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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Boucher"  ' -c year=2010 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Boucher2010.txt -ob lmd_Boucher2010.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/Publis_LMDEMC3.link.bib}}
@article{2010RvGeo..48.4005O,
  author = {{O'Connor}, F.~M. and {Boucher}, O. and {Gedney}, N. and {Jones}, C.~D. and 
	{Folberth}, G.~A. and {Coppell}, R. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Collins}, W.~J. and {Chappellaz}, J. and {Ridley}, J. and {Johnson}, C.~E.
	},
  title = {{Possible role of wetlands, permafrost, and methane hydrates in the methane cycle under future climate change: A review}},
  journal = {Reviews of Geophysics},
  keywords = {Global Change: Earth system modeling (1225), Hydrology: Wetlands (0497), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325)},
  year = 2010,
  month = dec,
  volume = 48,
  eid = {RG4005},
  pages = {4005},
  abstract = {{We have reviewed the available scientific literature on how natural
sources and the atmospheric fate of methane may be affected by future
climate change. We discuss how processes governing methane wetland
emissions, permafrost thawing, and destabilization of marine hydrates
may affect the climate system. It is likely that methane wetland
emissions will increase over the next century. Uncertainties arise from
the temperature dependence of emissions and changes in the geographical
distribution of wetland areas. Another major concern is the possible
degradation or thaw of terrestrial permafrost due to climate change. The
amount of carbon stored in permafrost, the rate at which it will thaw,
and the ratio of methane to carbon dioxide emissions upon decomposition
form the main uncertainties. Large amounts of methane are also stored in
marine hydrates, and they could be responsible for large emissions in
the future. The time scales for destabilization of marine hydrates are
not well understood and are likely to be very long for hydrates found in
deep sediments but much shorter for hydrates below shallow waters, such
as in the Arctic Ocean. Uncertainties are dominated by the sizes and
locations of the methane hydrate inventories, the time scales associated
with heat penetration in the ocean and sediments, and the fate of
methane released in the seawater. Overall, uncertainties are large, and
it is difficult to be conclusive about the time scales and magnitudes of
methane feedbacks, but significant increases in methane emissions are
likely, and catastrophic emissions cannot be ruled out. We also identify
gaps in our scientific knowledge and make recommendations for future
research and development in the context of Earth system modeling.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010RG000326},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RvGeo..48.4005O},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11523308C,
  author = {{Collins}, W.~J. and {Sitch}, S. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{How vegetation impacts affect climate metrics for ozone precursors}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, Biogeosciences: Biosphere/atmosphere interactions (0315), Biogeosciences: Biogeochemical cycles, processes, and modeling (0412, 0793, 1615, 4805, 4912), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere (1610, 8125), climate metrics, ozone},
  year = 2010,
  month = dec,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D23308},
  pages = {23308},
  abstract = {{We examine the effect of ozone damage to vegetation as caused by
anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursor species and quantify it in
terms of its impact on terrestrial carbon stores. A simple climate model
is then used to assess the expected changes in global surface
temperature from the resulting perturbations to atmospheric
concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone. The concept of
global temperature change potential (GTP) metric, which relates the
global average surface temperature change induced by the pulse emission
of a species to that induced by a unit mass of carbon dioxide, is used
to characterize the impact of changes in emissions of ozone precursors
on surface temperature as a function of time. For NO$_{x}$
emissions, the longer-timescale methane perturbation is of the opposite
sign to the perturbations in ozone and carbon dioxide, so NO$_{x}$
emissions are warming in the short term, but cooling in the long term.
