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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Li"  ' -c year=2003 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Li2003.txt -ob lmd_Li2003.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Menon}, S. and {Brenguier}, J.-L. and {Boucher}, O. and {Davison}, P. and 
	{Del Genio}, A.~D. and {Feichter}, J. and {Ghan}, S. and {Guibert}, S. and 
	{Liu}, X. and {Lohmann}, U. and {Pawlowska}, H. and {Penner}, J.~E. and 
	{Quaas}, J. and {Roberts}, D.~L. and {Sch{\"u}ller}, L. and 
	{Snider}, J.},
  title = {{Evaluating aerosol/cloud/radiation process parameterizations with single-column models and Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) cloudy column observations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud physics and chemistry, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Precipitation (1854), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, aerosol indirect effect, cloud microphysics, cloud optics},
  year = 2003,
  month = dec,
  volume = 108,
  eid = {4762},
  pages = {4762},
  abstract = {{The Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) data set along
with ECMWF reanalysis meteorological fields provided the basis for the
single column model (SCM) simulations, performed as part of the PACE
(Parameterization of the Aerosol Indirect Climatic Effect) project. Six
different SCMs were used to simulate ACE-2 case studies of clean and
polluted cloudy boundary layers, with the objective being to identify
limitations of the aerosol/cloud/radiation interaction schemes within
the range of uncertainty in in situ, reanalysis and satellite retrieved
data. The exercise proceeds in three steps. First, SCMs are configured
with the same fine vertical resolution as the ACE-2 in situ data base to
evaluate the numerical schemes for prediction of aerosol activation,
radiative transfer and precipitation formation. Second, the same test is
performed at the coarser vertical resolution of GCMs to evaluate its
impact on the performance of the parameterizations. Finally, SCMs are
run for a 24-48 hr period to examine predictions of boundary layer
clouds when initialized with large-scale meteorological fields. Several
schemes were tested for the prediction of cloud droplet number
concentration (N). Physically based activation schemes using vertical
velocity show noticeable discrepancies compared to empirical schemes due
to biases in the diagnosed cloud base vertical velocity. Prognostic
schemes exhibit a larger variability than the diagnostic ones, due to a
coupling between aerosol activation and drizzle scavenging in the
calculation of N. When SCMs are initialized at a fine vertical
resolution with locally observed vertical profiles of liquid water,
predicted optical properties are comparable to observations. Predictions
however degrade at coarser vertical resolution and are more sensitive to
the mean liquid water path than to its spatial heterogeneity. Predicted
precipitation fluxes are severely underestimated and improve when
accounting for sub-grid liquid water variability. Results from the 24-48
hr runs suggest that most models have problems in simulating boundary
layer cloud morphology, since the large-scale initialization fields do
not accurately reproduce observed meteorological conditions. As a
result, models significantly overestimate optical properties. Improved
cloud morphologies were obtained for models with subgrid inversions and
subgrid cloud thickness schemes. This may be a result of representing
subgrid scale effects though we do not rule out the possibility that
better large-forcing data may also improve cloud morphology predictions.
  doi = {10.1029/2003JD003902},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Conil}, S.},
  title = {{Transient Response of an Atmospheric GCM to North Atlantic SST Anomalies.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2003,
  month = dec,
  volume = 16,
  pages = {3993-3998},
  abstract = {{A high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is used to
evaluate the atmospheric response to North Atlantic sea surface
temperature (SST) anomalies. The transient evolution of the response is
studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear effects can thus be
contrasted and separated by their different time scales. Baroclinic
patterns related directly to the surface anomalies quickly reach their
maximum manifestation. However, barotropic patterns related to the mid-
and upper troposphere eddy vorticity fluxes have longer time scales with
much more important amplitude, able to gradually replace the initial
baroclinic response. This study thus provides an evolutional picture of
the two types of response in a GCM.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3993:TROAAG>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Moulin}, C. and {Belviso}, S. and {Aumont}, O. and 
	{Bopp}, L. and {Cosme}, E. and {von Kuhlmann}, R. and {Lawrence}, M.~G. and 
	{Pham}, M. and {Reddy}, M.~S. and {Sciare}, J. and {Venkataraman}, C.
  title = {{DMS atmospheric concentrations and sulphate aerosol indirect radiative forcing: a sensitivity study to the DMS source representation and oxidation}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2003,
  month = jan,
  volume = 3,
  pages = {49-65},
  abstract = {{The global sulphur cycle has been simulated using a general circulation
model with a focus on the source and oxidation of atmospheric
dimethylsulphide (DMS). The sensitivity of atmospheric DMS to the
oceanic DMS climatology, the parameterisation of the sea-air transfer
and to the oxidant fields have been studied. The importance of
additional oxidation pathways (by O$_{3}$ in the gas- and
aqueous-phases and by BrO in the gas phase) not incorporated in global
models has also been evaluated. While three different climatologies of
the oceanic DMS concentration produce rather similar global DMS fluxes
to the atmosphere at 24-27 Tg S yr $^{-1}$, there are large
differences in the spatial and seasonal distribution. The relative
contributions of OH and NO$_{3}$ radicals to DMS oxidation depends
critically on which oxidant fields are prescribed in the model.
Oxidation by O$_{3}$ appears to be significant at high latitudes
in both hemispheres. Oxidation by BrO could be significant even for BrO
concentrations at sub-pptv levels in the marine boundary layer. The
impact of such refinements on the DMS chemistry onto the indirect
radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosols is also discussed.
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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