, P.},
  title = {{Using palaeo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2014,
  month = feb,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {221-250},
  abstract = {{We present a selection of methodologies for using the palaeo-climate
model component of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (Phase 5)
(CMIP5) to attempt to constrain future climate projections using the
same models. The constraints arise from measures of skill in hindcasting
palaeo-climate changes from the present over three periods: the Last
Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 000 yr before present, ka), the mid-Holocene
(MH) (6 ka) and the Last Millennium (LM) (850-1850 CE). The skill
measures may be used to validate robust patterns of climate change
across scenarios or to distinguish between models that have differing
outcomes in future scenarios. We find that the multi-model ensemble of
palaeo-simulations is adequate for addressing at least some of these
issues. For example, selected benchmarks for the LGM and MH are
correlated to the rank of future projections of
precipitation/temperature or sea ice extent to indicate that models that
produce the best agreement with palaeo-climate information give
demonstrably different future results than the rest of the models. We
also explore cases where comparisons are strongly dependent on uncertain
forcing time series or show important non-stationarity, making direct
inferences for the future problematic. Overall, we demonstrate that
there is a strong potential for the palaeo-climate simulations to help
inform the future projections and urge all the modelling groups to
complete this subset of the CMIP5 runs.
  doi = {10.5194/cp-10-221-2014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Benetti}, M. and {Reverdin}, G. and {Pierre}, C. and {Merlivat}, L. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Vimeux}, F.},
  title = {{Deuterium excess in marine water vapor: Dependency on relative humidity and surface wind speed during evaporation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Deuterium excess, evaporation, wind speed, surface roughness},
  year = 2014,
  month = jan,
  volume = 119,
  pages = {584-593},
  abstract = {{We provide the first continuous measurements of isotopic composition
({$\delta$}D and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O) of water vapor over the subtropical
Eastern North Atlantic Ocean from mid-August to mid-September 2012. The
ship was located mostly around 26{\deg}N, 35{\deg}W where evaporation
exceeded by far precipitation and water vapor at 20 m largely originated
from surface evaporation. The only large deviations from that occurred
during a 2 day period in the vicinity of a weak low-pressure system. The
continuous measurements were used to investigate deuterium excess
(d-excess) relation to evaporation. During 25 days d-excess was
negatively correlated with relative humidity (r$^{2}$ = 0.89).
Moreover, d-excess estimated in an evaporative model with a closure
assumption reproduced most of the observed variability. From these
observations, the d-excess parameter seems to be a good indicator of
evaporative conditions. We also conclude that in this region, d-excess
into the marine boundary layer is less affected by mixing with the free
troposphere than the isotopic composition. From our data, the transition
from smooth to rough regime at the ocean surface is associated with a
d-excess decrease of 5{\permil}, which suggests the importance of the
ocean surface roughness in controlling d-excess in this region.
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020535},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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