For volatile organic compound (VOC), CO, and methane emissions, all the
terms are warming for an increase in emissions. The GTPs for the 20 year
time horizon are strong functions of emission location, with a large
component of the variability owing to the different vegetation responses
on different continents. At this time horizon, the induced change in the
carbon cycle is the largest single contributor to the GTP metric for
NO$_{x}$ and VOC emissions. For NO$_{x}$ emissions, we
estimate a GTP$_{20}$ of -9 (cooling) to +24 (warming) depending
on assumptions of the sensitivity of vegetation types to ozone damage.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD014187},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11523308C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11521212H,
  author = {{Haywood}, J.~M. and {Jones}, A. and {Clarisse}, L. and {Bourassa}, A. and 
	{Barnes}, J. and {Telford}, P. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Agnew}, P. and {Clerbaux}, C. and {Coheur}, P. and {Degenstein}, D. and 
	{Braesicke}, P.},
  title = {{Observations of the eruption of the Sarychev volcano and simulations using the HadGEM2 climate model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Volcanic effects (8409), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Volcanology: Explosive volcanism, volcano, eruption, Sarychev, aerosol, sulphuric acid, climate},
  year = 2010,
  month = nov,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D21212},
  pages = {21212},
  abstract = {{In June 2009 the Sarychev volcano located in the Kuril Islands to the
northeast of Japan erupted explosively, injecting ash and an estimated
1.2 {\plusmn} 0.2 Tg of sulfur dioxide into the upper troposphere and
lower stratosphere, making it arguably one of the 10 largest
stratospheric injections in the last 50 years. During the period
immediately after the eruption, we show that the sulfur dioxide
(SO$_{2}$) cloud was clearly detected by retrievals developed for
the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite
instrument and that the resultant stratospheric sulfate aerosol was
detected by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System
(OSIRIS) limb sounder and CALIPSO lidar. Additional surface-based
instrumentation allows assessment of the impact of the eruption on the
stratospheric aerosol optical depth. We use a nudged version of the
HadGEM2 climate model to investigate how well this state-of-the-science
climate model can replicate the distributions of SO$_{2}$ and
sulfate aerosol. The model simulations and OSIRIS measurements suggest
that in the Northern Hemisphere the stratospheric aerosol optical depth
was enhanced by around a factor of 3 (0.01 at 550 nm), with resultant
impacts upon the radiation budget. The simulations indicate that, in the
Northern Hemisphere for July 2009, the magnitude of the mean radiative
impact from the volcanic aerosols is more than 60\% of the direct
radiative forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols put together. While the
cooling induced by the eruption will likely not be detectable in the
observational record, the combination of modeling and measurements would
provide an ideal framework for simulating future larger volcanic
eruptions.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD014447},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11521212H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010GeoRL..3720703R,
  author = {{Rap}, A. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Haywood}, J.~M. and {Jones}, A. and 
	{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Estimating the climate impact of linear contrails using the UK Met Office climate model}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and cloud feedbacks, Global Change: Impacts of global change (1225), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Atmospheric Processes: Climate change and variability (1616, 1635, 3309, 4215, 4513)},
  year = 2010,
  month = oct,
  volume = 37,
  eid = {L20703},
  pages = {20703},
  abstract = {{The HadGEM2 global climate model is employed to investigate some of the
linear contrail effects on climate. Our study parameterizes linear
contrails as a thin layer of aerosol. We find that at 100 times the air
traffic of year 2000, linear contrails would change the equilibrium
global-mean temperature by +0.13 K, corresponding to a climate
sensitivity of 0.3 K/(Wm$^{-2}$) and a climate efficacy of 31\%
(significantly smaller than the only previously published estimate of
59\%). Our model suggests that contrails cause a slight warming of the
surface and, as noted by most global warming modelling studies, land
areas are affected more than the oceans. Also, unlike the contrail
coverage and radiative forcing, the contrail temperature change response
is not geographically correlated with air traffic patterns. In terms of
the contrail impact on precipitation, the main feature is the northern
shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. Finally, our model
strongly indicates that the contrail impact on both the diurnal
temperature range and regional climate is significantly smaller than
some earlier studies suggested.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010GL045161},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3720703R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010AtmRe..44.3343B,
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Folberth}, G.~A.},
  title = {{New Directions: Atmospheric methane removal as a way to mitigate climate change?}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Research},
  year = 2010,
  month = sep,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {3343-3345},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmRe..44.3343B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10.7545W,
  author = {{Woodhouse}, M.~T. and {Carslaw}, K.~S. and {Mann}, G.~W. and 
	{Vallina}, S.~M. and {Vogt}, M. and {Halloran}, P.~R. and {Boucher}, O.
	},
  title = {{Low sensitivity of cloud condensation nuclei to changes in the sea-air flux of dimethyl-sulphide}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = aug,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {7545-7559},
  abstract = {{The emission of dimethyl-sulphide (DMS) gas by phytoplankton and the
subsequent formation of aerosol has long been suggested as an important
climate regulation mechanism. The key aerosol quantity is the number
concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but until recently
global models did not include the necessary aerosol physics to quantify
CCN. Here we use a global aerosol microphysics model to calculate the
sensitivity of CCN to changes in DMS emission using multiple present-day
and future sea-surface DMS climatologies. Calculated annual fluxes of
DMS to the atmosphere for the five model-derived and one observations
based present day climatologies are in the range 15.1 to 32.3 Tg
a$^{-1}$ sulphur. The impact of DMS climatology on surface
level CCN concentrations was calculated in terms of summer and winter
hemispheric mean values of {$\Delta$}CCN/{$\Delta$}Flux$_{DMS}$, which
varied between -43 and +166 cm$^{-3}$/(mg
m$^{-2}$ day$^{-1}$ sulphur), with a mean of 63
cm$^{-3}$/(mg m$^{-2}$ day$^{-1}$
sulphur). The range is due to CCN production in the atmosphere being
strongly dependent on the spatial distribution of the emitted DMS. The
relative sensitivity of CCN to DMS (i.e. fractional change in CCN
divided by fractional change in DMS flux) depends on the abundance of
non-DMS derived aerosol in each hemisphere. The relative sensitivity
averaged over the five present day DMS climatologies is estimated to be
0.02 in the northern hemisphere (i.e. a 0.02\% change in CCN for a 1\%
change in DMS) and 0.07 in the southern hemisphere where aerosol
abundance is lower. In a globally warmed scenario in which the DMS flux
increases by \~{}1\% relative to present day we estimate a \~{}0.1\% increase in
global mean CCN at the surface. The largest CCN response occurs in the
Southern Ocean, contributing to a Southern Hemisphere mean annual
increase of less than 0.2\%. We show that the changes in DMS flux and CCN
concentration between the present day and global warming scenario are
similar to interannual differences due to variability in windspeed. In
summary, although DMS makes a significant contribution to global marine
CCN concentrations, the sensitivity of CCN to potential future changes
in DMS flux is very low. This finding, together with the predicted small
changes in future seawater DMS concentrations, suggests that the role of
DMS in climate regulation is very weak.
}},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.7545W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010GeoRL..3714701A,
  author = {{Andrews}, T. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bellouin}, N. and 
	{Jones}, A.},
  title = {{Precipitation, radiative forcing and global temperature change}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Precipitation (1854), Atmospheric Processes: Radiative processes},
  year = 2010,
  month = jul,
  volume = 37,
  eid = {L14701},
  pages = {14701},
  abstract = {{Radiative forcing is a useful tool for predicting equilibrium global
temperature change. However, it is not so useful for predicting global
precipitation changes, as changes in precipitation strongly depend on
the climate change mechanism and how it perturbs the atmospheric and
surface energy budgets. Here a suite of climate model experiments and
radiative transfer calculations are used to quantify and assess this
dependency across a range of climate change mechanisms. It is shown that
the precipitation response can be split into two parts: a fast
atmospheric response that strongly correlates with the atmospheric
component of radiative forcing, and a slower response to global surface
temperature change that is independent of the climate change mechanism,
{\tilde}2-3\% per unit of global surface temperature change. We highlight
the precipitation response to black carbon aerosol forcing as falling
within this range despite having an equilibrium response that is of
opposite sign to the radiative forcing and global temperature change.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010GL043991},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3714701A},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10.5999J,
  author = {{Jones}, A. and {Haywood}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Kravitz}, B. and 
	{Robock}, A.},
  title = {{Geoengineering by stratospheric SO$_{2}$ injection: results from the Met Office HadGEM2 climate model and comparison with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = jul,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {5999-6006},
  abstract = {{We examine the response of the Met Office Hadley Centre's HadGEM2-AO
climate model to simulated geoengineering by continuous injection of
SO$_{2}$ into the lower stratosphere, and compare the results with
those from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. Despite the
differences between the models, we find a broadly similar geographic
distribution of the response to geoengineering in both models in terms
of near-surface air temperature and mean June-August precipitation. The
simulations also suggest that significant changes in regional climate
would be experienced even if geoengineering was successful in
maintaining global-mean temperature near current values, and both models
indicate rapid warming if geoengineering is not sustained.
}},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.5999J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11510205R,
  author = {{Rap}, A. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Jones}, A. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Haywood}, J.~M. and {Bellouin}, N. and {de Leon}, R.~R.},
  title = {{Parameterization of contrails in the UK Met Office Climate Model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), contrails, climate model, parameterization},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D10205},
  pages = {10205},
  abstract = {{Persistent contrails are believed to currently have a relatively small
but significant positive radiative forcing on climate. With air travel
predicted to continue its rapid growth over the coming years, the
contrail warming effect on climate is expected to increase.
Nevertheless, there remains a high level of uncertainty in the current
estimates of contrail radiative forcing. Contrail formation depends
mostly on the aircraft flying in cold and moist enough air masses. Most
studies to date have relied on simple parameterizations using averaged
meteorological conditions. In this paper we take into account the
short-term variability in background cloudiness by developing an on-line
contrail parameterization for the UK Met Office climate model. With this
parameterization, we estimate that for the air traffic of year 2002 the
global mean annual linear contrail coverage was approximately 0.11\%.
Assuming a global mean contrail optical depth of 0.2 or smaller and
assuming hexagonal ice crystals, the corresponding contrail radiative
forcing was calculated to be less than 10 mW m$^{-2}$ in all-sky
conditions. We find that the natural cloud masking effect on contrails
may be significantly higher than previously believed. This new result is
explained by the fact that contrails seem to preferentially form in
cloudy conditions, which ameliorates their overall climate impact by
approximately 40\%.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2009JD012443},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11510205R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10.1701C,
  author = {{Carslaw}, K.~S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Spracklen}, D.~V. and 
	{Mann}, G.~W. and {Rae}, J.~G.~L. and {Woodward}, S. and {Kulmala}, M.
	},
  title = {{A review of natural aerosol interactions and feedbacks within the Earth system}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = feb,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {1701-1737},
  abstract = {{The natural environment is a major source of atmospheric aerosols,
including dust, secondary organic material from terrestrial biogenic
emissions, carbonaceous particles from wildfires, and sulphate from
marine phytoplankton dimethyl sulphide emissions. These aerosols also
have a significant effect on many components of the Earth system such as
the atmospheric radiative balance and photosynthetically available
radiation entering the biosphere, the supply of nutrients to the ocean,
and the albedo of snow and ice. The physical and biological systems that
produce these aerosols can be highly susceptible to modification due to
climate change so there is the potential for important climate
feedbacks. We review the impact of these natural systems on atmospheric
aerosol based on observations and models, including the potential for
long term changes in emissions and the feedbacks on climate. The number
of drivers of change is very large and the various systems are strongly
coupled. There have therefore been very few studies that integrate the
various effects to estimate climate feedback factors. Nevertheless,
available observations and model studies suggest that the regional
radiative perturbations are potentially several Watts per square metre
due to changes in these natural aerosol emissions in a future climate.
Taking into account only the direct radiative effect of changes in the
atmospheric burden of natural aerosols, and neglecting potentially large
effects on other parts of the Earth system, a global mean radiative
perturbation approaching 1 W m$^{-2}$ is possible by the end
of the century. The level of scientific understanding of the climate
drivers, interactions and impacts is very low.
}},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.1701C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10...79K,
  author = {{Koch}, D. and {Schulz}, M. and {Kinne}, S. and {McNaughton}, C. and 
	{Spackman}, J.~R. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Bauer}, S. and {Berntsen}, T. and 
	{Bond}, T.~C. and {Boucher}, O. and {Chin}, M. and {Clarke}, A. and 
	{de Luca}, N. and {Dentener}, F. and {Diehl}, T. and {Dubovik}, O. and 
	{Easter}, R. and {Fahey}, D.~W. and {Feichter}, J. and {Fillmore}, D. and 
	{Freitag}, S. and {Ghan}, S. and {Ginoux}, P. and {Gong}, S. and 
	{Horowitz}, L. and {Iversen}, T. and {Kirkev{\aa}g}, A. and 
	{Klimont}, Z. and {Kondo}, Y. and {Krol}, M. and {Liu}, X. and 
	{Miller}, R. and {Montanaro}, V. and {Moteki}, N. and {Myhre}, G. and 
	{Penner}, J.~E. and {Perlwitz}, J. and {Pitari}, G. and {Reddy}, S. and 
	{Sahu}, L. and {Sakamoto}, H. and {Schuster}, G. and {Schwarz}, J.~P. and 
	{Seland}, {\O}. and {Stier}, P. and {Takegawa}, N. and {Takemura}, T. and 
	{Textor}, C. and {van Aardenne}, J.~A. and {Zhao}, Y.},
  title = {{Corrigendum to ''Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models'' published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9001-9026, 2009}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = jan,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {79-81},
  abstract = {{No abstract available.
}},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10...79K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010AtmEn..44.3343B,
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Folberth}, G.~A.},
  title = {{New Directions: Atmospheric methane removal as a way to mitigate climate change?}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = 2010,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {3343-3345},
  doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.04.032},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmEn..44.3343B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
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